Haqqul Yaqeen by Allamah Muhammad Baqir Majlisi

Table of Contents 

Preface ………………………………………………………..

17 Translator’s Foreword …………………………………………………..

20 Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………

23 Introduction …………………………………………………………………..

24 Chapter One: The Creator ……………………………………………..

26 Section One: Admitting to the Existence of the Creator of the Universe ……………………………………………………………………..

26 Section Two: Eternality of Allah ……………………………………

31 Section Three: Allah is Omnipotent and Supreme ……………

31 Section Four: Allah is All-knowing ………………………………..

32 Section Five: Allah is all-seeing and all-hearing ………………

33 Section Six: God is Living …………………………………………….

34 Section Seven: God is Murid (with intention) ………………….

34 Section Eight: Allah is Mutakallim …………………………………

35 Section Nine: Allah is Truthful (Sadiq) …………………………..

36 Section Ten: Qualities of Perfection ……………………………….

36 Chapter Two: Negative attributes (Sifaat Salbiya)……………

38 First Discussion: Allah is One ……………………………………….

38 Second Discussion: Allah is not a compound, body or substance- He has no place or direction …………………………..

40 Third Discussion: The Creator is Unique ………………………..

41 Fourth Discussion: Eyes Cannot See Him ……………………….

42 Fifth Discussion: Allah is not Incidental …………………………

43 Sixth Discussion: Explanation of Divine Names ………………

45 Seventh Discussion: Allah does not Incarnate …………………. 45

Eighth Discussion: No Partner in Eternality ……………………. 46

Chapter Three: Qualities related to the Acts of God ……….. 47

First Discussion: Factuality of Good and Evil …………………. 47 Second Discussion: Allah does not commit evil ……………… 48 Third Discussion: Allah does not impose anything beyond ones capacity ………………………………………………………………. 48 First Reason: Difference between Voluntary and Involuntary acts ……………………………………………………………………………. 49 Second Reason: Reward and Punishment ……………………….. 49
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Third Reason: Praise and Condemnation ………………………… 49 Fourth Discussion: Grace is Obligatory on Allah …………….. 51 Fifth Discussion: Allah is Wise …………………………………….. 51 Chapter Four: Prophethood ………………………………………….. 53 First Objective: Infallibility ………………………………………….. 53 Second Objective: Miracles ………………………………………….. 55 Third Objective: Qualities of the Prophets (a.s.) ……………… 56 Fourth Objective: Superiority of Imams and Prophets over angels ………………………………………………………………………… 57 Fifth Objective: Prophethood of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) 59 First Type: Everlasting Miracle …………………………………….. 59 First Reason: Eloquence ………………………………………………. 61 Second Reason: Uniqueness …………………………………………. 61 Third Reason: Absence of Discord ………………………………… 61 Fourth Reason: Based on Divine Cognition ……………………. 62 Fifth Reason: Inclusion of Noble Traits …………………………. 63 Sixth Reason: Incidents of Past Prophets ……………………….. 63 Seventh Reason: Special Qualities of Chapters and Verses . 64 Eighth Reason: Miraculous Aspect of Quran ………………….. 64 First Type: Information of Unseen Matters …………………….. 64 Second Type: Information of Future Events ……………………. 65 Third Type: Miracles of the Prophet ……………………………… 65 First Kind: Miracles regarding his body …………………………. 66 Second Kind: Miracles of his Birth ……………………………….. 68 Third Kind: Miracles Related to Heavenly Issues ……………. 69 First Miracle: Splitting of the moon ………………………………. 69 Second Miracle: Recalling the sun ………………………………… 70 Third Miracle: Meteors ………………………………………………… 71 Fourth Miracle: Food from Heaven ……………………………….. 71 Fifth Miracle: Divine Punishments for enemies ………………. 71 Fourth Kind: Obedience of the Plant Kingdom and NonLiving Things …………………………………………………………….. 71 Fifth Kind: Animals Spoke to the Prophet ………………………. 72 Sixth Kind: Acceptance of Prayers of the Prophet …………… 72 Seventh Kind: Victory of the Prophet over Enemies ………… 72 Eighth Kind: Domination of the Prophet over the Jinns and Satans ………………………………………………………………………… 72
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Ninth Kind: Information of the Unseen ………………………….. 73 Sixth Objective: Ascension of the Prophet ……………………… 73 Seventh Objective: Merits of the Prophet ……………………….. 74 Eighth Objective: Whether the Prophet was sent to the angels or not? ……………………………………………………………………….. 77 Ninth Objective: Whether the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) followed any religious law before the proclamation (Besat) of prophethood or not? …………………………………………………….. 77 First Reason ……………………………………………………………….. 78 Second Reason ……………………………………………………………. 78 Third Reason ………………………………………………………………. 79

First Reason ……………………………………………………………….. 79 Second Reason ……………………………………………………………. 80 Third Reason ………………………………………………………………. 80 Fourth Reason …………………………………………………………….. 81 Fifth Reason ……………………………………………………………….. 81 Tenth Objective: The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was unlettered (Ummi) ………………………………………………………………………. 81 Eleventh Objective: Special qualities of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) …………………………………………………………………….. 82 First Specialty …………………………………………………………….. 82 Second Specialty …………………………………………………………. 83 Third Specialty …………………………………………………………… 83 Fourth Specialty ………………………………………………………….. 83 Fifth Specialty …………………………………………………………….. 83 Sixth Specialty ……………………………………………………………. 83 Seventh Specialty ……………………………………………………….. 83 Eighth Specialty ………………………………………………………….. 83 Ninth Specialty …………………………………………………………… 84 Tenth Specialty …………………………………………………………… 84 Eleventh Specialty ………………………………………………………. 84 Twelfth Specialty ………………………………………………………… 84 Thirteenth Specialty …………………………………………………….. 84 Fourteenth Specialty ……………………………………………………. 84 Fifteenth Specialty ………………………………………………………. 85 Sixteenth Specialty ……………………………………………………… 85 Seventeenth Specialty ………………………………………………….. 85
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Eighteenth Specialty ……………………………………………………. 85 Chapter Five: Imamate …………………………………………………. 86 First Objective: Necessity of Declaration ………………………… 87 First Reason ……………………………………………………………….. 87 Second Reason: Appointment of the Imam is a grace and grace is obligatory on Allah ………………………………………….. 87 Third Reason: Prophethood not Confined ………………………. 88 Fourth Reason: All Prophets Appointed Successors ………… 89 Fifth Reason: Imamate is like Prophethood …………………….. 89 First Proof: Verse of Fulfillment of Guidance …………………. 90 Second Proof ………………………………………………………………. 90 Third Proof ………………………………………………………………… 92 Fourth Proof ……………………………………………………………….. 92 Fifth Proof ………………………………………………………………….. 93 Second Objective: Requirements of Imamate …………………. 94 First Requirement ……………………………………………………….. 94 Second Requirement ……………………………………………………. 95 Third Requirement ………………………………………………………. 97 Eight Necessary Qualifications of the Imam …………………… 99 First Qualification: Infallibility ……………………………………… 99 Second Qualification: Knowledge …………………………………. 99 Third Qualification: Valor ……………………………………………. 99 Fourth Qualification: Superiority ………………………………….. 99 Fifth Qualification: Free of defects ………………………………. 100 Sixth Qualification: Best in the view of Allah ……………….. 100 Seventh Qualification: Miracles ………………………………….. 100 Eighth Qualification: General Imamate ………………………… 100 Third Objective: Specialties of the Imam ……………………… 101 First Quality ……………………………………………………………… 103 Second Quality …………………………………………………………. 103 Third Quality ……………………………………………………………. 103 Fourth Quality …………………………………………………………… 103 Fifth Quality …………………………………………………………….. 103 Fourth Objective: Recognition of the Imam ………………….. 110 First Aspect ………………………………………………………………. 110 Second Aspect ………………………………………………………….. 110 Third Aspect …………………………………………………………….. 110
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Fifth Objective: Imamate and Superiority of Amirul Momineen (a.s.) …………………………………………………………… 115 First Verse ………………………………………………………………… 115 Second Verse ……………………………………………………………. 119 First Reasoning …………………………………………………………. 121 First Aspect ………………………………………………………………. 122 Second Aspect ………………………………………………………….. 123 Third Aspect …………………………………………………………….. 123 Fourth Aspect …………………………………………………………… 123 Second Reasoning ……………………………………………………… 124 Rational Argumentation ……………………………………………… 125 Textual Argumentation ………………………………………………. 126 First Exclusive Quality ………………………………………………. 128 Second Exclusive Quality …………………………………………… 130 Third Exclusive Quality ……………………………………………… 131 Fourth Exclusive Quality ……………………………………………. 134 Fifth Exclusive Quality ………………………………………………. 135 Sixth Exclusive Quality ……………………………………………… 137 Seventh Exclusive Quality ………………………………………….. 139 First Implication ……………………………………………………….. 142 Second Implication ……………………………………………………. 143 Third Implication ………………………………………………………. 143 First Reason ……………………………………………………………… 143 Second Reason ………………………………………………………….. 143 Third Reason …………………………………………………………….. 144 Fourth Reason …………………………………………………………… 144 First Proof ………………………………………………………………… 144 Second Proof …………………………………………………………….. 145 Third Proof ………………………………………………………………. 146 Fourth Proof ……………………………………………………………… 146 Eighth Exclusive Quality ……………………………………………. 147 First Aspect ………………………………………………………………. 150 Second Aspect ………………………………………………………….. 150 Third Aspect …………………………………………………………….. 151 Fourth Aspect …………………………………………………………… 151 Fifth Aspect ……………………………………………………………… 151 Sixth Aspect ……………………………………………………………… 153
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First Reply ……………………………………………………………….. 154 Second Reply ……………………………………………………………. 155 First Reason ……………………………………………………………… 156 Second Reason ………………………………………………………….. 156 Ninth Exclusive Quality …………………………………………….. 157 Tenth Exclusive Quality …………………………………………….. 160 Eleventh Exclusive Quality ………………………………………… 167 First Evidence …………………………………………………………… 170 Second Evidence ……………………………………………………….. 171 Third Evidence …………………………………………………………. 171 Fourth Evidence ………………………………………………………… 171 Fifth Evidence …………………………………………………………… 171 Twelfth Exclusive Quality ………………………………………….. 173 First Aspect ………………………………………………………………. 174 Second Aspect ………………………………………………………….. 174 Thirteenth Exclusive Quality ………………………………………. 175 Fourteenth Exclusive Quality ……………………………………… 180 Fifteenth Exclusive Quality ………………………………………… 183 Sixteenth Exclusive Quality ……………………………………….. 185 Seventeenth Exclusive Quality ……………………………………. 187 Eighteenth Exclusive Quality ……………………………………… 187 Nineteenth Exclusive Quality ……………………………………… 189 Twentieth Exclusive Quality ………………………………………. 190 First Proof ………………………………………………………………… 194 Second Proof …………………………………………………………….. 195 Third Proof ………………………………………………………………. 196 Twenty-first Exclusive Quality ……………………………………. 196 Sixth Objective: Widely related traditions of the Two Sects ……………………………………………………………………………………. 198

Section One: Tradition of Ghadeer Khum ……………………. 199 Firstly: Meaning of Maula ………………………………………….. 226 First Angle ……………………………………………………………….. 227 Secondly Angle …………………………………………………………. 228 First Aspect ………………………………………………………………. 228 Second Aspect ………………………………………………………….. 229 Third Aspect …………………………………………………………….. 229 First Reason ……………………………………………………………… 231
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Second Reason ………………………………………………………….. 232 Third Reason …………………………………………………………….. 232 Fourth Reason …………………………………………………………… 232 Fifth Reason ……………………………………………………………… 233 Sixth Reason …………………………………………………………….. 234 Seventh Reason …………………………………………………………. 235 Section Two: Hadith Manzilah …………………………………….. 236 First Reason ……………………………………………………………… 241 Second Reason ………………………………………………………….. 242 Third Reason …………………………………………………………….. 242 Fourth Reason …………………………………………………………… 242 Fifth Reason ……………………………………………………………… 243 Sixth Reason …………………………………………………………….. 244 Section Three: Love of Imam Ali (a.s.) for Allah …………… 245 First Occasion …………………………………………………………… 245 First Objection ………………………………………………………….. 249 Second Objection ………………………………………………………. 250

Second Occasion ……………………………………………………….. 251 First Reason ……………………………………………………………… 256 Second Reason ………………………………………………………….. 256 Third: Different Occasions …………………………………………. 260 Section Four: Special Position of Imam Ali (a.s.) …………… 263 Part One: Brotherhood with the Prophet ……………………….. 263 Part Two: Bearer of secrets of Allah and the Messenger…. 264 Part Three: Closing the doors of Companions ……………….. 265 Part Four: Breaking of Idols ……………………………………….. 266 Section Five: Truth is always with Amirul Momineen (a.s.) ……………………………………………………………………………………. 270 First Aspect ………………………………………………………………. 271 Second Aspect ………………………………………………………….. 271 Third Aspect …………………………………………………………….. 271 Section Six: Superiority of Imam Ali (a.s.) over all companions as confessed by Ahle Sunnat ……………………… 277 Determination …………………………………………………………… 285 Politics and Rulership ………………………………………………… 285 Section Seven: Reports of Ahle Sunnat canonical books declaring the Imamate of Imam Ali (a.s.) ……………………… 289
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Tradition One ……………………………………………………………. 290 Tradition Two …………………………………………………………… 291 Tradition Three …………………………………………………………. 291 Tradition Four …………………………………………………………… 292 Tradition Five …………………………………………………………… 293 Tradition Six …………………………………………………………….. 293 Tradition Seven …………………………………………………………. 293 Tradition Eight ………………………………………………………….. 294 Tradition Nine …………………………………………………………… 294 Tradition Ten ……………………………………………………………. 295 Tradition Eleven ……………………………………………………….. 295 Tradition Twelve ………………………………………………………. 296 Tradition Thirteen ……………………………………………………… 296 Tradition Fourteen …………………………………………………….. 296 Tradition Fifteen ……………………………………………………….. 297 Tradition Sixteen ………………………………………………………. 297 First Thing ……………………………………………………………….. 297 Second Thing ……………………………………………………………. 297 Third Thing ………………………………………………………………. 298 Fourth Thing …………………………………………………………….. 298 Fifth Thing ……………………………………………………………….. 298 Tradition Seventeen …………………………………………………… 298 Tradition Eighteen …………………………………………………….. 298 Tradition Nineteen …………………………………………………….. 299 Section Eight: Indictments of those who usurped the right of Imam Ali (a.s.) …………………………………………………………….. 304 Part One: Indictments of Abu Bakr ……………………………… 305 First Indictment: No important Duty delegated to him ……. 305 Second Indictment: Failure to join the army of Usamah …. 306 Third Indictment: Atrocities on Ahle Bayt (a.s.) ……………. 310 First Discussion ………………………………………………………… 351 First Contradiction …………………………………………………….. 352 Second Contradiction…………………………………………………. 352 Third Contradiction …………………………………………………… 352 Fourth Contradiction ………………………………………………….. 352 First Reason ……………………………………………………………… 353 Second Reason ………………………………………………………….. 353
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Third Reason …………………………………………………………….. 353 Fourth Reason …………………………………………………………… 354 Second Discussion …………………………………………………….. 354 Third Discussion ……………………………………………………….. 356 First Evidence …………………………………………………………… 357 Fourth Discussion ……………………………………………………… 359 Fifth Discussion ………………………………………………………… 360 Fourth Indictment: Usurpation of Fadak ………………………. 364 First Aspect ………………………………………………………………. 390 Second Aspect ………………………………………………………….. 394 Third Aspect …………………………………………………………….. 395 First …………………………………………………………………………. 395 Second …………………………………………………………………….. 396 Third ……………………………………………………………………….. 396 Fourth ………………………………………………………………………. 397 Fifth ………………………………………………………………………… 398 Sixth ………………………………………………………………………… 399 Seventh ……………………………………………………………………. 400 Fifth Indictment: His Allegiance was sudden ………………… 401 Sixth Indictment: Killing of Malik bin Nuwairah ………….. 402 First Aspect ………………………………………………………………. 406 Second Aspect ………………………………………………………….. 408 Third Aspect …………………………………………………………….. 409 Seventh Indictment: Recanting of Caliphate …………………. 410 Eighth Indictment: Ignorant of Divine Laws …………………. 411 Firstly ………………………………………………………………………. 412 Secondly ………………………………………………………………….. 413 Thirdly …………………………………………………………………….. 413 Fourthly …………………………………………………………………… 414 Fifthly ……………………………………………………………………… 414 Ninth Indictment: Appointing Umar as Caliph ………………. 414 First …………………………………………………………………………. 415 Second …………………………………………………………………….. 416 Third ……………………………………………………………………….. 416 Part Two: Indictments of Umar……………………………………. 417 First Indictment: Thursday Tragedy …………………………….. 417 First reason ………………………………………………………………. 423
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Second reason …………………………………………………………… 423 Third reason ……………………………………………………………… 424 Fourth reason ……………………………………………………………. 425 Fifth reason ………………………………………………………………. 425 Sixth reason ……………………………………………………………… 426 First Blunder …………………………………………………………….. 426 Second Blunder …………………………………………………………. 426 Third Blunder …………………………………………………………… 427 Fourth Blunder ………………………………………………………….. 428 Second Indictment: Denying that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) passed away ……………………………………………………………… 435 Third Indictment: Making Hajj Tamatto and Mutah unlawful ……………………………………………………………………………….. 437 Fourth Indictment: Partiality to Mughira bin Shoba ……….. 441 Fifth Indictment: Limiting the Dower ………………………….. 445 Sixth Indictment: Refusing the command of Tayammum .. 446 Seventh Indictment: Passing Wrong Judgments …………….. 450 Eighth Indictment: Innovations in Religion …………………… 451 Innovation One: Tarawih Prayer………………………………….. 451 Innovation Two: Spying …………………………………………….. 454 Innovation Three: Three Divorces ……………………………….. 455 Innovation Four: Changing the Place of Ibrahim …………… 455 Innovation Five: Enmity to Persians …………………………….. 457 Innovation Six: Awl …………………………………………………… 457 Innovation Seven: ‘The Prayer is better than sleep’ ……….. 458 Ninth Indictment: Unequal Distribution of Stipends ………. 458 Tenth Indictment: Shura Committee ……………………………. 460 First Reason ……………………………………………………………… 464 Second Reason ………………………………………………………….. 465 Third Reason …………………………………………………………….. 465 Fourth Reason …………………………………………………………… 471 Fifth Reason ……………………………………………………………… 473 Sixth Reason …………………………………………………………….. 477 Seventh Reason …………………………………………………………. 477 Eighth Reason …………………………………………………………… 478 Ninth Reason ……………………………………………………………. 481 Tenth Reason ……………………………………………………………. 482
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Eleventh Reason ……………………………………………………….. 482 Twelfth Reason …………………………………………………………. 482 Thirteenth Reason ……………………………………………………… 483 Fourteenth Reason …………………………………………………….. 483 Eleventh Indictment: Burying Abu Bakr in Prophet’s Chamber …………………………………………………………………… 484 First Reason ……………………………………………………………… 484 Second Reason ………………………………………………………….. 484 Third Reason …………………………………………………………….. 484 Part Three: Indictments of Uthman ……………………………… 487 First Indictment: Nepotism …………………………………………. 487 Second Indictment: Recalling Hakam bin Abil Aas ……….. 488 Third Indictment: Oppressing Abuzar Ghiffari ……………… 489 Fourth Indictment: Cruelty to Abdullah bin Masud ……….. 491 Fifth Indictment: Unkindness to Ammar ………………………. 492 Sixth Indictment: Distributing Khums to his Relatives …… 496 Seventh Indictment: Partiality to Zaid bin Thabit ………….. 499 First reason ………………………………………………………………. 500 Second reason …………………………………………………………… 500 Third reason ……………………………………………………………… 501 Eighth Indictment: All Companions reached consensus on his Infidelity ………………………………………………………………….. 504 First Reason ……………………………………………………………… 506 Second Reason ………………………………………………………….. 506 Third Reason …………………………………………………………….. 506 Ninth Indictment: Ali testified to his Injustice and Apostasy ……………………………………………………………………………….. 508 Tenth Indictment: His Body was left Unburied for days …. 510 First Reason ……………………………………………………………… 512 Second Reason ………………………………………………………….. 513 Third Reason …………………………………………………………….. 513 First Reason ……………………………………………………………… 517 Second Reason ………………………………………………………….. 517 Third Reason …………………………………………………………….. 518 Seventh Objective: Imamate of all the Holy Imams (a.s.) . 520 First Method: Textual Declaration (Nass) …………………….. 522 First Type …………………………………………………………………. 522
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Second Type …………………………………………………………….. 525 Third Type ……………………………………………………………….. 526 Fourth Type ……………………………………………………………… 527 Second Method: Precedence ……………………………………….. 528 Third Method: Infallibility ………………………………………….. 534 Fourth Method: Miracle ……………………………………………… 534 Fifth Method: Consensus ……………………………………………. 534 First Method: Sciences ………………………………………………. 535 Second Method: Consensus on their Purity and Fairness … 538 Third Method: Consensus on their Excellence ………………. 538 Fourth Method: Commanding Respect from Enemies and Friends …………………………………………………………………….. 540 Eighth Objective: Occultation of the Twelfth Imam ……… 545 Ninth Objective: Rajat …………………………………………………. 608 First Verse ………………………………………………………………… 609 Second Verse ……………………………………………………………. 609 Third Verse ………………………………………………………………. 611 Fourth Verse …………………………………………………………….. 611 Fifth Verse ……………………………………………………………….. 612 Sixth Verse ………………………………………………………………. 616 Seventh Verse …………………………………………………………… 616 Eighth Verse …………………………………………………………….. 617 Chapter Six: Resurrection ……………………………………………. 682 Section One: Proof of Physical Resurrection …………………. 683 Section Two: Refutation of Objections against Physical Resurrection ……………………………………………………………….. 697 Section Three: Belief in Death and Hereafter ……………….. 709 First Point: Everything will perish, except Allah …………… 709 Second Point: Throes of Death ……………………………………. 713 Section Four: Barzakh …………………………………………………. 719 First Issue: Survival of the Soul in Barzakh ………………….. 719 Second Issue: Questioning of the Grave and its Reward and Punishment ………………………………………………………………. 725 Third Issue: Location of the Soul and the facsimile body in Barzakh ……………………………………………………………………. 749 Section Five: Some Conditions and Portents of Judgment Day ……………………………………………………………………………… 764
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Section Six: Blowing of the Trumpet and Annihilation of Everything ………………………………………………………………….. 769

Section Seven: Events Preceding Qiyamat ……………………. 781 Section Eight: Gathering of the Animals ………………………. 785

Section Nine: Circumstances of Children and Insane etc . 790 Section Ten: Balance of Deeds and Accounting …………….. 798 Section Eleven: Questioning of Prophets ………………………. 815 Section Twelve: Wasila, Liwa, Hauz etc. ………………………. 832 Section Thirteen: Siraat Bridge ……………………………………. 861 Section Fourteen: Paradise and Hell …………………………….. 870 Section Fifteen: Paradise ……………………………………………… 882 Section Sixteen: Hell ……………………………………………………. 917 Section Seventeen: Heights (Araaf) ……………………………….. 965 Section Eighteen: Those condemned to Hell forever and those, who will not live therein forever …………………………. 976 Section Nineteen: Faith and Islam; disbelief and apostasy – explanation of their rules ……………………………………………. 1011 First Point: Can Faith Increase or Decrease? ……………….. 1022 Second Point: Elements of sincere faith ……………………… 1024 Third Point: Meaning of Islam ………………………………….. 1031 Fourth Point: Is certainty of divine recognition necessary? ……………………………………………………………………………… 1032 Fifth Point: Disbelief after Faith ………………………………… 1034 Sixth Point: Denial and Apostasy ………………………………. 1041 Details of the necessary fundamentals of Islam ……………. 1044 Seventh Point: Is Emulation Sufficient? ……………………… 1059 First type ………………………………………………………………… 1065 Second Type …………………………………………………………… 1065 Section Twenty: Types of Sins – Repentance from Sins .. 1068 Part One: Smaller and Greater Sins …………………………… 1069 Firstly: Sins threatened with Hell fire …………………………. 1072 Secondly: Sins threatened Severely ……………………………. 1072 Difference between Sorcery and Miracle ……………………. 1078 Firstly …………………………………………………………………….. 1097 Secondly ………………………………………………………………… 1097 Thirdly …………………………………………………………………… 1097 Fourthly …………………………………………………………………. 1098
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Fifthly ……………………………………………………………………. 1098 Sixthly ……………………………………………………………………. 1098 Part Two: Necessity of Repentance and its conditions; Sins to be repented for ………………………………………………………….. 1151 Topic One: Obligatory nature of repentance ……………….. 1151 Topic Two: Selective Taubah ……………………………………. 1153 Topic Three: Meaning of Taubah and its conditions …….. 1154 Topic Four: Types of sins to be repented ……………………. 1156

Topic Five: Time of Repentance ……………………………….. 1161

Topic Six: Types and Ranks of Repentance ………………… 1167

Taubah Nasuh …………………………………………………………. 1171

Topic Seven: Acceptance of Taubah is obligatory on Allah ……………………………………………………………………………… 1173

Topic Eight: Acts that Allah does not punish ………………. 1175

Acts of the mind and its recompense ………………………….. 1181

Topic Nine: Things that Allah will not account for ………. 1188

Conclusion ………………………………………………………………… 1196

Condition of the Universe after Qiyamat …………………….. 1196

Bibliography ……………………………………………………………… 1199

Exegesis Books ……………………………………………………….. 1199

Tradition Books ………………………………………………………. 1200

Biography Books …………………………………………………….. 1202

History Books …………………………………………………………. 1203

Miscellaneous …………………………………………………………. 1205

Glossary of Islamic Terms ………………………………………….. 1208

Some Important Books Published by Ja’far Propagation Centre (JPC) ……………………………………………………………… 1217
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Publisher’s Preface

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. There is no god, except Allah; and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. This is the confession of Islamic faith, expected from all who would like to be considered as Muslims. It is in brief, the sum total of all the teachings of this great religion. However, when Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) was departing for his heavenly abode, he made elaborate arrangements, so that the pristine faith brought by him will not be corrupted by those with vested interests; as was the case with former heavenly religions. The Prophet advised his followers to remain attached to Quran and members of his holy household (Ahle Bayt) in order to remain secure from deviation. He hinted this at every opportunity and even declared it unequivocally many times: “I leave among you two heavy things: The Quran and my household, my Ahle Bayt. If you remain attached to them, you will never go astray.” However, imperialism and love of wealth and pelf demanded that this advice should be overlooked and that a distorted version of Islam be given credence. Thus, a new faith came into being and it was so much supported by those in power that it began to be considered as the original faith, which the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) had brought. This led to a schism among Muslims and they henceforth began to be identified with different sects. The book in our hand is a masterpiece of Allamah Muhammad Baqir Majlisi (r.a.); one of the most brilliant star on the firmament of Twelver Shia Faith. It is supposed to be his last
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writing and hence the reader can savor the fruits of the scholarly perfections of this esteemed author. Ja’fari Propagation Centre has endeavored to preserve the original style, while at the same time making it easily readable. As usual, we would like to inform our readers that though we try our best to minimize errors, we, at the same time, know that something or the other might have been overlooked; so we request you to bring it to our attention and also send your valuable suggestions for further improvements. We hope this book will go a long way in promoting the teachings of Ahle Bayt (a.s.), so that readers may not be needful of those who are indicted by Quran, traditions, history and logic. In the end, we thank the Almighty for the good sense (Taufeeq) to present the English translation of Haqqul Yaqeen: subtitled: A Compendium of Twelver Shia Religious Beliefs. Other important JPC publications being: Sahifa Alawiya, Mikyalul Makarim, Fatima the Radiant, Sahifa Sajjadiya, Method of Salat, Hayat ul Qolub and One thousand Ayats revealed about Imam Ali (a.s.); and many titles for children as well. We pray that more and more people make use of our books and help us to achieve the aim of true Islamic Propagation. As usual, Ja’fari Propagation Centre issues general permission to all, who would like to reprint the book; and it only solicits a brief email for information and a mention of JPC as the first publisher. Since getting books translated is a very expensive venture, as is their printing and distribution, we would like to invite Momineen to extend their cooperation, as there are many other important books, which await translation and publication; and Ja’fari Propagation Centre being a non-profit body deserves preference in this regard. Please contact us if you find us worthy of your assistance.
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Wa Aakhirud Daawaana Anil Hamdu Lillaahi Rabbil Aalameen [Our final word being: Praise to Allah, the Lord of the Universe]. Ja’fari Propagation Centre
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Translator’s Foreword
A ‘Translator’s Foreword’ is supposed to introduce the book, which is being presented, so that the readers get some idea about the author as well as his work. Now, this is something, which is not applicable in this case at all, because the author, Allamah Muhammad Baqir Majlisi is such that anyone having the least awareness of Islamic literature will have come across his writings. Same is the case regarding the book of Haqqul Yaqeen, which is one of the most famous books of Shia; and according to the adversaries, the most ‘notorious’; as anyone having surfed the internet will be able to testify. So, what can be the aim of writing a ‘Translator’s Foreword’ for this book? In my view, this opportunity should be utilized to mention some points, which have not yet been taken as themes of books and articles: First of all, there is a tendency among orientalists and western scholars to label the mainstream Islam as the orthodox faith! What a blatant disregard of all academic standards! Has anyone pointed out what the meaning of orthodoxy is? Has anyone taken the trouble to investigate, if the faith brought by the Prophet still maintains its original form or it was ‘modified’ and ‘improved ‘ by those who came later? If it was changed, how is it possible to call it orthodox? Secondly; western scholars like to explain away schisms in Islam to be originating in the question of temporal rulership after the Prophet. Our scholars must oppose this tendency and write books and articles to explain how the split in Islam was in fact rooted
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in perception about the authority of the Prophet. How some agreed to obey the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) in every matter and how some opposed his every statement or made excuses. Thirdly, is the world view promoted by the ‘enlightened’; that loyalty to ones faith is a form of extremism detrimental to international peace. Our scholars should explain why it is a mistaken notion, and why this cannot be true for the pristine faith brought by Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.s.). Lastly, I must admit that even though these points are not directly dealt with in this book, the reader will realize that they underlie in all discussions presented here, thus leading to the final conclusion, which Allah, the Mighty and High has declared in Quran: 0B ﱠ نِ إ ا َ ﺬٰ ﻫ َ ﻮُ ﻬَ ﻟ ﱡ ﻖَ ﺣ ِ ﻴﻦِ ﻘَاﻟْﻴ 882B“Most surely this is a certain truth.” (Surah Waqiyah 56:95) 1780BI have used a number of versions for this translation, but have mostly relied on the Urdu translation of Haqqul Yaqeen by Maulavi Mujtaba Husain (r.a.), which was completed in 1307 A.H. in Madras, India. 1781BFinally, being a translator, it is my duty to confess that though I have exercised all precautions and have not displayed any shortcoming at any point, yet I might have overlooked something; therefore, I indemnify the author as well as the publisher and declare that any error therein is my own; and also request the readers that in such instances, they will forgive me and also point it out, so that I can make amends in future editions. 1782BIn addition to all whom I have mentioned in ‘Acknowledgements’, I would like to specially thank the generous contributors, who have sponsored the translation and
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who also had the humility to refuse the mention of their names. But the Knower of the Unseen is aware of their benevolence; and the heavenly rewards, which He has reserved for them will definitely refresh their eyes. May Allah give them more Taufeeq for cooperating in such ventures. Humble Servant Sayyid Athar Husain S.H. Rizvi Email: [email protected]
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Acknowledgements
Firstly, I thank Mr. Syed Fayyaz Husain Abedi, who has cooperated in this translation at every step from looking up the meanings of archaic terms, finding the best synonym, reading the source text from an edition printed more than a hundred and forty years ago; the paper being brittle and the printing old; and in assuring that even during the Holy Month of Ramadhan, there should be no sloth from our side, so that the project is completed on time. Secondly, I would like to thank the revered and modest gentleman, Mr. M.S. Husain of Baabul-Ilm Library, Ali Nagar Colony, Hyderabad, for putting at my disposal all the books available in his library and on whose copy of Haqqul Yaqeen, I have mainly relied for this translation. This library is having some of the oldest editions of important books of Shia faith, and it is hoped that others will also utilize this treasure in the best way. I am also thankful to Janab Maulana Mohsin Reza Zaidi, respected teacher of Hauzatul Mahdi Madressa, whom I have consulted for clarification of doubts and who rendered his advice whenever it was needed, even though it was very inconvenient for him due to his busy schedule. Finally, I would sincerely like to thank the most respected, Mr. Talaat Sajjad (M.Com., LL.B.), son of late M.A. Ali Khan, the well known Shia attorney at law of Hyderabad, who has provided me with all the facilities this work requires at his housing complex and has been kind enough to keep me free from every hassle, which would hinder this noble pursuit. Translator
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Introduction
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful Praise to Allah, the One, the unique and the self-sufficient. No one is like Him; He the most powerful and eternal. He is the hearing and the seeing. Benedictions on the greatest of the cognizant ones and the pride of the prophets, Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.s.), and his purified and chaste progeny, who scaled the loftiest position in excellence, knowledge and certitude; and curse be on all their enemies till Judgment Day. So to say: Muhammad Baqir bin Muhammad Taqi (may Allah raise him with his holy masters), who is like dust of the feet of folks of certitude and a humble servant of the traditional reports of the Holy Imams (a.s.), would like to state that it is proved through rational and textual evidences that the Almighty Allah has not created this temporal world without an aim and that He has created man, His favorite creation, for cognition and worship. So that he may, through these two spiritual steps, scale the lofty ranks of eternal Paradise and not become arrogant due to the temporal pleasures of this world; and through these strong ropes, convey himself to the everlasting happiness of the hereafter. It is known from many reports and Quranic verses that worship without cognition (true faith) is incorrect and unacceptable. Thus, the first thing, which is obligatory on the duty-bound is to acquire faith and many people are oblivious of this fact and are ignorant of the pillars of religion. Some people have acquired faith in religious beliefs from other people, who are also defective like them. They did not examine it critically and were content to blindly follow others (Taqlid). From the stage of mere conjecture they never stepped to the higher stage of certainty and obedience. Although this humble servant has discussed these lofty subjects in a wide range of his Arabic and Persian books,
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supporting his arguments with sufficient proofs; yet most people due to lack of attention or understanding have been unable to gain much from them. Hence, he decided to compile these important principles of belief in this brief, but sufficient journal; and present them in a clear language and lucid manner. He has thus concluded his efforts by the grace of the Almighty and entitled it Haqqul Yaqeen. He dedicates this work to His Majesty, Shahenshah Sultan Husain Bahadur Khan; may the reward of this reach his heavenly abode. Since faith implies testimony, it is necessary to have detailed knowledge of the necessary fundamentals of religion, that is belief in existence of Allah and His perfect qualities; purging Him of comparisons; and testimony of the prophets, who were sent for perfection of human beings, especially admitting to Prophet of the last age, Muhammad bin Abdullah (s.a.w.s.) and acceptance of all that the Prophet brought from the Almighty. Also, belief in the successors of Prophet, the twelve Imams, who succeeded the Prophet of the last age; belief in divine justice and admission of His being free from all evil acts; resurrection and Judgment Day and what follows. As for those issues, which are not necessary requirements of religion, is sufficient to have only a brief knowledge about them. We have explained all these important issues in detail, in different chapters of this book. Muhammad Baqir bin Muhammad Taqi
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Chapter One: The Creator
Being of Allah, the Mighty and the High; and admission of his positive qualities There are a few sections in this chapter: Section One: Admitting to the Existence of the Creator of the Universe
We should know that existence of the creator of the universe is more evident than anything else. It is so, because if a person contemplates on the creation of heavens, earth, sun, moon, stars, air, clouds, mountains and seas and all animals and creation of bodies and soul and other miscellaneous things, he reaches a stage of certainty that all these have not come into being without a maker. On the contrary, the being, which has created them, is not like them; He is perfect in being and no kind of defect is present in His being and qualities. This much brief reasoning is sufficient for the creatures; but we shall present a few detailed reasonings, easily understandable to even the most simpleminded persons. The first reasoning is that every issue, which a man judges through his intellect, is such that either it is impossible to contemplate on its being without any external issues and that it is not necessary that it should have an external cause; which is known as Necessary Being (Wajibul Wujood). Or that it is impossible to contemplate on its being; then it is known as impossibility of existence (Mumtinaul Wujood). However, if it is neither possible not impossible to contemplate in its being, it is known as possibility of existence (Mumkinul Wujood); that is it is both possible for it to exist and
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not exist. If a cause appears for it, it comes into existence; otherwise it remains non-existent. Thus, we say that there is no doubt that there are existing beings in the universe. If all the existent beings are included in possibilities (Mumkinaat) and behind them there is no Necessary Being (Wajibul Wujood), in that case if they are regarded as one person; and for all of them it is possible to be non-existent; as without a cause it is impossible for Zaid to exist. Otherwise, it will lead to precedence in absence of a precedent and its impossibility is logically imminent (Badihi Aqli). In the same way, existence is also impossible without an external cause; and it is necessary that the cause should be present; because it is also imminent that something, which itself is not present, cannot be the cause of existence of something else, and what is beyond all possibilities of existence, is the Necessary Being (Wajibul Wujood). Thus, we conclude that a Necessary Being (Wajibul Wujood) is present. If it is said that everyone from these parts is the cause of existence of other, without any limit and restriction and their parts are causes of all parts together; we would reply that subject to the condition of existence, the presence of the cause of each of them is necessary, but its non-existence is possible with nonexistence of all its causes. Thus, it would entail that there is no Necessary Being (Wajibul Wujood). The second reasoning is that according to some researchers, like commonality in perceptions results in knowledge, it is impossible that the majority should reach consensus on a false matter or commit a mistake in its truth. Thus, when all the prophets, saints and intellectuals have reached consensus on the existence of the creator of the universe; on His oneness; and that He is perfect from all aspects and no sort of defect is possible in Him, we realize that this matter is true and that a numerous group has not reached unanimity on a false matter and these perfect intellects have not made a mistake.
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Also, the consensus of all them is proof that whether these prefaces are imminent or theoretical, their reasonings are so clear that there is no scope of mistake and doubts in them and this reasoning is very strong. The third reasoning is those miracles displayed by the prophets and their successors. For example, the staff assuming the form of python, splitting of the sea, enlivening of the dead and bestowing sight to the blind, splitting of the moon into two and making water to flow from fingers or pebbles and other similar miracles, because it is clear to all that such matters are beyond human capacity. Hence, it is necessary that there must be a God, who displays these acts through their hands to prove their veracity. For most people, contemplation on the unique creations of God, present in the self and the surroundings, show a concise reasoning, which Allah has hinted at in most places in the Holy Quran; and this much is sufficient. On the contrary, the knowledge of the creator of the universe is imminent and all intellects are created through it. As the Almighty Allah says: If you ask the idolaters: Who has created the heavens and the earth? They will say: It is Allah. And then said: 1B ِ ضْ رَْ اﻷَ وِاتَ ﺎوَ اﻟﺴﱠﻤ ِ ﺮِﺎﻃَ ﱞ ﻓ ﻚَ ﺷِ ﻲ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِ ﻓَ أ 883B“Is there doubt about Allah, the Maker of the heavens and the earth?” (Surah Ibrahim 14:10) 1821BHe also said that the true religion is the nature of the Almighty Allah, in which He has created human beings:
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ﺎ 2B ً ﻴﻔِ ﻨَ ﺣِ ﻠﺪﱢﻳﻦ ِ ﻟَ ﻚَ ﻬْ ﺟَ وْ ﻢِ ﻗَ ﺄَ ۚ ﻓ ◌ َ اﻟﻨﱠﺎسَ ﺮَﻄَﻲ ﻓِ اﻟﱠﺘ ِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َتَ ﺮْﻄِ ﻓ ﺎَ ﻬْ ﻴـَ ﻠَ ۚ ﻋ ◌ ِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِ ﻖْ ﻠَ ﺨِ ﻟَﻳﻞِ ﺪْ ﺒَ ﺗـ َ ۚ ﻻ ◌ ﱠ ﻦِﻜٰ َ ﻟَ وُ ﱢﻢ ﻴَ اﻟْﻘُ اﻟﺪﱢﻳﻦ َ ﻚِ ﻟٰ َ ذ َ ﻮنُ ﻤَ ﻠْ ﻌَ ﻳـَ ﻻِ اﻟﻨﱠﺎسَ ﺮَ ﺜـْ ﻛَ ﴾٣٠﴿ أ 884B“Then set your face upright for religion in the right state- the nature made by Allah, in which He has made men; there is no altering of Allah’s creation; that is the right religion, but most people do not know.” (Surah Rum 30:30) 1822BThat is why all the prophets were commanded to tell the people about the word of monotheism and to say: ‘There is no god, except Allah,’ and not to confess in the existence of the Creator. 1823BIts proof is that when people fall into calamities and they do not have support from any apparent helper, they take refuge in their creator and confess: ‘we are having One God,’ and numerous reliable traditions are recorded about this. 1824BSome intellectuals say that most infidels and ignorant people are apparently deniers of the existence of the Creator, but in their conscience they confess to His reality and existence. Therefore, there is no dispute in the existence of the Creator. 1825BIts explanation is that intellect, reason and texts prove that Allah, the Mighty and the High is higher and greater than that the intelligence of someone else should be able to encompass His being, but this connection is proved and established between the master and slaves due to addition of special mercy, which the essence of all creatures has accepted. That is why, when one is involved in calamities and natural disasters, in which there is no one to seek help from, except the Real Protector, they become humble before Him. This is thus the sign of acceptance of prayer, as mentioned in the verse: 3B ُ ﺎﻩَ ﻋَا دَ ذِ ﱠ إ ﺮَﻄْﻀُ اﻟْﻤُﻴﺐِ ﺠُ ﻳْ ﱠﻦ ﻣَ أ
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“Or, Who answers the distressed one when he calls upon Him!” (Surah Naml 27:62) In fact, the fear, terror and restlessness of living beings in such circumstances is also due to this. That is why in every age, period, religion and different sects there is no logical dispute from any sensible person regarding initial creation. On the contrary, there are disputes regarding His qualities, conditions and circumstances. Fakhre Razi narrates from a person that during a great famine and drought, people went to the wilderness to pray for rain, but their prayer was not accepted. That man says: At that time I went to a mountain and saw a deer sprinting to a pond due to intense thirst; but when it reached the pool, it found it dry. He was absolutely shocked and many a times he shook his head looking at the heavens. Suddenly a cloud appeared and it rained so heavily that the pool began to overflow. The deer drank its fill and went away from there. According to the author of Rasail Ikhwanus Safa, many a times people saw that due to drought, animals raise up their head to the heavens and plead for water. It is narrated from a hunter that he saw a mountain cow nursing her young one. He says: When I went to it, it abandoned the calf and fled and I captured the calf. When the cow saw the calf in my hand, she became restless and raised her head to the heavens, as if pleading to court of the Almighty Allah. Suddenly I slipped and fell into a ditch and the calf escaped from my hands. Thus, its dam came running and took it away. It would not be appropriate at this point to mention all what is stated in traditions regarding this. Therefore, we can simply conclude that whatever is known about the existence of the Creator is so clear that even animals are aware of it.
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Section Two: Eternality of Allah
It is clear that Allah, the Mighty and the High is eternal and ever-living. His non-existence is impossible. He is from ever and he shall remain for ever. It is so, because if He were incidental and non-existent and annihilation was possible for Him, He would be needful of another creator and He would not be a necessary being and the creator of the universe. We should know that His existence is necessary and it is necessary for His being and it is impossible to separate it from His being. Followers of different religions have reached consensus on His being perfect from all aspects and that helplessness, defect and annihilation is impossible for Him. Section Three: Allah is Omnipotent and Supreme
Allah, the Mighty and the High, is all-Powerful and supreme and nothing from possibilities is beyond His power. Also, it is not that since He has created this much, He cannot create more. On the contrary, He does that, in which there is exigency. And if there is exigency He can create twice whatever He has already created; and if He wants, he can annihilate everything. He is the capable doer. Whatever He does, He does so through His intention and discretion. He is not at all helpless in His acts. Neither His effect on other things are without His intention. For example the burning of the fire. Also, if the intention of Allah becomes absolute along with the creation of a possibility, it would be definitely come into being. As Allah, the Mighty and the High says in the Holy Quran: 4B ُ ﻮنُ ﻜَ ﻴَ ﻓـْ ﻦُ ﻛُ ﻪَ ﻟَﻮلُ ﻘَ ﻳـْ نَﺎ أً ﺌْ ﻴَ ﺷَادَ رَا أَ ذِ إُ ﻩُ ﺮْ ﻣَﺎ أَ ﱠﻤ ﻧِ ﴾٨٢﴿ إ
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“His command, when He intends anything, is only to say to it: Be, so it is.” (Surah Yasin 36:82) This matter does not negate that the intention of Allah is not having connection with the result of the issue. The proof of the above is that owners of intellect, in spite of having different desires, have reached consensus that the creator of the universe cannot be helplessness and defective. Section Four: Allah is All-knowing
We should know that the knowledge of the Almighty Allah about things before their coming into existence is not having any difference as compared to His knowledge before their coming into existence. He was knowing everything from eternity, which would be created till ever and all things; though it might be like particles, or like drops of sea, weight of particles and mountains; or leaves of trees or desert sand and breathing of animals; everything is clear for Him. It is so, because He is the creator of everything, whether it is through a medium or without it and whoever through his intention and discretion creates something, he has complete knowledge of its qualities and signs; if one ponders on this it will be clear and obvious. Also Allah, the Mighty and the High is abstract. The relationship of the abstract is same with everything. Also as all the created things results of His existence; the knowledge and perfection of everything is sourced through Him. One, who is cognizant of all the sciences, is not ignorant of anything. The Almighty Allah has hinted to all these proofs in three words of the Holy Quran: 5B ُ ﻴﺮِ ﺒَ اﻟْﺨُﻴﻒِ اﻟﻠﱠﻄ َ ﻮُ ﻫَ وَ ﻖَ ﻠَ ﺧْ ﻦَ ﻣُ ﻢَ ﻠْ ﻌَ ﻳـَ ﻻَ ﴾١٤﴿ أ 887B“Does He not know, Who created? And He is the Knower of the subtleties, the Aware.” (Surah Mulk 67:14)
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Thus, we realize that He is subtle, with wholesome kindness for all existing beings and that He is the protector, creator and nourisher of all; it is Him only, who conveys everyone to the ranks of perfection; and only He is the knower of hidden matters. We admit to the unique creations of the creator; that is the sun, moon and stars and their different movements based on laws of wisdom, and the training of material and vegetative things; and who convey each of them to perfection; explanation of human and animals bodies and who arranges their parts; their growth; perception of external and internal senses, on which philosophers have written books on every topic after contemplating on them for thousands of years, even then they were unable to become conversant with a tenth part of them. Therefore, we become aware with certainty that such a God, from whom nothing is concealed, and who is not helpless from anything and is powerful on everything and that His knowledge is eternal and everlasting and He is never oblivious to anything; forgetfulness is not possible from Him and sleep and slumber are impossible for Him; because all these are defects, and He is perfect from all defects. So, when in general, the knowledge and power of the Almighty Allah and His being free from all evil is proved, and the reality of prophets and his successors is also proved through miracles, as will be mentioned later, if Allah wills; then all qualities of perfection are proved through the sayings and reports of these elders and there is no need to the know the rational reasonings; that is why we have not prolonged the discussion. Section Five: Allah is all-seeing and all-hearing
We should know that Allah, the Mighty and the High is allseeing and all-hearing. He is the knower everything, which can be heard; for example voices and see all what is visible. But He can see without an instrument of hearing (ears) and hear without an instrument of seeing (eyes); because were He to be needful of these things, He would become a compound, a needful and a
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created being; He would be needful of others in His perfection; however, He is perfect in His self and His knowledge regarding those things does not depend on them. On the contrary, He was cognizant of them before their existence as He is cognizant after their creation and both these qualities refer back to His omniscience. Allah, the Mighty and the High has mentioned these two qualities separately. Perhaps the wisdom behind is that the philosophers are refuted in those qualities, because they do not consider Allah to be cognizant of the details. Or that He is aware of the acts of human beings involved in difficulties. That is why these two qualities were mentioned separately from knowledge, so that people be warned of divine chastisement and encouraged to perform good deeds. Some consider both these qualities to be distinct from divine knowledge and its mention here is of no use. Section Six: God is Living
We should know that Allah, the Mighty and the High is living and ‘living’ implies a quality, through which power and wisdom should be revealed. Since it is proved that Allah, the Mighty and the High is all-knowing and all-powerful, the quality of life is also proved for Him. However, but the life of created beings occurs by occurrence of a quality, whereas God is alive on His own without a quality of a created being applicable to Him; and in fact this quality again refers back to His knowledge and power. Section Seven: God is Murid (with intention)
We should know that Allah, the Mighty and the High is Murid; that all His acts occur through His choice and intention. They are not inadvertent, which come about without choice and intention as the burning property of the fire and falling down of the stone. First we think of an act; after that we think of its benefit and this acts as a motivation for us to perform it; till we
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reaches the limit of determination and at that time that act is performed by us. However since there is no contradiction of condition and occurrence in the being of the Almighty; that is why the knowledge, which the Almighty Allah has that the existence of so and so matter in so and so time is expedient for the system of the universe. it is the same cause of its being at that time. That is why Imamiyah theologians say that intention refers back to knowledge and the knowledge of the better option is also an intention. It is also mentioned in traditions that this same invention is intention and this quality is from the act and it is incidental. Though there are many points in this subject, but for the duty bound it is sufficient to know that all acts of the Almighty Allah occur through His intention and choice according to exigency and wisdom and He is not helpless in those acts. Section Eight: Allah is Mutakallim
We should know that the Almighty Allah is Mutakallim; that is He creates letters and voices in a body, without the faculty of mouth or any other organ; like through His perfect power, speech was created in the tree and Prophet Musa (a.s.) heard it. He creates sounds in the heavens, which the angels hear and bring as divine revelation; and He creates inscriptions in the heavenly tablets as well, which angels read and bring down as divine revelation. He also creates revelation and speech in the hearts of prophets, successors and angels. This quality of creating speech is not a divine quality, which should necessarily be from eternity; on the contrary, it is a quality of action and it is incidental, because perfection of truth is knowledge of those meanings and letters; and He has the power to create letters and voices in anything He wants.
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Both these qualities – knowledge and power – are eternal; and the quality of creating speech is mentioned separately, because the sending of prophets and duties of Almighty Allah is basis of divine revelation; and books and divine words present in Quran and other heavenly scriptures are incidental. Whereas the knowledge of Allah is eternal and He is separate from speech and self-speech, about which Ashaira believe in, is invalid. Section Nine: Allah is Truthful (Sadiq)
We should also know that the Almighty Allah is Truthful (Sadiq) and falsehood is not possible from Him, because reason dictates that He should be free of all evil and falsehood also being an evil He is from falsehood as well In some cases falsehood, under exigency is allowed for us, even though it is an evil; but it is allowed due to our helplessness; since we are incapable of repelling the trouble caused by the word of truth; whereas Allah cannot be helpless. Moreover, there is consensus of people of all religions that the Almighty Allah is truthful in all acts and the books of Allah are full of this subject matter and this matter is a fundamental of faith. Section Ten: Qualities of Perfection
Similarly, we should know that the qualities of perfection of the Almighty Allah are His very being, because no quality is present in Him, which may be established with His being. On the contrary, His being is the substitute of all qualities. Just as there is a being for us and the quality of power is an existence, which has become a cause, but the divine being of the Almighty Allah is a substitute of all qualities and other than the divine being nothing else is absolutely knowledgeable, because if some quality should be in addition to His being, it would either be eternal or incidental and both of them are impossible.
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It is so, because if it is eternal, plurality of the eternal becomes applicable; although other than Allah, no one else is eternal; thus, that quality would become another god. Moreover, it becomes necessary that the Almighty Allah should be needful of others in His perfection and this matter is a necessary requirement of deficiency and helplessness as Amirul Momineen, Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.) said: One, who described Allah with the qualities of being, has in fact restricted Him to a time and one, who restricts Him to a time, has in fact believed that there are two gods or he has become a dualist. And one, who believes thus, has not recognized God. He also said: The beginning of religion is recognition of God and perfection of divine recognition is to consider Him as One and perfection of considering Him as One is that he should seek the additional qualities from Him. Scholars have differed regarding the qualities of the being of the Almighty Allah. Some say that they are: knowledge and power, discretion and life, intention and detestability, hearing and seeing, speech and truthfulness, being eternal and everlasting. Some have compared both qualities to be everlasting. Thus, we should know that the Almighty Allah is powerful, independent, living, free intentioned1 (Mureed), hearing and seeing, Mutakallim2, eternally, everlasting and truthful, because some of these qualities depend on others and some qualities are included in their negative; that is why some scholars have differed in their number; not whatever is mentioned, every opinion refers back to this. 1 It means that Allah does everything with His own wish and will and discretion in all affairs. He does not do anything under constraint or compulsion. 2 It means that Allah can create speech in anything He likes; like He created speech in the tree for Prophet Musa (a.s.).
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Chapter Two: Negative attributes (Sifaat Salbiya)
There are many discussions in this chapter: First Discussion: Allah is One
Allah is One; that is He does not have any partner either in the creation of things as fire worshippers believe in the duality of the godhead: God and Satan or light and darkness; or in being eligible for worship as the infidels of Mecca deemed their idols to be partners of Allah in worship and prostration. This matter is true and proved beyond any doubt as all prophets gave information about it and it is a necessary fundamental of all true religions. From the aspect of reason also, proper running of the system of the universe is not possible without oneness of the godhead; like there cannot be two owners of a house or two rulers of a country as it will create contradiction of their parts; then how is it possible for the heavens and the earths and the workshop of creation to operate with two gods? On the contrary, after a little contemplation it would be known that the whole world from the aspect of connection between its parts is like a single person and intellect cannot accept two souls to be related to one body. In the same way, it is also not possible to accept that there are two gods to control the world. Muhaqqiq Dawani says that if a person opens the eye of insight and goes around the world and sees from the beginning; that is the spiritual world till its end; that is till the physicalities, he would see a perfect and harmonious system, in which many things are included in some others and everything is having such
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a connection with its source that it seems that it is a house. It is clear that this is the connection of one creator. As any intelligent person, on seeing the creations of an artist will notice discrepancies among his products, in spite of the fact that the creator of them all is one only and it is proven that except for the true one no one else is perfect in everything he does. Thus, by seeing this and similar things, it is known that such oneness and this arrangement in worldly things is not possible without one creator; as the following verse also mentions this: ﺎ 6B َ ﺗَ ﺪَﺴَ ﻔَ ﻟُ ﱠ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻻِ إٌ ﺔَ ﻬِﺎ آﻟَ ﻤِﻴﻬِ ﻓَﺎنَ ﻛْ ﻮَ ﻟ 888B“If there had been in them any gods except Allah, they would both have certainly been in a state of disorder.” (Surah Anbiya 21:22) 1868BFor the folks of belief this much warning is sufficient that: 7B ِ نﱠ ﻓ ِإ ِ ﺎرَاﻟﻨﱠـﻬَ و ِ ﻞْ اﻟﻠﱠﻴ ِ فَ ﻼِ ﺘْ اﺧَ و ِضْ رَْ اﻷَ و ِاتَ ﺎوَ اﻟﺴﱠﻤ ِ ﻖْ ﻠَ ﻲ ﺧ ِ ﺎبَﻟْﺒَْﻲ اﻷِوﻟُِ ﻷٍﺎتَ ﻳَ ﴾١٩٠﴿ ﻵ 889B“Most surely in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day there are signs for men who understand.” (Surah Aale Imran 3:190) 1869BHere ends the discourse of Muhaqqiq Dawani. 1870BFrom the above discussion, it is clear that just as the existence of the creator is imminent and natural, in the same way, oneness is also imminent and natural and all are attentive to one God only and all occupy the same court. And consensus of independent intellects has occurred on this only 1871BThe dualists (Thanawiyyah) also regard the originator of creation as one and say that Nauyazdan is eternal and he has
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created the darkness; and that Shaitan is incidental. Even though some may apparently say that both are eternal, but if they contemplate on it they confess to monotheism. Thus, when one learns of the corruption of these people, he automatically becomes aware of their invalidity. But to mention these corruption is lengthy and beyond the scope of this book. Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.) said: If there had been a second god, it was necessary that his books and prophets should have come to us. This reasoning is absolute; therefore, it is necessary for the Necessary Being (Wajibul Wujood) to be powerful to the level of perfection and that He should be the absolute bestower of grace, whereas one God sent 124000 prophets to introduce His cognition and worship and to guide the people and if god forbid there had been another god, it was necessary that he should also through some prophet, have introduce his cognition and worship to the people. Thus, he would not be powerful; he would be helpless. Or that he would not be wise, he would be a miser and an ignorant and from these no quality is possible for the Necessary Being (Wajibul Wujood). There are many proofs regarding this; but this book cannot be expected to discuss all of them. To say that idols are some stones, which neither cause any harm nor any benefit; or they are some creations, degraded by absolute powerful one, unworthy of worship is such an obvious thing, which does not require any explanation and interpretation; and its negation is necessary for the religion of Islam. Second Discussion: Allah is not a compound, body or substance- He has no place or direction
We should know that an existing being is either a compound or an abstract thing. Compound is composed of parts. In the external sense, like man is composed of organs and four elements. In imagination, like commodities, like grains or crops.
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Baseet is one, who is not having any part. The Almighty Allah is the absolute Baseet and He is not composed of parts; because if He had a part, he would be needful of that part and would be incidental in existence. He is also not a substance; because substance is a kind of existence and He is a Necessary Being (Wajibul Wujood) by nature. He is also not incidental, like blackness and whiteness, because incidentality is needful of space, and every needful one has to be incidental. He is also not a body, because body is a compound of parts, and a compound is needful of its parts and He is neither in any place nor direction. It is so, because whatever is in place and has direction is either a body or it incarnates into a body; and the Almighty Allah is pure of both. It is also impossible for the Almighty Allah to change His location, because these issues are requirements of a body and materiality. Third Discussion: The Creator is Unique
No one is in likeness of the Almighty Allah, as He says: ٌ ءْ 8B ۖ ﻲَ ﺷِﻪِﻠْﺜِﻤَ ﻛَﺲْﻴَﻟ ◌ ُ ﻴﺮِﺼَ اﻟْﺒُﻴﻊِ اﻟﺴﱠﻤ َ ﻮُ ﻫَ ﴾١١﴿ و 890B“Nothing like a likeness of Him; and He is the Hearing, the Seeing.” (Surah Shura 42:11) 1879BHe has no likeness or equal, which should be His partner in the reality of being and original qualities. He is also not having any opposite, which may oppose him. He does not have any friend and helper in creation; and the belief of some extremists (Ghaali) that the Almighty Allah created the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and the Holy Imams (a.s.) and left the creation of the universe to them is infidelity and except for the acts of people, He is the creator of everything.
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Fourth Discussion: Eyes Cannot See Him
That is the creator of the universe is not visible. The being of the Almighty Allah is not such that these eyes should be able to see him in the world or the hereafter. This is a fundamental necessity of Shia faith and many traditions have come down regarding this and that, about which they think that they have come against this, they are interpreted as perception of the heart. As Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.) said: Eyes cannot see the Almighty Allah in the usual way, but hearts have seen it through the reality of faith. We should know that except for the Almighty Allah, no one is aware of the eternality of the being and perfect qualities of the Almighty Allah and Last Prophet (s.a.w.s.) who is the best of creation and the most excellent of the cognizant ones, has admitted to his helplessness and said: We have not recognized you as is the right of recognition; and the Almighty Allah said: 9B ِ ﻩِ رْ ﺪَ ﱠ ﻗ ﻖَ ﺣَ وا اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ُ رَ ﺪَﺎ ﻗَ ﻣَ و 891B“And they do not assign to Allah the attributes due to Him.” (Surah Anaam 6:91) 1883BThat is they have not estimated and honored the Almighty Allah as it befits Him and said: 10B َْ اﻷُ كِ رْ ﺪُ ﻳَ ﻮُ ﻫَ وُﺎرَﺼْ ﺑَْ اﻷُ ﻪُ ﻛ ِ رْ ﺪُ ﺗَ ﻻ َ ﺎرَﺼْ ﺑ 892B“Vision comprehends Him not, and He comprehends (all) vision.” (Surah Anaam 6:103) 1884BThat is eyes cannot perceive Him and He perceives the eyes. 1885BIt is mentioned in traditions that the eye of the heart cannot perceive His eternality, then what can be said of the physical eye? Moreover, the remaining apparent qualities, like: hearing,
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smell, touch and taste cannot perceive Him and neither the inner five senses like imagination can perceive Him. Fifth Discussion: Allah is not Incidental
The Almighty Allah is also not subject to incidentality and different conditions are mentioned regarding this. For example mistake and forgetfulness, sleep and grief, tiredness and enjoyment, pain and distress, sickness, youth, senility, eating and drinking, sexual enjoyment and He is not having any of these incidentalities. It is so, because to have these qualities is proof of deficiency and needfulness and the being of the Almighty Allah is free of them. In this chapter the brief and comprehensive statement is that divine qualities of perfection can neither be incidental nor separable from Him; like knowledge and power, because if these qualities become incidental, it would necessitate that the being of the Almighty Allah before the incidence of these qualities would be deficient, ignorant and helpless and if they are separated from Him, He would become defective after their separation, although in no condition is deficiency possible for Him and the qualities, which are from the quality of being, and from the qualities of actions can be incidental. For example: creator and nourisher, enlivener and death giver, because the Almighty Allah was not eternally a creator, otherwise the universe would also have been eternal and if the creations of Allah had always been there from ever, it would not have been the quality of perfection of the Almighty Allah and it would have necessitated His deficiency. On the contrary, to be powerful in creation is a quality of perfection; and when he knows the exigency, He creates and this quality is since ever and it never separates from the Almighty Allah and sometime it is that permanence of the quality of action becomes the cause of deficiency of the Almighty Allah as there
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is wisdom in creating Zaid that day and He creates him before that, it is against divine wisdom and a cause of deficiency. In the same way, if making Zaid rich is against divine wisdom and the Almighty Allah makes him rich, it is a defect for Him and not perfection; as it is said that the quality of being is what Allah is having and He cannot have their opposite qualities. Quality of action is that He can have that quality as well as its opposite, but the quality of being is like knowledge as divine knowledge is regarding everything and he cannot be attributed ignorance. In the same way, the Almighty Allah is powerful on all existing things and in no way helplessness can be attributed to Him. The quality of act is like its creation. It can be said that the Almighty Allah created the seven heavens; since there was no exigency He neither created Zaid nor his son. He is also described as the giver of life and death. He makes one man rich and the other, poor, but none of these things cause any change in the divine being of Allah, because the perfection of his holy being is in having absolute power, true knowledge and definite information and points of contradiction. Through His exclusive grace, the Almighty Allah gives to everything according to the capability of its substance and according to the exigency of the whole system and if He bestows more than that; it would be against His grace from the aspect of complete exigency and this matter is unlike rain that falls in the same way. If due to difference of substance and capability from one land He grows flowers and blossoms from another thorny trees; and from another, trees and fruits and from another, river and stream; He inhabits some houses and ruins some and all these are caused through the same rain. We would again remind the readers that this treatise does not have more scope than this explanation.
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Sixth Discussion: Explanation of Divine Names
There are innumerable names of the Almighty Allah as He says: ﺎ 11B َ ﻬِ ﺑُﻮﻩُ ﻋْﺎدَ ﻓٰ ﻰَ ﻨْ ﺴُ اﻟْﺤُﺎءَ ﻤْﺳَْ اﻷِ ﱠﻪ ﻠِ ﻟَ و 893B“And Allah’s are the best names, therefore, call on Him thereby.” (Surah Araaf 7:180) 1898BAlso many names of the Almighty Allah are mentioned in verses, traditions and supplications. Thus, precaution demands that we do not call the Almighty Allah with any name other than those mentioned in verses and traditions and the fact is that the names of the Almighty Allah are some created letters and incidental 1899BSome Ahle Sunnat believe that the names of Allah are His own being, but this statement is invalid and it is mentioned in traditions that one, who believes in this is a disbeliever and one, who without meaning worships the names is also a disbeliever. One, who worships the names and the meanings, has attributed a partner to Allah. Only one, who worships His being, to which those names are implied, has worshipped the Almighty Allah with oneness. 7707BSeventh Discussion: Allah does not Incarnate
1900BWe should know that the Almighty Allah does not unite with anything, because it is impossible for two things to merge. He also does not have a wife or a son; and does not incarnate into anything as the Christians claim that Prophet Isa (a.s.) is the son of God or God has incarnated into him or has united with him as all these issues cause helplessness and deficiency of the Almighty Allah and they make one a disbeliever. 1901BWhat some Sufis claim that the Almighty Allah is the essence of everything and that the essences of existing things are
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relative issues and have come into existence from the Almighty Allah or that the Almighty Allah incarnates into the gnostic and becomes united with him. All these statements are in fact infidelity and apostasy. In the same way, some Shia extremists (Ghaali) say that the Almighty Allah incarnated into the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and the Holy Imams (a.s.) or that He unites with them or has appeared in their form; all these statements are also infidelity and our Holy Imams (a.s.) have sought aloofness from them and has invoked curse on them and ordered the execution of some of them as Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.) killed a group of them through smoke. Eighth Discussion: No Partner in Eternality
Except for His being, everything is incidental. We should know that the creator of the universe does not have any partner in being eternal and everything other than Him are incidental and all religions have consensus on this issue, although in common parlance they apply incidentally and absence of eternality on many meanings; but that, on which all the religions have reached unanimity is that everything other than God is having a beginning and the time period of its existence is going to end; and except for the Almighty Allah, no one else is eternal and on this issue all Muslims, on the contrary, all the people of the world agree and numerous and clear verses prove this matter. Regarding this, I have mentioned 200 traditions in Biharul Anwar for rational proofs along with replies to the objections of philosophers from reliable Sunni and Shia books. Also, it has come down in reliable traditions that one, who believes in the eternality of anyone other than the Almighty Allah, is a disbeliever.
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Chapter Three: Qualities related to the Acts of God
There are a number of discussions in this chapter: First Discussion: Factuality of Good and Evil
The faith of Imamiyah is that the good or evil of the acts is rational and good implies that if a capable doer performs this act, he would become eligible for praise and reward; and evil is that if a capable doer performs it, he would become eligible for condemnation and punishment. Every act, whether sanctioned or prohibited by Islamic law; through which one becomes eligible for praise and reward or condemnation and punishment its good and evil can be understood through reason; as the excellence of speaking truth, which brings profit or the evil of a lie, which causes harm, or a lie that is profitable, because being aware of their goodness and evil is needful of contemplation and sometimes people cannot understand this. Often people cannot understand this, but after it is mentioned in the holy law they become aware of its good and evil as the excellence of the fasting of the last day of Shaban and the evil of fasting on the first of Shawwal. According to the Ashaira the good and evil of an act depends whether it is commanded and prohibited by the law maker. Whatever He orders is good and whatever He prohibits is evil and bad. Thus, if the law maker commands adultery, it would be good and if He prohibits the prayer, it would become an evil act. The invalidity of this belief – overlooking the fact that even intellect declares it – is absolutely clear through many verses and traditions.
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Second Discussion: Allah does not commit evil
We should know that Allah, the Mighty and the High does not commit any evil act, because if He did that it would necessitate that He is unaware of the evil of that act or that if He is aware of it, He is not capable to leave it and also does not have need for it, but He performs it without any profit. Thus, the first instance shows ignorance of the Almighty Allah, in the second instance His helplessness, in the third, needfulness and in the fourth, foolishness and unawareness and the application of these four qualities is impossible for the Almighty Allah. Thus, it is proved that an evil act cannot be committed by Him. Third Discussion: Allah does not impose anything beyond ones capacity
We should know that the Almighty Allah does not make anyone responsible to do or to leave acts, which are not in their capacity and people are having free will in their acts and they are the doers of their own act, whether it is obedience or disobedience. Most Imamiyah and Mutazila believe this and most Ahle Sunnat people follow the Ashaira faith that says that the Almighty Allah is responsible for all the acts of people and people do not have any choice at all. On the contrary, the Almighty Allah executes that act through the people and people are helpless in this. But some say that intention of the person is connected to this act; but it does not at all have any absolute interference in that act. This view is invalid due to a number of reasons:
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First Reason: Difference between Voluntary and Involuntary acts
It is that we know through our wisdom and reason that there is difference between these two acts. That trembling is involuntary and writing is voluntary. In the same way, we find difference between two persons, one of whom falls down from the roof or one, who descends from it. Thus, if an act is not in our capacity, it is necessary that there should not be any difference in these acts also. Second Reason: Reward and Punishment
It is that the Almighty Allah has commanded obedience, and in its exchange has promised reward and has restrained from sins and has instead warned of punishment. Thus, if the acts of people are not within their capacity, then to make them responsible for them and to punish them for sin is very bad and in fact injustice. Just as a master ties up the hands and feet of his servant and then orders him to bring something and then starts beating him up that why he has not brought it; or that he orders him to proceed to the sky and then beats him up why he has not proceeded. Previously, it was seen that an evil act is not possible from the Almighty Allah and who is more unjust than one, who makes infidelity and disobedience issue from the heart or tongue of a person without his choice and then as result of it burn him up in Hell forever? Allah has Himself mentioned in many places in Quran that He is not unjust to anyone. Third Reason: Praise and Condemnation
It is that the Almighty Allah has, in innumerable places in the Holy Quran, praised the proximate ones to the divine court
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due to obedience and condemned the accursed ones due to infidelity and disobedience. Thus, if these persons are not the doers of their act, to praise or condemn them would be foolishness and its attribution to the Almighty Allah is impossible. We should know that it is mentioned in many traditions that there is neither compulsion nor free will. On the contrary, it is a matter between these two matters. According to majority of scholars, it implies that the Almighty Allah has not compelled anyone in their acts and people act according to their own intention, even though all its causes may be from Allah. For example, the physical organs and all physical and spiritual strengths and the tools and instruments needed to perform the act; all of them are from the Almighty and it is a matter between two matters. While the fact is that the interference of the Almighty Allah in the acts of men is more than this; because He has special guidance and divine opportunity for good acts and He decides who is worthy of His guidance and divine opportunity or good sense. This interference is in the act of obedience, divine abandonment and leaving the person to his own devices. It is interference in the act of disobedience, but it is not to the limit that the person should have no choice in the matter and should be compelled to do or not to perform a particular act. Like that master having two servants, who orders both to do the same job. For example, he may order: Tomorrow, each of you go to buy such and such thing for me. One, who performs this service will be rewarded with a hundred gold coins and one unable to do that will be lashed ten times. Thus, if he is content with this regarding both, and one of them performs the job and the other does not. The one, who had performed it, he becomes eligible for a hundred gold coins and one, who was unable to do it becomes liable for ten lashes. If
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one of them is more obedient and has served more, and the master likes him more; and after ordering both of them and completing the argument on both; later on he calls his favorite one in private and shows kindness to him; and the following day this servant does that job and the other one does not, in that case if he gives a hundred gold coins to him and ten lashes to the other, no one would criticize that master, because neither that first servant was compelled to perform that job, neither the other one was forced against it. On the contrary, both have acted as per their choice and free will and the argument of the master is exhausted for both. This much interference of the Almighty in the acts of people is proved and apparent from verses of Quran and traditions and one should be content this and not contemplate on it further, because this matter is very difficult and a point, where it is very easy to deviate. Traditions have also prohibited further contemplation on this matter. Fourth Discussion: Grace is Obligatory on Allah
In the light of reason, grace is obligatory on the Almighty Allah and grace is that, which brings a duty-bound person near to obedience and takes him away from disobedience; like the sending of prophets, appointment of Imams, reward and punishment and divine promise and threats etc. Fifth Discussion: Allah is Wise
The Almighty Allah is wise and all His acts are based on wisdom and exigency and no useless act is performed by him and He is having the right aim and great wisdom in all His acts. However, the aim of divine acts refers back to people and it is not the aim of the Almighty Allah to get any benefit from it. On this matter, all Imamiyah, Mutazila, philosophers and Ashaira
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have reached consensus and they say that all acts of Almighty Allah are without any selfish motive. But many traditions prove the invalidity of this statement and most Imamiyah believe that, which is best for the creatures and system of universe, is obligatory on Allah. It is the belief of some theologians is that acts of the Almighty Allah should necessarily include exigency and wisdom and it is not necessary that they should be in the best interest of humanity. It is clear that we have no scope at all to contemplate on this matter.
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Chapter Four: Prophethood First Objective: Infallibility
The belief of the Imamiyah is that sending of prophets, from the point of view of reason, is obligatory on the Almighty Allah, because grace is obligatory on Him. According to consensus of Shia and widely related traditions, all prophets since the beginning of their life till their last moments are infallible from all greater and lesser sins, intentionally and unintentionally. We have rational as well as traditional proofs to prove this and also that no kind of mistake or forgetfulness is possible from a prophet in conveyance of the divine message; for in that case, no one would be able to trust his word. But in other matters related to habits and worship acts, it is well known among Imamiyah scholars that mistake and forgetfulness is not possible from them as well and some have even claimed consensus of Shia on this point. However, Ibne Babawayh and some tradition scholars say that satanic forgetfulness is not possible for him, but it is possible that the Almighty Allah under some exigency may display mistake and forgetfulness from him, like the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) committed forgetfulness in Zuhr and Asr Prayer and recited the Salutation after two units (rakats); when people called his attention to this, he stood up and recited the two units. Scholars say that the Almighty Allah did this by way of affection on the Ummah of the Prophet; that is if someone does this unintentionally, people may not condemn him; and it is so that people should not think that those personalities are gods. But most scholars do not believe that such forgetfulness ever took place; and they have based on dissimulation the traditions, which have come down in this regard.
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It should be known that an infallible is not compelled to leave sinful acts, but the Almighty Allah grants such graces to him that he abandons disobedience through his own free will. Or he is bestowed with such strength of reason and intelligence in obedience of the Almighty Allah and to keep ones conscience with right morals and as a result this, the infallible achieves such a rank that the love of Allah becomes rooted in his heart and he is freed from the prison of selfish desires and satanic thoughts. He always imagines himself to be the favorite of Allah and except for that, in which lies the pleasure of his beloved, nothing else occurs to him and if rarely a thought of disobedience enters his mind, he does not break his attention to Allah, the Mighty and Sublime to go near that disobedience. Also, he is ashamed to commit disobedience in the presence of God. On the basis of this, he never commits a sin. If, as some people think that the Almighty Allah compels an infallible on abandonment of sin; then guidance and infallibility would not be a basis of perfection for him and there would be no reward for him in leaving off the sins. Verses and traditions, in which it is implied that prophets committed disobedience of the Almighty Allah, are interpreted to be a commission of a detestable act and leaving the preferable option; but since those personalities were in possession of greatness and rank, this is also referred to as sin; although there are two other reasons for it, which I (the author) have explained in Hayatul Quloob. Most incidents mentioned in books of history and Quranic exegeses, regarding mistakes of prophets are in fact fabricated by Ahle Sunnat reporters. Taking them from books of Jews they wanted to justify the wrong deeds of their Caliphs. They mentioned all such incidents in their books and some deficient Shia also included them in their books. A large number of traditions have been recorded from the Holy Imams (a.s.) in their refutation, which I (author) have mentioned in Arabic and Persian books and it is beyond the
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scope of this treatise. Thus, one should not have faith in such incidents. Second Objective: Miracles
One can know the truth of prophets only through miracles, because it is not possible to believe anyone, who claims some high station merely on the basis of his claim; as a poet says: O man, there are many satans in the form of humans; so you must not trust anyone on mere claim. (Persian couplet) Like if person claims that I am appointed by the King as a governor over you, you must obey me. No one accepts this merely on the basis of his claim till he does not show proof from the King; a note or a written order, which should only be from the King. A miracle is also same, because it is an act that man should be unable to produce a like of it; it should be against ordinary it and be accompanied with a claim of prophethood. Thus, if it is an act that a man can do, it is not a miracle. Or for example, at the time of sunrise he says that it is my miracle that the sun has risen. But if he claims prophethood and also says that the Almighty Allah appointed me as the leader and ruler of the world and my proof is that Allah splits the moon with a gesture of my finger or enlivens this dead; and that should happen immediately; in that case we would know that he is truthful, because the Almighty Allah is powerful over everything and His knowledge encompasses everything as we have mentioned before. Thus, if this person is lying, then his claim would be evil and our obedience to him would also be bad. In that case, it would become necessary that the Almighty Allah has encouraged an evil thing and it is impossible to attribute evil to Allah as we all know.
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It is necessary that miracle should be according to the claim and it should prove the rightfulness of prophethood and if it is not according to it, it would prove the falsity of owner of the miracle as some people mentioned to Musailima Kazzab, the false prophet, that His Eminence, Muhammad Mustafa (s.a.w.s.) prayed for a blind man and he was cured; so Musailima Kazzab also should pray for this man blind in one eye; but when he did so, his other eye also became blind. In the same way, people said to Musailima Kazzab that Eminence Muhammad Mustafa (s.a.w.s.) dropped his saliva in a dry well and it began to overflow with water. That accursed man spat into a well having some water, and that well dried up! Such a miracle is in fact called as a falsifying miracle. Third Objective: Qualities of the Prophets (a.s.)
It is necessary that the prophet should be superior to all his people, because precedence of the inferior is against reason and it is necessary that the prophet should know all the sciences, which his people are in need of and it is necessary that he should be imbued with qualities of perfection. Like perfection of intellect and wisdom, sagacity and determination, chastity and valor, nobility and generosity and to prefer others over oneself and modesty in religion, mercy and kindness, forbearance and humility, compassion and sympathy; and he should be aloof from worldly things and be free from qualities like malice and miserliness, jealousy and greed, materialism and greed for wealth and position, nasty temperament and impotency, and also diseases, which are normally looked upon as detestable; like leprosy, leucoderma, blindness, deafness and dumbness etc, and there should no defect in his lineage also. That is he should not be illegitimate born; also there should be no doubt in his lineage. His forefathers should not be of lower social rank. He should not be in lowly professions like weaver, barber, porter, sweeper and professions, which are against self respect; like eating on roadside or while walking etc; and also acts like that.
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Scholars have mentioned all these issues, but there is difference of opinion in some issues. Prophets, who were the ancestors of the Prophet and their ancestors, were all Muslims throughout, but it is not proved in my view that the forefathers of other prophets should also be Muslims. There is no proof, rational or textual to support this; and some traditions, which have come down regarding Prophet Khizr (a.s.) etc. prove the contrary and it is better to reserve ones view in this matter. Fourth Objective: Superiority of Imams and Prophets over angels
Imamiyah scholars have consensus that prophets are superior to all angels, and there are a large number of traditions on this matter and many rational evidences have come down, but there is a great difference of opinion among Ahle Sunnat and the number of prophets is not proved, but the figure of 124000 is well known and in brief it is necessary to believe that all prophets and their successors are rightful and belief in the prophethood of the prophets mentioned in the Holy Quran is necessary for the religion of Islam. For example, it is necessary to believe in rightfulness of prophethood of Prophet Adam, Sheeth, Idris, Nuh, Hud, Salih, Shuaib, Ibrahim, Musa, Isa, Ismail, Yaqub, Ishaq, Yusuf, Dawood, Sulaiman, Ayyub, Yunus and Ilyas (a.s.). One, who denies even one of them, is a disbeliever. There is a great difference between the ranks and grades of the prophets. The most superior being the five prophets: Nuh, Ibrahim, Musa, Isa and His Eminence, Muhammad Mustafa (s.a.w.s.): They are called as Ulul Azm prophets, and their Shariat abrogated the previous laws. The most superior of the five is the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). After him, Prophet Ibrahim (a.s.) is superior to all prophets.
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There are many differences between a messenger and a prophet: some say that messenger is one, who is sent, and the angel of revelations should come to him in wakefulness; and prophet is one, who is not sent to anyone in particular. Some say that messenger is one having a book or a codified law and prophet is one, who protects the law of someone else. It is mentioned in authentic traditions that prophets are of four kinds: some used to hear that he was only sent for his own self; some prophets used to dream and hear the voice of the angel, that is he was subservient to another prophet; like Lut (a.s.) was under the command of Ibrahim (a.s.); some used to hear and see in dream as well and also see the angel, and he was sent to a group, but he was following the law of another prophet; like Prophet Yunus (a.s.). The messenger who sees in dream and hears the voice and sees the angel in wakefulness, and who is also the owner of a divine law, is the Imam. It is mentioned in reliable traditions that prophet is one, who sees in dream and listens to the voice of angel, but does not see the angel in wakefulness and messenger is one, who hears the voice and sees the angel in both conditions: in sleep as well as wakefulness. The Imam hears the voice of the angel, but does not see him. There is difference of opinion among scholars on this subject; that most communities for whom a prophet was raised denied him and some are of the view that the prophet whose name was Yusuf (a.s.) was sent to them, but this matter is not proved, and it is better to be silent in this matter.
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Fifth Objective: Prophethood of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.)
The proof of the prophethood of His Eminence, Muhammad Mustafa (s.a.w.s.) bin Abdullah bin Abdul Muttalib bin Hashim bin Abde Manaf is that he claimed prophethood and displayed many miracles to prove his claim of prophethood and both of them are widely related and all the sects are unanimous on this point; that he claimed prophethood. As for his miracles, they are too many. On the contrary, all his acts and statements and implications were miracles and the miracles of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) were of two kinds: First Type: Everlasting Miracle
It is the Holy Quran and it is more widely related than his other miracles; and it will endure till Judgment Day. A prophet sent in a particular time period brought miracles mostly from the arts most prevalent during that time and the people of that period used to be experts in those arts; so that the proof should be final and complete on them. As during the time of Prophet Musa (a.s.), magic and sorcery was very popular, so Allah, the Mighty and the High gave him the staff, white arm and other things like them, the like of which, the people of his nation could not bring, in spite of the fact that they were experts in that art. During the period of Prophet Isa (a.s.), there was prevalence of epidemic of diseases and expert physicians like Galen (Jalinus) were present; thus, Prophet Isa (a.s.) displayed the miracles of reviving the dead, curing the blind and lepers. He also brought miracles like their acts, but they were not acts of human beings. During the time the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was sent, literature was at its zenith in Arabia; eloquent poems were
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composed and displayed at the Kaaba and Arabs used to take pride in this. So the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) brought the Quran and informed his people: If you have doubt in my prophethood, bring the like of this Quran, but they were helpless and could not get a like of it. Then he said: Bring ten chapters like it. When they failed in this as well; he said: Bring only one chapter like it. So they became attentive to this and collectively tried their best, but they were unable to bring a like of even the shortest chapter of Quran; in spite of the fact that were extremely keen to falsify him. They fought battles, committed massacres and took prisoners; but they were unable to respond to the challenge of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). It is obvious that if they had been capable, they would have definitely brought it. Hence, it is clear that litterateurs in Arabia were present in large numbers and scholars and intellectuals were common. From that time onwards, till the present age, the enemies of the Prophet exceeded his friends many times over, but they were unable to bring the like of it. Therefore, it is proved that Quran was not a product of a human hand; on the contrary, it is the act of the creator of the universe and if the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) had not been a prophet, the Almighty Allah would not have displayed such a miracle at his hands. Moreover, falsehood, wrong intent and misguiding the people and many other evils would become applicable here and such acts cannot be expected for the Almighty Allah. There is difference of opinion whether the Holy Quran is a miracle or not. Whether it is a miracle as a result of eloquence and literary expertise or when people condemned Allah He turned their minds and stunned their intellects, so they were
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unable to get a like of it; although both these reasons are true, the fact is that the miracle of the Holy Quran is due to many reasons: First Reason: Eloquence
The first reason is eloquence and even non-Arabs, who listen to Quran, can discern its difference from other discourses. The statements of the Holy Quran, which occurs in the eloquent discourse, shines like a Roman ruby and spinel ruby of Badakhshan; and all the master litterateur of Adnan and Qahtan have admitted to the eloquence of Quran. It is narrated that during that time if anyone composed a very eloquent piece of poetry, he used to display it from the wall of the Kaaba; but when the verse of: ﻲ 12B ِ ﻌِ ﻠْ ﻗَ أُﺎءَ ﻤَﺎ ﺳَ ﻳَ وِ كَﺎءَﻲ ﻣِ ﻌَ ﻠْ اﺑـُضْ رَﺎ أَ ﻳَﻴﻞِ ﻗَ و 894B“And it was said: O earth, swallow down your water, and O cloud, clear away.” (Surah Hud 11:44) 1975B…was revealed, all of them for the fear of degradation came in the dead of the night and took away their poetic works and concealed them. 7724BSecond Reason: Uniqueness
1976BIt is the strangeness of method; if a person studies the literary works of all the poets of that time, he would conclude that the discourse of Quran is something quite different and way beyond other literary works in aspects of eloquence, diction, style and tenor. 7725BThird Reason: Absence of Discord
1977BThe third reason is the absence of discord; as the Almighty Allah has remarked:
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13B َ ﺟَ ﻮَ ﻟِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِ ﺮْ ﻴَ ﻏِ ﺪْ ﻨِ ﻋْ ﻦِ ﻣَﺎنَ ﻛْ ﻮَ ﻟَ و ا ً ﻴﺮِ ﺜَ ﺎ ﻛً ﻓَ ﻼِ ﺘْ اﺧِﻴﻪِوا ﻓُ ﺪ 895B“And if it were from any other than Allah, they would have found in it many a discrepancy.” (Surah Nisa 4:82) 1978BIt is so, because if a person composes such a long discourse covering a period of twenty-three years, it is not possible for it to be free of contradictions and disparities; especially when the composer of that work is not literate; and when other people noted down his each verse and chapter; and when most of his scribes were his enemies and hypocrites. 1979BAnother point is that even if a person is most eloquent of all; even then in his panegyrics and sermons if one sentence is eloquence and the other would ineloquent and if one couplet is of high caliber, another would be of low caliber; if one part is researched the other would be vain or invalid; and to say this for a work, which continued to be composed for twenty-three years? 7726BFourth Reason: Based on Divine Cognition
1980BThe fourth reason is being based on divine cognition; because in that period the Arabs, especially the tradition of knowledge was not there among the people of Mecca anymore. Before proclamation of prophethood (Besat), the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) never cultivated the company of any Jew or Christian scholar and did not travel much to foreign lands in quest of knowledge, but the wisdom of all philosophers of thousands of years is mentioned in the best way in each chapter and verse. 1981BNothing in it is opposed to intellect and on the contrary, the Arabs, who were universally famous for lack of knowledge and culture by the blessings of the Prophet, acquired literary expertise, ethics and perfection of morals and scholars of the world became needful of them in gaining knowledge and faith.
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Fifth Reason: Inclusion of Noble Traits
The fifth reason was inclusion of noble behavior and ancient divine laws. It is so, because the philosophers and scholars had as much contemplated on it in years; thousands times of it is mentioned in each chapter of the Holy Quran and administrative laws in Islamic law, method of worship, solving of disputes, corruption, transactions, marriage, social relationships, penalties, laws of lawful and unlawful, are fixed in such a way that if all scholars and intellectuals of the world contemplate on it, they would not find any defect in it. They would not be able to bring a law better than whatever is mentioned in that miraculous discourse and stated by the chief of the prophets. If a person refers to his intellect, he becomes aware that there is no miracle greater than this. Sixth Reason: Incidents of Past Prophets
The sixth reason is being based on the incidents of previous prophets who were especially related to Jews and Christians. Others were unaware of those stories, but in the Holy Quran these things are narrated in such a way that in spite of the fact that the antagonists were in such large numbers, they were unable to falsify the Prophet even in one of those incidents. On the contrary the Holy Quran exposed facts: like the truth behind crucifixion of Prophet Isa (a.s.) and also spoke of issues, which were mentioned in their books, but which they had concealed due to some exigency; like the penalty of stoning, legality of camel meat and other issues, which I (author) have mentioned in Hayatul Quloob.
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Seventh Reason: Special Qualities of Chapters and Verses
The seventh reason is special quality of chapters and verses, because cure of all physical and spiritual ills, removal of mental delusions and satanic suggestions; removal of internal and external corruptions, security from internal and external enemies; all this is mentioned in the verses and chapters of Quran and proved through true experiences. Also purification of the hearts, cure of the breasts, attachment to divine court and security from domination of selfish desires; all such things are present in verses of Quran in such large numbers that no honest person can refuse to accept them. Eighth Reason: Miraculous Aspect of Quran
Eighth reason is the miraculous aspect of Quran; that there are many reports of the unseen in it, whose knowledge no one had, except for the Almighty Allah. Such reports are innumerable and they are of two types: First Type: Information of Unseen Matters
It includes verses, in which the Almighty Allah has informed of unseen things, which infidels and hypocrites did in the privacy of their homes and which they conveyed to each other as secrets, or kept them concealed in their breasts. When the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) informed them about these things, they were unable to refute him; instead they used to be ashamed. When such matters were mentioned, they remarked: The angel Jibraeel would divulge our secrets to the Prophet. There are many such reports, which we have mentioned in the book of Hayatul Quloob.
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Second Type: Information of Future Events
It is the verses, in which the Almighty Allah has informed of future happenings, whose knowledge none but the Almighty Allah had and He informed His prophets through revelation or divine inspiration. For example non-acceptance of Islam in case of Abu Lahab or some other infidels like him and degradation of Jews till Judgment Day. Thus, so far no Jew has ever become a ruler anywhere in the world. Wherever they live they live in extreme degrading conditions, rather their degradation has become proverbial; or prediction that Muslims would conquer many cities; prediction that they would enter Mecca for Umrah; the conquest of Mecca; return of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) to that holy city; prediction that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) would remain secure from the mischief of enemies; prediction of Roman victory over Persians; prediction in Surah Kauthar that although infidels of Mecca ridiculed that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) will die without any descendants, he would in fact have a very vast progeny, which inhabits every nook and corner of the world in form of Sayyids and Saadaat; prediction that Jews will never wish for death. It happened exactly. The remaining details are mentioned in Hayatul Quloob. Third Type: Miracles of the Prophet
It is the verses, which mention the miracles of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). We should know that the miracles that Allah, the Mighty and the High bestowed to the Prophet were not granted to any of the prophets. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) was given the miracles of all the previous prophets as well as other miracles. All his miracles cannot be computed. I have mentioned more than a thousand miracles in my book. The miracles of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) are of different kinds:
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First Kind: Miracles regarding his body
Miracles connected to his holy body; and they are twentyfour in number: One: It is that effulgence shone from the forehead of the Prophet and reflected on the surroundings and when he raised his hand; his fingers exuded the light of ten candles. Two: His body was extremely fragrant. So if he traverses a particular path, for two days or even more, anyone else passing on that way knew that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) had passed from there. His sweat smelled of perfume and people collected and store it with them and use it as perfume; on the contrary, they mixed it with other perfumes. It so happened that once a bucket of water was brought to him. He took a handful, gargled and dropped the water back into the bucket and all the water became more fragrant than musk and rose. Three: His body never cast a shadow. Four: Whoever walked with him, even if he was taller than him, but his blessed head used to tower over him. Five: A tuft of cloud shaded him all the time. Six: No bird ever flew over his head and no fly or mosquito ever sat on him. Seven: Just as he saw in the front, in the same way, he was able to see behind as well. Eight: Sleeping and wakefulness was same for him. Sleep did not hinder him from perceiving anything with his apparent and hidden powers. He heard the angel speak while no one else could perceive it. He saw the angels whereas others could not and he used to become aware of whatever was concealed in the conscience of others. Nine: No sort of bad odor entered his nose.
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Ten: Wherever he dropped his saliva, by its blessing water used to fill up over there and if he applied it to someone suffering from pain, he got cured. Whichever food he touched, was blessed with increase and people were satiated with only a little of that food. Thus, his companion, Jabir fed seven persons to satiation with a little lamb and a Saa of wheat. Eleven: He understood all languages and spoke all languages. Twelve: Only thirteen strands of hair has turned grey in his beard, which shone like the sun. Thirteen: On his back was imprinted the seal of prophethood, whose effulgence was more powerful than the light of the sun. Fourteen: A stream erupted from between his two fingers, from which innumerable people drank. Fifteen: He split the moon with the gesture of his finger. Sixteen: Pebbles recited divine glorifications in his palm, and it was audible even to others. Seventeen: Whichever animal he mounted became fully obedient. Eighteen: He emerged from the womb with his feet first and when he was born, fragrance of musk and rose spread in the whole atmosphere. As soon as he was born, he prostrated to the Kaaba. When he raised his head, he raised his hands to the heavens and admitted to the oneness of Allah, the Mighty and the High and his prophethood. At that time such effulgence spread from his body that it spread to the entire world. Nineteen: He never got nocturnal emission and neither did he ever see satanic dreams. Twenty: His feces smelled of musk and were not seen by anyone; on the contrary, the earth was ordered to conceal it within itself.
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Twenty-one: No one could compete with him in contests of physical prowess. Twenty-two: All creatures believed in his sanctity and respect; whichever tree he passed, stooped to pay respect and salute him. During childhood, a snake rocked his cradle. Twenty-three: When he walked on soft ground his feet did not leave any prints, but when he walked on solid rocky ground, he left footprints. Twenty-four: The Almighty Allah created his awe among the people; so in spite of extreme humility and affection, no one could stare at his face, and whichever infidel or hypocrite saw him was terrified. The shadow of his awe and majesty affected the disbelievers to a distance of two months of travel. Second Kind: Miracles of his Birth
Through many chains of narrators, it is narrated in traditional reports that Satans were stopped from going up to the heavens on the eve of the birth of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.); that is why a large number of meteors were seen in the heavens. People thought that it was the Judgment Day. Knowledge of soothsayers was interrupted, power of sorcerers was weakened and idols all over of the world toppled. The palace of Choesroe, the Persian king shuddered and its fourteen arches crashed. It split exactly in the center and it is in this condition even today. Apart from that there was no other break in it. A magnificent palace constructed on the banks of Tigris was destroyed and flooded by the river waters. A small stream, where they worshipped, was dried up and today there is a salt mine there near the town of Kashan. The fire-temple of Fars, alight since a thousand years was extinguished on this blessed night. An old stream, which has dried up since many years, began to flow with water.
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That same night a light rose up from Hijaz and spread to the whole world. The thrones of rulers toppled. All the rulers of the world were anxious, silent and completely stunned. At the time of his holy birth, all proximate angels and souls of major (Ulul Azm) prophets were present. Rizwan, the caretaker of Paradise came with pitchers of Paradise and trays of gold, silver and emeralds along with the Houries of Paradise and brought the drinks of Paradise for Lady Amina, which she drank and after the delivery, she was given the ritual bath with water of Paradise and perfumes of Paradise were applied to him, and the seal of prophethood was imprinted on his back, which left a deep mark. They wrapped him up in a fine white silk cloth they had brought. They displayed him to all spiritual creatures in general. Heavenly angels came to salute him and at the time of his birth the four pillars of the Holy Kaaba separated from their places and stooped towards the room of the Prophet. There are other innumerable miracles as well, which were seen at the time of the birth or the period of his growing up, some of which are mentioned in Hayatul Quloob and there is no scope to repeat them here. Third Kind: Miracles Related to Heavenly Issues
Explanation of miracles related to heavenly issues and lofty matters and these miracles are also extensive; for example: First Miracle: Splitting of the moon
The Almighty Allah says:
14B ُ ﺮَ ﻤَ ﱠ اﻟْﻘ ﻖَﺸْاﻧَ وُ ﺔَ اﻟﺴﱠﺎﻋ ِ ﺖَ ﺑَ ﺮَ ﴾١﴿ ﺘـْاﻗـ
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“The hour drew nigh and the moon did rend asunder.” (Surah Qamar 54:1) Scholars of Quranic exegesis narrate that this verse was revealed when some people demanded a miracle and the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) pointed to the moon; immediately the moon split into two with the leave of God. Later when people of other towns were asked about it, they also admitted having seen that phenomenon at that exact hour; that the moon split from the centre and then joined up again as before. It is mentioned in some traditional reports that the moon split into two; half of it fell to the back of the Kaaba and the other half dropped on Mt. Abu Qubais. Second Miracle: Recalling the sun
It was the calling back of the sun after it had set: Sunni and Shia have through reliable channels narrated from Asma binte Umais and other reporters that one day the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) sent Amirul Momineen (a.s.) on some errand. Ali (a.s.) returned when the Prophet had finished the Asr Prayer and he placed his holy head in the lap of Ali (a.s.) and lay down. In that position divine revelation started descending and prolonged so much that the sun set. When the revelation ended, the Prophet asked: O Ali, have you prayed the ritual prayer? He replied: No, because I was unable to place your head on the ground. So the Prophet prayed: O Allah, Ali was in Your obedience and the obedience of Your Messenger; please send back the sun for him. Asma says: By Allah, I saw the sun rise up again to the extent that its light spread on the whole the earth and it was the excellent time of Asr Prayer. Ali (a.s.) prayed and then the sun set once more. Imam Ali (a.s.) also displayed a similar miracle after the passing away of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.).
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Third Miracle: Meteors
Many meteors fell and a large number of shooting stars were seen at the time of the birth of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). Fourth Miracle: Food from Heaven
Table of food descending from the heavens for the Ahle Bayt of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). Fifth Miracle: Divine Punishments for enemies
Screams and other divine punishments befell some of enemies of the Prophet. Fourth Kind: Obedience of the Plant Kingdom and Non-Living Things
It includes obedience of the plant kingdom and non-living things to the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and all those miracles, which were seen from him, like after the pulpit was made, the stump of the date tree wept due to the separation of the Prophet, on which he used to recline before. When the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) summoned a tree from a distance it obeyed him. Toppling of the idols occurred at the gesture of the Prophet. Becoming verdant and fructifying of a dead tree in an hour. Pebbles and trees saluted the Prophet. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) planted date trees for Muslims and they grew up and fructified in an hour. The sinking of the hooves of the horse of Surakha in the ground occurred and such other innumerable miracles.
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Fifth Kind: Animals Spoke to the Prophet
Animals spoke to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.): Like deer, lion, wolves, porpoises and roasted lambs spoke to him and on the eve of Uqbah the speaking up of the she-camel. A white lion guided the slave of the Prophet. All kinds of animals testified to the prophethood of the Prophet and there are many miracles of this kind. Sixth Kind: Acceptance of Prayers of the Prophet
Acceptance of prayers of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and enlivening of the dead, curing of the blind and the sick; such miracles are also there in large numbers. Seventh Kind: Victory of the Prophet over Enemies
Domination of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) on the enemies and the removal of their mischief; coming down of the angels from the skies for the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) as occurred during the Battles of Badr and Uhad. Eighth Kind: Domination of the Prophet over the Jinns and Satans
Domination of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) over the Jinns and Satans; and acceptance of faith by some Jinns as is clear from the Holy Quran and also mentioned in numerous traditions. Blocking the Satans from going up to the heaven and their being driven away from meteors is also mentioned in the Holy Quran.
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Ninth Kind: Information of the Unseen
Information of the unseen and prophesizing the future incidents. Like the coming to power of the Umayyads and their rule of a thousand years. Ascendancy of Bani Abbas and oppression of Ahle Bayt (a.s.). Martyrdom of Amirul Momineen, Imam Ali (a.s.) and Imam Husain (a.s.) and the circumstances of their martyrdom. Destruction of the Persian kingdom. Endurance of Christian rule. Imam Ali’s confrontations with Ayesha, Zubair, Talha, Muawiyah and Khawarij. Victimization of Abuzar and his expulsion from Medina; information of all these tragedies, which befell Ahle Bayt (a.s.) and sincere companions. Also his prophecy about the demise of King Negus of Abyssinia at the time he died. Martyrdom of His Eminence, Ja’far Tayyar, Zaid and Abdullah bin Rawaha in the Battle of Mutah at the time of their martyrdom. Informing of the martyrdom of Habib bin Adi in Mecca. Information about money that Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib had concealed in Mecca. Informing about what the hypocrites stored in their houses and whatever the companions said in privacy of their homes. Also most of the time the Prophet mention the requirements of people who visited him, before they could speak up. Any act devoid of miracle, was rarely seen from the Prophet. Those who are interested in details of these miracles may refer to the book of Hayatul Quloob. Sixth Objective: Ascension of the Prophet
Clear traditions and verses of the Holy Quran prove the authenticity of the Ascension of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and faith in it is a fundamental principle of Islam and one, who denies it, is a disbeliever. Some deficient people have created controversies in it is due to deficiency of their faith and for not contemplating on it. Ahle Sunnat pose questions whether Meraj took place in sleep or wakefulness; whether it was only spiritual
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or physical and spiritual both? Whether it was till Masjid Aqsa or till the heavens? And some latter day scholars and Shia theologians have followed that group in some aspects. However, verses of Quran and widely narrated Ahle Sunnat and Shia traditions show that Meraj took place upto the heavens and from there upto the Farthest Lost Tree (Sidratul Muntaha) and from there till Divine Throne (Arsh). Extraordinary things from the heavens were showed to the Prophet. He was informed of hidden secrets and exposed to unlimited divine cognitions. He worshipped the Almighty Allah in Baitul Mamoor and under the Divine Throne (Arsh). He met the souls or physical bodies of the prophets. He entered Paradise and saw the residences of the folks of Paradise. All this happened in wakefulness and not in dream. There is no dispute in this matter among ancient Shia scholars; as Ibne Babawayh and Shaykh Tusi etc. have explained thus. There is consensus that Meraj occurred before migration to Medina (Hijrat) and it is possible that it might have been after migrating to Medina as well as some are of the opinion Meraj took place a number of times. Ibne Babawayh and Saffar etc. have narrated through reliable chain of narrators from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) that the Almighty Allah took the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) to the heavens a hundred and twenty times, and each time the birth and Imamate of Imam Ali (a.s.) and all Imams (a.s.) was emphasized more than all obligatory duties. It is narrated from Imam Ali Reza (a.s.) that one, who does not have faith in Meraj has denied the prophethood of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). Seventh Objective: Merits of the Prophet
We should know that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was sent as a prophet to all Arabs, non-Arabs and the whole of humanity. According to the testimony of Quran, he was sent as prophet on
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the Jinn community as well. The religious law of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) has abrogated all the religious laws of the previous prophets. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) is the seal of the prophets (last of the prophets). No prophet will ever come after the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). He is superior to angels, Jinn, human beings, all creatures, Amirul Momineen (a.s.) and all the Holy Imams (a.s.). The view of some extremists (Ghaali) that Imam Ali (a.s.) was superior to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) is heresy. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was the owner of all excellent human qualities. A great miracle of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was that he grew up in a society absolutely bereft of all good morals and mired in bigotry, malice, corruption, dispute and greed. They became nude, as if they were beasts, during the Hajj rituals; and they clapped, whistled and danced at the door of the Kaaba and worshipped idols installed in that Holy House. Thus, it is obvious how their behavior must have been; and even today after more than a thousand years since the proclamation of prophethood (Besat) of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), when religious law has reformed them willingly or unwillingly, even now when one sees them in the desert of Mecca, he realizes that they are worst than animals. Therefore, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) appeared among such people, and he was endowed with excellent qualities, morals and manners; that is knowledge and modesty, nobility and chastity, generosity, magnanimity and justice in such a way that although Shia and Sunni scholars have written a number of books on this subject, they are unable to compile even a tenth part of them and they confessed to their inability. I (the author) have mentioned some of those qualities in Hayatul Quloob. Moreover, there is consensus of Imamiyah scholars that the ancestors of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and the Holy Imams (a.s.) till Prophet Adam (a.s.) were all Muslims; on the contrary, all of them were prophets and successors till Prophet Adam (a.s.) and none of them was infidel. Azar, who was a disbeliever, was
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not the father of Prophet Ibrahim (a.s.); on the contrary, he was his uncle, since he had reared Prophet Ibrahim (a.s.) he is mentioned as ‘father’ and the father of Prophet Ibrahim (a.s.) was in fact Tarukh, who was a Muslim and the traditions, which prove to the contrary are based on Taqayyah. His Eminence, Abdullah and Lady Amina were also Muslims. His Eminence, Abdul Muttalib was the successor of Prophet Ibrahim (a.s.). In the same way, all his forefathers till Ismail (a.s.) were all successors. Abu Talib, that is the father of Amirul Momineen (a.s.) became the successor after His Eminence, Abdul Muttalib and he never worshipped any idol and was not a disbeliever, but due to exigency he concealed his faith from his people, in order that he might be able render support to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and help him as much as possible. He was having in his possession all the relics, bequests and books of Ibrahim, Ismail and other successors and at the time of his passing away, he handed over all these items to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and at that time he divulged his faith in Islam. That is why it has come down in traditions that his simile is like that of the Folks of the Cave who concealed their faith and expressed infidelity. Therefore, the Almighty Allah doubled his reward. Reliable and widely related traditions of Ahle Bayt (a.s.) are recorded regarding this matter and the Islam of His Eminence, Abu Talib and his forefathers is a fundamental principle of Shia faith. It is mentioned in reliable traditions from the Holy Imams (a.s.) that: He is not our Shia who does not believe in the Islam of Abu Talib. We should believe that the grandmothers of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and mothers of all the Holy Imams (a.s.) were noble, chaste and pure; and not smeared with any infamy. When the seed of the Prophet or his ancestors was placed in their wombs, at that point of time they were Muslims, although it is not necessary that they should be Muslim since birth.
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Like Lady Shaharbano, mother of Imam Zainul Abideen (a.s.); and also mothers of most of the Imams were slave girls, but during the period of their infidelity, the seed of those divine personalities was not present in their wombs; as opposed to their forefathers since it was necessary that the seed remain forever in their loins, they were never disbelievers and these points are proved through rational and textual evidence; but most people have not paid attention to this point and are not aware of it. The Almighty Allah is the giver of divine opportunity (Taufeeq) and He is the helper. Eighth Objective: Whether the Prophet was sent to the angels or not?
We should know that it is better not to issue any judgment in this regard, although it is clear from many traditions that covenant of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and successors was taken from all angels. Angels are obedient to those personalities and they learnt divine praise and glorification from these illuminated personalities. No angel descends to the earth for any errand, but that he first pays tribute to the Imam and then he goes ahead. His Eminence, Jibraeel, the trustworthy angel, never entered the house of the Prophet without permission and when he entered, he sat with respect before the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) like slaves. Ninth Objective: Whether the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) followed any religious law before the proclamation (Besat) of prophethood or not?
Some are of the view that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) was not bound to worship according to any religious law and some say that he was; and some have assumed silence on this point. There is controversy in the other sect as well. Some say that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) followed the Shariat of Prophet Nuh (a.s.). Some are of the opinion that he followed the Shariat of Ibrahim (a.s.) or Musa (a.s.) or Isa (a.s.).
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Some believe that he was following all the Shariats; but in my view he acted and worshipped according to his own Shariat; which was the abrogator of all previous Shariats; that is why when he was asked about something he did not reply till divine revelation came down about it; and he never consulted the previous scriptures; command of stoning the adulterer, which he quoted from Taurat was only to refute the Jews, to exhaust his argument and to express his expertise regarding their books. In verses that hint his following the prophets; imply following them the fundamentals of religion, on which all religions have consensus and also his similarity in being patient in propagation of divine message and bearing injustice of people. However, before proclamation of prophethood (Besat), through many rational evidences it is proved that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) performed worship and was most earnest about morals and manners; and he kept away from unlawful acts and decadent morals. Now when all the people become duty-bound to Shariat at a younger age, how the best of them should not be duty-bound to any law and be unaware of the method of his religion? His Eminence, in fact, performed all worship acts and abstained from all unlawful and despicable deeds; and it is also not possible that he followed the religious laws of others. There are many reasons for it: First Reason
If he acts on the Shariat of any prophet, he would become his follower and it would be necessary for that prophet to be superior to him; but this is against fundamentals of religion. Second Reason
It is necessary to know the Shariat of that prophet to act according to it. Thus, if he becomes aware of it through
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revelation he would be a prophet and he would have acted on his own Shariat. If he followed the Shariat of another prophet and became aware without divine revelation it is necessary that he should have obtained it from scholars of that Shariat. However, it is a miracle of the Prophet that in spite of not having any connection with Jew and Christian scholars how he narrated stories of prophets exactly as mentioned in their books. Thus, if he learnt from those people and most of them, during that period were sinners and transgressors, how we can rely on them? Third Reason
Also, it is mentioned in many traditions that no period is devoid of Divine Proof. It is so, because if the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was not a prophet in the beginning, it was necessary that he should have followed the successor of Prophet Isa and Prophet Ibrahim and to bring faith on them. If it were so, it was necessary that people of Mecca should be informed of it and they should have reported it, overlooking the fact that the status of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) would necessarily be lower than that of that successor, although it is a necessary article of faith that the Prophet is most superior to all the people. Therefore, we say that the prophethood of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was in effect since ever and he always acted on his Shariat through revelation and divine inspiration and after forty years, he was sent to guide people to Allah. There are a number of reasons for this as well. First Reason
The first reason is that Shia and Sunni have narrated from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) that he said: I was the prophet when Adam (a.s.) was between water and clay.
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Also, it is mentioned in many traditions that the soul of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) in the spiritual realm was sent to the souls of all the prophets and they embraced faith on him and the angels learnt praise and glorification of Allah through the holy soul of the Holy Prophet and Ahle Bayt (a.s.). Second Reason
The second reason is that Amirul Momineen, Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.) said in the Sermon of Qasiya: The Almighty Allah appointed the greatest angel with the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) when he was weaned or around that time. Day and night the angel guided the Prophet to perfection of morals and manners. This much is sufficient for the prophethood of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) that it is proved that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) obtained laws of his religion from the angel. Third Reason
The third reason is that it is mentioned in authentic traditions that the Almighty Allah made Prophet Ibrahim (a.s.) as His special servant before he appointed him as the prophet and deemed him a prophet before making him the messenger. And made him the messenger before making him His Khalil (friend) and made him His Khalil (friend) before making him an Imam. It is mentioned in a tradition that a prophet is one, who sees in dream; like Prophet Ibrahim (a.s.) and like the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) saw the causes and effects of prophethood before Jibraeel brought the revelation of prophethood for him. Thus, it is proved that the prophethood of the Prophet was there before his messengership.
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Fourth Reason
The fourth reason is that it is mentioned in many authentic traditions that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and the Holy Imams (a.s.) since the beginning of the life, till the end are supported by Ruhul Quds. He is busy in teaching them and making them steadfast; he keeps them away from mistakes and forgetfulness. Fifth Reason
The fifth reason is that it is proved from the Holy Quran and widely related traditions that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) is the most superior of all the prophets, and all merits given to all prophets are given to him as well and in optimum quantum. Thus, how is it possible that Isa (a.s.) should be a prophet while yet in the cradle and Yahya should get the honor of prophethood in his boyhood; whereas the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), in spite of his majesty and honor should not get prophethood till he is forty years of age? Also, it is mentioned in many traditions that traces of knowledge and perfection were seen from our Holy Imams (a.s.) in their boyhood or rather at the time of their births and Hazrat Qaim Aale Muhammad (a.s.) solved difficult jurisprudential problems from the lap of his holy father. Imam Muhammad Taqi (a.s.) explained a thousand issues of scholastic theologians in only three days. Thus, how the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) should have a status lower than them? Tenth Objective: The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was unlettered (Ummi)
There is controversy why the Almighty Allah addressed the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) as unlettered (Ummi)? Most scholars believe that it was so because he could not read or write. Also, it is mentioned in traditions that Ummul
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Qura refers to the Holy Mecca. There is no dispute that before prophethood the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) did not learn reading and writing from anyone as proved through clear declaration of the Holy Quran; but there is difference of opinion whether he could read and write after proclamation of prophethood (Besat). The fact is that he was able to read and write as due to divine knowledge he knew everything and by the power of the Almighty Allah was able to perform feats, which others were unable to do, but he never wrote due to exigency. Divine revelation was written by others and most of the time he asked someone else to read his letters. It is narrated from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) was reading letters, but did not write. Also it is authentically narrated from Imam Muhammad Taqi (a.s.) regarding why the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) is called Ummi. Imam (a.s.) asked: What do the Ahle Sunnat say? He was told that it was so, because the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was unable to write anything. He said: No, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was able to read and write 73 languages and the Almighty Allah called him Ummi, because he was a native of Mecca and Mecca is Ummul Qura (mother of all cities). Eleventh Objective: Special qualities of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.)
There were numerous special qualities of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) not shared by anyone else. First Specialty
It is that the Midnight Prayer and Witr Prayer were obligatory on him.
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Second Specialty
Sacrifice was compulsory on him. Third Specialty
According to some scholars, brushing teeth with twig (Miswak) was also incumbent on the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). Fourth Specialty
In view of some scholars, taking counsel from the companions was obligatory for him. Fifth Specialty
Whenever he saw any evil, he prohibited it invariably and never remained quiet about it. Sixth Specialty
Benevolence to his wives, as mentioned in the book of divorce. Seventh Specialty
Obligatory Zakat is unlawful on the Prophet and his progeny, but there is dispute regarding lawfulness of recommended Zakat and alms for them. Eighth Specialty
It was obligatory on the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) to repay the debt of one, who died indebted and poor.
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Ninth Specialty
It is said that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was not inclined to onion and garlic; some say that these things were unlawful for him. Tenth Specialty
He never ate reclining on his side. Some say it was unlawful for him. Eleventh Specialty
Some opine that writing letters and composing couplets were unlawful for the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) [but this] is not proved. Twelfth Specialty
It was lawful for the Prophet to fast for two days continuously without Iftar in between, while such a thing is not allowed for others. Thirteenth Specialty
It was lawful for the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) to marry more than four women at one time, whereas this is unlawful for others. Fourteenth Specialty
A lady who dedicated her soul for the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) became lawful for him.
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Fifteenth Specialty
Wives of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) were unlawful for others whether the Prophet was alive or after his passing away; whether he had consummated his marriage with them or not. Sixteenth Specialty
It was unlawful to address the Prophet by his name; that is to say: O Muhammad, or O Ahmad! And the Almighty Allah never addressed him by his name; on the contrary, He used the honorifics of: O Prophet, O Messenger, O wrapped one, O you, who are clothed! Seventeenth Specialty
It is unlawful to raise ones voice over the voice of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). Eighteenth Specialty
It was unlawful to call the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) from behind his chambers. In addition to this, other specialties are also mentioned, which are not proved in my view and not worth discussing in this treatise and neither would it be apt to do so. If someone is interested, he may refer to them in Hayatul Quloob.
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Chapter Five: Imamate
Imam implies a leader in all worldly and religious issues of the nation (Ummah); like the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was. The Imam should also be same, but as a representative and successor of the Prophet and not in an independent capacity. There are some objectives in this:
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First Objective: Necessity of Declaration
We should know that there is dispute in the community whether declaration of Imamate is necessary or not; and in case it is necessary, whether it is obligatory on Allah or the Ummah? There is also controversy whether it is obligatory due to reason or due to legislation of Islamic law. The dispute in this regard among the Muslims is of no use; on the contrary, the consensus that the delivered sect has reached is that it is rationally obligatory on the Almighty Allah to appoint an Imam. The following are some of the reasons why it is so: First Reason
Every proof, which proves the necessity of sending of prophets, also proves the appointment of the Imam, because it is known that people require a leader to administer their religious and worldly affairs, who should guide them to the right path in different matters and decide with equity and justice the disputes that arise in their society. All intellects are unanimous on this; and such a person is either a Prophet or an Imam, who is his representative; especially after the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), who is the seal of the prophets; and there is no possibility of another prophet. Second Reason: Appointment of the Imam is a grace and grace is obligatory on Allah
It is that the appointment of the Imam is a grace and grace is rationally obligatory on the Almighty Allah. Also, it is incumbent of God to act in the best interest of humanity; and there is no doubt that in all conditions it is for the well being of people to have a leader having jurisdiction on their religion and
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world. He is such a leader that when no prophet is present, all authority rests with him. Third Reason: Prophethood not Confined
It is that proclamation of prophethood was not confined to his time; on the contrary, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) is sent for the whole universe till Judgment Day and he brought a book for them as well as a religious law fixed by the Almighty Allah about everything; so much so that even the manners of eating, drinking, sex, answering of Nature’s call were fixed for them; and rules of obligations, inheritance, transactions and litigations were framed through divine revelation. The office of prophethood lasted for only a short time and apparently a very small number of people accepted Islam, a majority of whom were hypocrites. Then what rational person will conclude that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) should have this great matter unresolved and leave this Shariat and Ummat; and Book (Quran) and Sunnah and the lies, mistakes and interpolation without appointing a caretaker of the same. And leave among them a book, which consists of verses, which are brief, ambiguous as well as clear; having apparent as well as hidden meanings; while that book was hardly arranged and not even compiled fully; and whatever was mentioned in it was brief. That whoever may like, he may interpret it in any way and that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) did not appoint anyone as its interpreter. Or that from thousands of Islamic laws a necessary rule should not be mentioned in it apparently. There is a deep rift between traditions and Sunnah. Should some new converts having corrupted motives be deemed as leaders of the Ummah; to do whatever they liked with Islamic law? That in every matter he should gather the companions and himself act like a donkey caught up in quicksand and ask this one or that one what to do?. So that he may act on one of the opinions according to his invalid desires?
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Anyone having the least common sense does not attribute such a shameful matter to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and the Almighty Allah. In spite of mercy and grace, which He has for people, especially with regard to this Ummah, and the Prophet in spite of his affection with the Ummah, how can he permit such confusion and deviation? Such a great prophet, who bore all those discomforts and pains on his holy body and sacred soul for the sake of guidance of Ummah, how is it possible that he should divest the matter once and for all without appointing any leader for them? Though when a village headman is unwell, he appoints a caretaker for his lands and property and makes a bequest in his favor and frames rules and regulations for his estate. When the last prophet of the world is leaving the world should he not appoint anyone for the Book, the Sunnah and his nation? If reason does not decide this it will not decide anything. Fourth Reason: All Prophets Appointed Successors
It is that even the opponents agree that from the time of Prophet Adam (a.s.) till the Last Prophet (s.a.w.s.) such was the practice of the Almighty Allah with all the prophets that they did not leave the world without appointing a successor. During all expeditions and miscellaneous journeys it was the practice of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) that he appointed someone as his deputy in Medina. He also personally appointed governors for all Islamic provinces and did not leave the matter at the discretion of citizens of that place. So how can he abandon them in confusion when he was about to undertake an endless journey? Fifth Reason: Imamate is like Prophethood
The position of Imamate, as you are aware, is like the majestic rank of prophethood. If people were capable of choosing an Imam they could choose a prophet as well and this
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is untrue according to consensus of all Muslims. Since when have the defective intellects of the Ummah become capable to decide a matter regarding ordinary people? Many a times it happens that wise men appoint a governor for a particular area, but within a short time he commits some blunders and they have to change him. Therefore, how intellects of people can fulfill the duty of leadership for the world and religion of ordinary people? Moreover, infallibility is a condition for this post; as you must know and no one other than the Almighty Allah can be informed about this matter. There are many rational arguments to support this contention, but there is no scope in this treatise to treat them all; however, we will present a few verses, which prove that an Imam is appointed by the Almighty Allah. First Proof: Verse of Fulfillment of Guidance ﻲ 15B ِ ﺘَ ﻤْ ﻌِ ﻧْ ﻢُ ﻜْ ﻴَ ﻠَ ﻋُﺖْ ﻤَ ﻤْ ﺗَ أَ وْ ﻢُ ﻜَﻳﻨِ دْ ﻢُ ﻜَ ﻟُﺖْ ﻠَ ﻤْ ﻛَ أَ مْ ﻮَاﻟْﻴـ 897B“This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on you.” (Surah Maidah 5:3) 2115BThere is no doubt that the Imam is the greatest divine favor among the pillars of faith and no favor is greater it for the well being of the religion and the world of the Ummah. 2116BTherefore, it is necessary that the Almighty Allah should appoint the Imam for the Ummah. Inspite of this, excessively related traditions are recorded through Sunni and Shia channels that this holy verse was revealed after the appointment of Amirul Momineen (a.s.) as the Imam and the ruler of the community in Ghadeer Khum. 7786BSecond Proof
2117BRegarding this holy verse:
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16B ٍ ﻴﻢِ ﻈَ ﻋِ ﻦْ ﻴَ ﺘـَ ﻳـْ ﺮَ اﻟْﻘَ ﻦِ ﻣٍ ﻞُ ﺟَ رٰ ﻰَ ﻠَ ﻋُآنْ ﺮُا اﻟْﻘَ ﺬٰ َ ﻫَ ﱢل ﺰُ ﻧـ َ ﻻْ ﻮَﻮا ﻟُﺎﻟَ ﻗَ و ٣١﴿﴾ َ ﱢﻚ ﺑَ ر َﺖَ ﻤْﺣَ رَﻮنُ ﻤِ ﺴْ ﻘَ ﻳـْﻢُ ﻫَ ۚ أ ◌ ْ ﻢُ ﻬَ ﻨـْ ﻴـَﺎ ﺑـَ ﻨْ ﻤَﺴَ ﻗُ ﻦْﺤَ ﻧ ﺎَ ﻴْ ﱡﻧـ اﻟﺪِﺎةَ ﻴَ ﻲ اﻟْﺤِ ﻓْ ﻢُ ﻬَ ﺘـَﻴﺸِ ﻌَ ۚ ﻣ ◌ ٍ ﺾْ ﻌَ ﺑـَ قْ ﻮَ ﻓـْ ﻢُ ﻬَﻀْ ﻌَﺎ ﺑـَ ﻨْ ﻌَ ﻓـَ رَ و ِ ﱠﺨ ﺘَ ﻴِ ﻟٍﺎتَ ﺟَ رَ د ﺎ ّ ﻳِ ﺮْﺨُﺎ ﺳًﻀْ ﻌَ ﺑـْ ﻢُ ﻬُﻀْ ﻌَ ﺑـَ ۗ ﺬ ◌ ٌ ﺮْ ﻴـَ ﺧَ ﱢﻚ ﺑَ رُﺖَ ﻤْ ﺣَ رَ و َﻮنُ ﻌَ ﻤْﺠَ ﱠﺎ ﻳ ﻤِ ﴾٣٢﴿ ﻣ 898B“And they say: Why was not this Quran revealed to a man of importance in the two towns? Will they distribute the mercy of your Lord? We distribute among them their livelihood in the life of this world, and We have exalted some of them above others in degrees, that some of them may take others in subjection; and the mercy of your Lord is better than what they amass.” (Surah Zukhruf 43:31-32) 2118BSunni and Shia commentators have said that some idolaters of Quraish used to ask: Why this Quran was not revealed on the two great leaders of Mecca and Taif; like Walid bin Mughira of Mecca and Urwah bin Masud of Taif? These two men were extremely wealthy and they owned large properties. 2119BThe Almighty Allah has in refutation of their invalid view asked: Do they distribute the mercy of your Lord? That is should He give prophethood to a person of their choice? We have exalted some people in wealth in many ranks in their worldly lives so that they may be needful of each other; so that some may employ the others; and in way the universe should be administered; though the mercy of your Lord is better than the temporal wealth of the world, which they gather. 2120BThat is when We have not left to their discretion the distribution of material world and ornaments, having no value at all in our view and We distribute it ourselves, how can We leave the exalted rank of prophethood to them.
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When you realize that the rank of prophethood is like Imamate and no favor after prophethood is equal to Imamate, therefore, it should also not be left at the discretion of people. Allah will not leave it at the discretion of the people even though the opponents might not have bigotry and malice. This is absolutely clear from the captioned verse. Third Proof
The Almighty Allah says: 17B ُ ﺎرَ ﺘْ ﺨَ ﻳَ وُﺎءَﺸَﺎ ﻳَ ﻣُ ﻖُ ﻠْﺨَ ﻳ َ ﱡﻚ ﺑَ رَ ۗ و ◌ ُ ةَ ﺮَ ﻴـِ اﻟْﺨُ ﻢُ ﻬَ ﻟَﺎنَﺎ ﻛَ ۚ ﻣ ◌ َ ﻮنُ ﻛ ِ ﺮْﺸُ ﱠﺎ ﻳ ﻤَ ﻋٰ ﻰَﺎﻟَ ﻌَ ﺗـَ وِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َﺎنَﺤْ ﺒُ ﴾٦٨﴿ ﺳ 899B“And your Lord creates and chooses whom He pleases; to choose is not theirs; glory be to Allah, and exalted be He above what they associate (with Him).” (Surah Qasas 28:68) 2123BThe reasoning of this verse is also clear…that choosing for the world and the hereafter is at the discretion of the Almighty Allah and not the people. Ahle Sunnat commentators have narrated that this verse was revealed in refutation of those who used to ask why the Almighty Allah did not bestow prophethood on someone else? 7788BFourth Proof
2124BThere are many verses, which prove that the Almighty Allah has explained many points in the Holy Quran like: 18B ٍ ءْ ﻲَ ﺷْ ﻦِ ﻣِﺎبَ ﺘِ ﻲ اﻟْﻜِﺎ ﻓَ ﻨْﱠﻃ ﺮَﺎ ﻓـَ ﻣ 900B“We have not neglected anything in the Book.” (Surah Anaam 6:38)
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Therefore, when the Almighty Allah has mentioned everything in the Book how is it possible that He should not have mentioned the appointment of the Imam, which is an important matter? Fifth Proof
He says:
19B ْ ﻢُ ﻜْ ﻨِ ﻣِ ﺮْ ﻣَْ ﻲ اﻷِوﻟُ أَ وَﻮلُ ﻮا اﻟﺮﱠﺳ ُﻴﻌِ ﻃَ أَ وَ ﻮا اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ُﻴﻌِ ﻃَ أ 901B“Obey Allah and obey the Apostle and those in authority from among you.” (Surah Nisa 4:59) 2127BThus, like obedience of Allah and the Apostle is general; the obedience of those vested with authority (Ulil Amr) should also be general; and it is known that the Almighty Allah commands obedience of every owner of authority and command in every matter. Therefore, the ‘Ulil Amr’ should also be like the prophet from whom, mistake, sin and forgetfulness do not occur; otherwise it would be necessary that the Almighty Allah commands to what He has prohibited. Therefore it is necessary that an Imam, who is infallible, should be appointed by the Almighty Allah. According to consensus, except for the twelve Imams, no one is having this dignity.
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Second Objective: Requirements of Imamate
According to theologians, there are three requirements of Imamate: First Requirement
The Imam should be superior to people in every aspect, especially in knowledge; otherwise the superiority of the inferior and the precedence of the unpreferable would occur and this is rationally evil. Moreover, the Almighty Allah says: 20B ْ نَ ﱠ أ ﻻِ ﱢي إ ﺪِ ﻬَ ﻳ َ ﻻْ ﱠﻦ ﻣَ أَ ﻊَ ﱠﺒ ﺘُ ﻳـْ نَ ﱡ أ ﻖَ ﺣَ ﱢ أ ﻖَﻰ اﻟْﺤَ ﻟِ ي إِ ﺪْ ﻬَ ﻳـْ ﻦَ ﻤَ ﻓَ أ ٰ ىَ ﺪْ ﻬُ ۖ ﻳـ ◌ َ ﻮنُ ﻤُ ﻜْﺤَ ﺗَﻒْ ﻴَ ﻛْ ﻢُ ﻜَﺎ ﻟَ ﻤَ ﴾٣٥﴿ ﻓ 902B“Is He then Who guides to the truth more worthy to be followed, or he who himself does not go aright unless he is guided? What then is the matter with you; how do you judge?” (Surah Yunus 10:35) 2131BThen He says: 21B َ ﻮنُ ﻤَ ﻠْ ﻌَ ﻳـ َ ﻻَﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ َ وَﻮنُ ﻤَ ﻠْ ﻌَ ﻳـَﻳﻦِ ي اﻟﱠﺬ ِ ﻮَ ﺘْ ﺴَ ﻳْﻞَ ۗ ﻫ ◌ ُ ﱠﺮ ﻛَ ﺬَ ﺘَ ﺎ ﻳـَ ﱠﻤ ﻧِ إ ﴾٩﴿ ِﺎبَﻟْﺒَْﻮ اﻷُوﻟُأ 903B“Are those who know and those who do not know alike? Only the men of understanding are mindful.” (Surah Zumar 39:9) 2132BHe also says:
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22B َ ﻮنُ ﻤَ ﻠْ ﻌَ ﺗـَ ﻻْ ﻢُ ﺘْ ﻨُ ﻛْ نِ إِ ﺮْ اﻟﺬﱢﻛ َﻞْ ﻫَﻮا أُ ﻟَ ﺄْ ﺎﺳَ ﴾٤٣﴿ ﻓ 904B“So ask the followers of the Reminder if you do not know.” (Surah Nahl 16:43) 2133BAnd when the Almighty Allah addressed the angels: 23B ً ﺔَﻴﻔِ ﻠَ ﺧِضْ رَْ ﻲ اﻷِ ﻓٌﻞِﺎﻋَ ﱢﻲ ﺟ ﻧِ إ 905B“I am going to place in the earth a vicegerent.” (Surah Baqarah 2:30) 2134BWhen your Lord said to the angels, I am going to place in the earth a vicegerent, they said: What! wilt Thou place in it such as shall make mischief in it and shed blood, and we celebrate Thy praise and extol Thy holiness? He said: Surely I know what you do not know. 2135BAllah taught Adam all the names, then presented them to the angels; then He said: Tell Me the names of those, if you are right. 2136BThus, he exhausted the argument on the angels; that since Adam (a.s.) was having more knowledge, that is why he was more eligible for Caliphate. Hence, it became clear that being the most learned is a requirement for Caliphate. Moreover, when Bani Israel did not accept the rulership of Talut, the Almighty Allah said: We bestowed him excess in knowledge and physique; thus, it was learnt that the criterion of rulership was knowledge and valor, because excess of physique is strength and valor, and only a heavy body is not necessary. 7791BSecond Requirement
2137BThere is consensus of Imamiyah scholars that the Imam, like the prophet, should be infallible from the first day of his life till the end from every major and minor sin and there are many widely related traditions on this matter. Also, the Imam is the
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trustee of Allah on the earth for the religion and world of the people, thus, if he is dishonest in the divine laws, would he be eligible for Imamate? (Never!) On the contrary, according to the statement of Allah, he would be deserving of indictment; as the Almighty Allah has said: 24B َ ﻮنُ ﻠْ ﺘـَ ﺗـ ْ ﻢُ ﺘْ ﻧـَ أَ و ْ ﻢُ ﻜَﺴُ ﻔْ ﻧـَ أ َ نْ ﻮَﺴْ ﻨَ ﺗـَ ﱢ و ﺮِﺎﻟْﺒِ ﺑ َ اﻟﻨﱠﺎس َونُ ﺮُ ﻣْ ﺄَ ﺗَ أ َ ﺎبَ ۚ ﺘِاﻟْﻜ ◌ َ ﻮنُ ﻠِ ﻘْ ﻌَ ﺗـ َ ﻼَﻓَ ﴾٤٤﴿ أ 906B“What! do you enjoin men to be good and neglect your own souls while you read the Book; have you then no sense?” (Surah Baqarah 2:44) 2138BThen He said: 25B َ ﻮنُ ﻠَ ﻌْ ﻔَ ﺗـَﺎ ﻻَ ﻣَﻮنُﻮﻟُ ﻘَ ﺗـَ ﻢِﻮا ﻟُ ﻨَ آﻣَﻳﻦِ ﺎ اﻟﱠﺬ َ ﱡﻬ ﻳـَﺎ أَ ﺎ ﴾٢﴿ ﻳ ً ﺘْ ﻘَ ﻣَ ﺮُ ﺒـَ ﻛ َ ﻮنُ ﻠَ ﻌْ ﻔَ ﺗـَﺎ ﻻَﻮا ﻣُﻮﻟُ ﻘَ ﺗـْ نَ أِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ ﺪْ ﻨِ ﴾٣﴿ ﻋ 907B“O you who believe! why do you say what you do not do? It is most hateful to Allah that you should say what you do not do.” (Surah Saff 61:2-3) 2139BAlso, when the Almighty Allah remarked to Prophet Ibrahim (a.s.): 26B ﱠ ﻦُ ﱠﻬ ﻤَ ﺗَ ﺄَ ﻓٍﺎتَ ﻤِ ﻠَ ﻜِ ﺑُ ﱡﻪ ﺑَ رَﻴﻢِاﻫَ ﺮْ ﺑـِ إٰ ﻰَ ﻠَ ﺘـْ اﺑـِ ذِ إَ ۖ و ◌ َ ﻚُ ﻠِ ﺎﻋَ ﱢﻲ ﺟ ﻧِ إَ ﺎلَ ﻗ ﺎً ﺎﻣَ ﻣِ إ ِﻠﻨﱠﺎسِ ۖ ﻟ ﻲ ◌ ِ ﱠﺘ ﱢﻳ رُ ذ ْ ﻦِ ﻣَ و َ ﺎلَ ۖ ﻗ ◌ َ ﻨَ ﻳـ َ ﻻ َ ﺎلَ ﻗ ي ِ ﺪْ ﻬَ ﻋ ُﺎل َ ﻴﻦِ ﴾١٢٤﴿ ﻤِاﻟﻈﱠﺎﻟ 908B“And when his Lord tried Ibrahim with certain words, he fulfilled them. He said: Surely I will make you an Imam of men. Ibrahim said: And of my offspring? My covenant does not include the unjust, said He.” (Surah Baqarah 2:124)
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When Ibrahim beseeched the Almighty Allah to appoint Imamate in his progeny as well, Allah told him that this appointment will not be there for those who are unjust, even though they might be from his descendants. That is those who are unjust to their selves and who commit sins in their lives. Hence, they would not get Imamate. Moreover, the best advantage of the appointment of the Imam is that he is the protector of the Shariah; and if sin and disobedience is allowed to him, it would necessitate another Imam to restrain him from disobedience and correct the mistake he has committed. Thus, he would be the real Imam and not the former. It is also obligatory on the Ummah to obey the Imam in word and deeds as is clear from the verse of Ulil Amr (4:59). If he commands divine disobedience and the Ummah does not obey, the same act would become obligatory and unlawful at the same time. Also, it is obligatory on the Imam to forbid evil. Now, if the people perform that evil act, along with obedience of Imam it would constitute disobedience of Allah and if the Imam does not forbid evil, he would be culpable for leaving an obligation and if obedience of Imam is only in lawful matters and the Imam does not forbid evil, it is necessary that there is another Imam for people; from whom they take their rules of lawful and unlawful. In that case, they would need two Imams. If he is also not infallible they would need another Imam. Therefore, either continuity would be necessity or it would end at an infallible and this argument refers back to many reasonings and would be known through contemplation. Third Requirement
In view of Imamiyah, being a Hashemite is among the requirements of the Imam. From textual declaration recorded for each of the Imams especially, it would be known if Allah wills. The opponents do not accept any of these three conditions. And the theologians have mentioned those three qualities and said
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that the requirements mentioned about the prophets should be present in the Imam as well. Along with this,. there should be no doubt in their lineage and their mother should also not be unchaste and the Imam should be devoid of all defects causing abhorrence in people, like leprosy, leucoderma, blindness, dumbness, harsh tongue, nasty temperament, miserliness, lowliness, low grade professions, like barber etc and those acts, which prove the weakness of intellect. Sultanul Muhaqqiqeen (r.a.) has written in one of his treatises that there are eight necessary qualifications of the Imam:
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Eight Necessary Qualifications of the Imam First Qualification: Infallibility
Infallibility from major and minor sins, some of them were mentioned before. Second Qualification: Knowledge
He should be knowledgeable in issues necessary for Imamate; like worldly and religious matters: laws of religion, administration of territories, ethics, repelling of enemies of religion, removal of doubts, because the objective of Imamate is not fulfilled without them. Third Qualification: Valor
To repel the enemies, defeat the infidels and to make truth prevail. As opposed to soldiers, if the commander flees from the battlefield, it would lead to a great loss for religion. Fourth Qualification: Superiority
The Imam should be having all perfect qualities, like: valor, generosity, forbearance, nobility and knowledge; he should be superior to all his contemporaries in each of these qualities; otherwise it would be giving precedence to the inferior, which is rationally evil.
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Fifth Qualification: Free of defects
He should be free of defects that cause abhorrence among people; whether they be physical, like blindness, leprosy and leucoderma etc; or whether it be in nature, like miserliness, greed, deviation; whether it is in his original creation, like being lowly in lineage, being of illegitimate birth and being indicted of some defect in his lineage or his ancestors’ lineage or whether in secondary matters, like being in a degraded profession, because all this is opposed to grace. Sixth Qualification: Best in the view of Allah
His position in the view of the Almighty Allah should be more than that of all the people. Seventh Qualification: Miracles
Miracles should be displayed by him, that other people are helpless in, so that when need arises they should prove his veracity. Eighth Qualification: General Imamate
His Imamate should be general and restricted in him, otherwise it would cause mischief among the subjects; and its proof is foremost according to widely related traditions and consensus.
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Third Objective: Specialties of the Imam
That is qualities and special merits of the Imam according to authentic traditions. They are numerous, and we have mentioned some of them in Hayatul Quloob and in this treatise as well. Kulaini has narrated from Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) through authentic chains of narrators that there are ten qualities of the Imam. (1) He is born clean, navel detached and circumcised. (2) Immediately after his birth, he places the hands on the earth and recites the dual testimony of faith. (3) He does not have nocturnal seminal discharge. (4) He never becomes ritually impure through sexual relations. (5) His eyes sleep, but his heart is always awake and he is aware of all that is going on. (6) He does not yawn or stretch. (7) He sees from the back of his head like he sees in front. (8) His feces smell of musk. The Almighty Allah has commanded the earth to conceal it. (9) When he wears the coat of mail of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) it fits him perfectly. And if anyone else does so, it exceeds his height by more than a hand span. (10) The angel speaks to him till his last days. Ibne Babawayh has narrated from Imam Ali Reza (a.s.) that the Imam is the most intelligent of the people and is well versed in knowledge and wisdom. He is most pious, forbearing, generous and valiant among the people. His worship is more exalted and more than that of others. His body does not cast a shadow. Perhaps it may imply that absence of shadow occurs once in a while and the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) never had a shadow. No one can see the urine and feces of the Imam and whatever is expelled is immediately concealed by the earth, so that no one may see it; and it smells better than musk. The Imam is superior to the lives of all; and people should accord more preference to him to their own selves and should sacrifice their life on him on every occasion or present themselves for it. The Imam is more affectionate to the people
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than their parents and his humility before Allah is more than that of all the people. He practices more what he preaches and is more away from what he forbids others; his supplication is always accepted; such that even if he invokes, a mountain can split. He is in possession of the weapons and kit of the Prophet; especially the sword, Zulfiqar, which had come down from the heavens. He is having a written document with him containing the names of all the Shia to come till Judgment Day. He also has a scroll containing the names of all the enemies of Ahle Bayt (a.s.) till Judgment Day. The Imam is having a Jamia; a scroll measuring seventy cubits in length and a sheep-skin in breadth. When it is rolled up, it becomes as thick as the thigh of a camel. It contains all the laws the people are in need of. He is having the big Jafr and small Jafr. One made of goat skin and the other of sheep skin. Laws and penalties are mentioned in it and even the retaliation of a bruise a person inflicts on another is stated. It also contains crimes punishable by one lash, half lash or one-third of a lash. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) has dictated it and it is written in the hand of Amirul Momineen (a.s.). The Imam is also in possession of Mushaf of Fatima Zahra (s.a.), which contains the names and circumstances of all the rulers of the world to come till Judgment Day. It is attributed to this infallible lady, because when the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) passed away, Lady Fatima (s.a.) was shattered by the separation of her father and oppressions of the hypocrites. So the Almighty Allah sent Jibraeel (a.s.) to console that infallible lady. He narrated the future events to her and it was all written down by Amirul Momineen (a.s.). It is said in another tradition that there is a pillar of effulgence between the Imam and the Almighty Allah, in which the Imam observes the circumstances of the people and sees in it whatever was unclear to him; and becomes aware of it.
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According to reliable chains of narrators, it is narrated from Imam Musa Kazim (a.s.) that the Imam can be recognized through some qualities: First Quality
The preceding Imam issues express textual declaration for him like the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) did regarding the Imamate of Amirul Momineen (a.s.). Second Quality
He provides a convincing reply to all that is inquired from him and if he is not asked, he takes precedence in informing the people. Third Quality
He informs about the future events. Fourth Quality
He is proficient in all the languages of the world and he replies to everyone in his own language. Fifth Quality
He is not ignorant of the language of any beast and fowl. It is clear from authentic or rather widely related traditions that the Imams revived the dead by way of miracles when exigency demanded; as Amirul Momineen (a.s.) had revived the dead a number of times. Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) and Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) made Abu Basir regain his sight; they also cured lepers.
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It is mentioned in reliable traditions that all the miracles the Almighty Allah had bestowed on all the prophets separately are all given to the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and the Holy Imams (a.s.). These personages were capable of covering long distances in a short time. On the contrary, they circled the earth in a span of less than a day. They are in passion of the books of all prophets like Taurat, Injeel and Zabur and the scrolls of Adam (a.s.), Sheeth (a.s.), Idris (a.s.) and Ibrahim (a.s.); the tablets of Musa (a.s.) and relics of all the prophets: like the staff of Musa (a.s.), shirts of Ibrahim and Yusuf (a.s.) and the rock of Prophet Musa (a.s.), from which twelve springs burst forth; the ring of Prophet Sulaiman (a.s.) and his carpet; all these relics were in possession of the Holy Imams (a.s.) and presently all of them are in possession of the Master of the Affair (Sahibul Amr). The Almighty Allah has bestowed a cloud to them, which they can mount; to travel through the realms of the heavens and the earth. They were cognizant of the 72 great names of Allah; for whichever issue they recited it, it was definitely fulfilled. Asif bin Barkhiya had knowledge of only one of these names, through which he brought the throne of Bilquis to Prophet Sulaiman (a.s.) from a distance of two months’ travel in a blink of the eye. Their sciences were of various kinds: sometimes they heard the voice of the angel and sometimes Ruhul Quds, who is a creature much greater than Jibraeel and Mikaeel. He came face to face to them and informed them. Sometimes they were inspired by the Almighty Allah directly. The voice of the angels, resembling the sound of a chain striking in a tray, reached their ears. It is mentioned in numerous traditions that our best knowledge is what is bestowed to us every moment from the unlimited knowledge of Allah. The angels and spirits come down to the Imam of the time during the Night of Power, salute the Imam and inform them of whatever is decreed for that year.
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Imams possess knowledge of the past as well the future and they are in possession of all the knowledge that has come down to the earth. They are the heirs of all the sciences of all the prophets and are face readers/examiners (Mutawassimeen). Whoever’s face they see, they are able to know his faith, infidelity or hypocrisy from his forehead; whichever tree, leaves or particles an Imam sees, he immediately becomes aware of its realities. The whole Quran and its apparent and esoteric knowledge till seventy layers is bestowed to the Imam as he is given all the effects of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.): like weapons, coats of mail, mounts (horses and mules etc.), rings and all apparent and hidden relics came into the possession of Imam Ali (a.s.) and reached all the Holy Imams (a.s.) [and presently are in possession of the Last Imam (a.s.)]. He is also having a leather case containing the knowledge of all prophets, successors and scholars. It is known as white Jafr (Jafr Abyaz). They have one more case containing all the weapons of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and it is known as the Red Jafr (Jafr Ahmar) and the Master of the Affair (Sahibul Amr) would open it. It is mentioned in many reliable traditions that every Thursday, the holy soul of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and the purified spirits of all previous Imams and the soul of Imam Zamana (a.s.) are permitted to rise up to the heavens. They reach the divine throne (Arsh), circle it seven times and pray two units of Prayer at every leg; after which they return to their bodies with extreme freshness and unbounded knowledge and the good bad deeds of every person from this Ummah are presented to souls of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), the previous Imams and Imam Zamana (a.s.) every morning and evening, every week and every month. Doors, walls and mountains do not obstruct their knowledge and whatever occurs in any part of the world is known to these personages through the Almighty Allah. At the time of his passing away, the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) entrusted all his sciences to Amirul Momineen (a.s.).
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Amirul Momineen (a.s.) says: At that time, the Prophet taught me a thousand chapters (doors) of knowledge through each of them another thousand doors opened. The Prophet told me: When you give me funeral bath, shroud and anointing, you should make me sit and ask me whatever you want. I did that and that time also he taught me a thousand chapters (doors) of knowledge, through each of which another thousand doors opened. In the same way, every Imam transfers all his sciences to the succeeding Imam and no one other than an Imam performs the final rites of an Imam and buries him after funeral prayer. If an Imam passes away from the world in the east and the next Imam is in the west; he comes to him at that time through the miracle of Imamate and obtains knowledges from him and performs his last rites in such a way that other people do not become aware of it; like Imam Ali Reza (a.s.) reached Baghdad and Imam Muhammad Taqi (a.s.) reached Khorasan. I have mentioned these details in Jilaul Uyoon. It has come in most traditions that their holy spirits were created from holy effulgence of Almighty Allah and their bodies and consciences are created from the essence of the throne (Arsh). When the Almighty Allah intends to create the Imam, He commands an angel to take to the respected father of that Imam a drink from under the Arsh. He drinks it. It is more limpid than water, softer than butter, sweeter than honey and whiter than milk. That angel commands the Imam to establish relations with the Imam’s mother and his seed is established through that drink. After it has remained in the womb for forty days, the spirit is blown into it and according to another report the spirit is blown into it after four months. At that time he hears voices of people and understands. Then an angel writes the following verse on his shoulder:
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27B ً ۚ ﻻْﺪَﻋَﺎ وًﻗْﺪِ ﺻَﺑﱢﻚ َ رُﺖَﻤِﻠَ ﻛْ ﻤﱠﺖ َوﺗَ ◌ ِ ﻪِﺎﺗَ ﻤِ ﻠَ ﻜِ ﻟ َ ﱢل ﺪَ ﺒُ ﻣ َ ۚ ﻻ ◌ ُﻴﻢِ ﻠَ اﻟْﻌُﻴﻊِ اﻟﺴﱠﻤ َ ﻮُ ﻫَ ﴾١١٥﴿ و 909B“And the word of your Lord has been accomplished truly and justly; there is none, who can change His words, and He is the Hearing, the Knowing.” (Surah Anaam 6:115) 2179BHe mentions Allah in the womb and recites Surah Qadr and other verses of Quran. When he is born, he sits on all his fours and is born feet first. When he comes to the earth, he faces the Qibla and placing his hands on the earth raises up his head to the heavens to recite the dual testimony of faith aloud. Then that angel inscribes the same verse on his forehead and between his shoulders. 2180BThen a voice comes from the Throne says: Be steadfast on truth, because I have created you for a great mission. You are My chosen one among My creatures and the repository of My secrets. You are the casket of My knowledge and My Caliph on the earth and I have made My mercy obligatory for one, who loves you and have bestowed My Paradise to him. I swear by My might and majesty, I would burn in My worst punishment one, who is jealous of you; that is in Hell, even though I might have widened his sustenance in the world. When the voice ends, the Imam recites the verse of testimony (Ayat Shahadat) till the end: ﺎ 28B ً ﻤِﺎﺋَ ﻗِ ﻢْ ﻠِﻮ اﻟْﻌُوﻟُ أَ وُ ﺔَ ﻜِ ﺋَ ﻼَاﻟْﻤَ وَ ﻮُ ﱠ ﻫ ﻻِ إَ ﻪٰ َ ﻟِ إ َ ﻻُ ﱠﻪ ﻧَ أُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ ﺪِ ﻬَ ﺷ ِ ۚ ﻂْﺴِﺎﻟْﻘِﺑ ◌ ُ ﻴﻢِﻜَ اﻟْﺤُ ﻳﺰِ ﺰَ اﻟْﻌَ ﻮُ ﱠ ﻫ ﻻِ إَ ﻪٰ َ ﻟِ إَ ﴾١٨﴿ ﻻ 910B“Allah bears witness that there is no god, but He, and (so do) the angels and those possessed of knowledge, maintaining His creation with justice; there is no god, but He, the Mighty, the Wise.” (Surah Aale Imran 3:18)
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At that time the Almighty Allah bestows him the knowledge of the past and future, and he is deserving of it. Ruhul Quds visits him during the Night of Power (Shab-e-Qadr) and other nights. When he reaches to the majestic position of Imamate, the Almighty Allah raises up a minaret and standard of effulgence in every country so that he may see the deeds of the people in that place. According to one report, on the night he is born a light shines in his house, which is seen by his parents. When he is born, he turns to the Qibla, sneezes three times and raises up his finger in glorification. He is born with the umbilical cord detached and being circumcised. He has the full set of teeth. A yellow light emanates from his hands day and night. It is mentioned in many traditions that their houses are places of the descent of angels and they descend in their houses again and again. Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) said: The angels are more merciful on our children than our own selves. He patted on a pillow and said: Angels have reclined on these too much and it often happens that we gather their fallen feathers and make amulets for our children. Imams are divine proofs on all Jinns. Hosts of Jinns arrive to meet him and inquire from him about the laws of their religion and the lawful and the unlawful of their faith. The Holy Imams (a.s.) allot duties to them and send messages to other places through them. A Jinni once came to Amirul Momineen (a.s.) in the form of a huge python when he was speaking from the pulpit in Masjid Kufa. The Imam asked him who he was. He replied: Amr bin Uthman, whose father you appointed as the Caliph on Jinns; he has just passed away. The Imam appointed him in the position of his father. These are apparent brief circumstances, which most people can understand; but they do not know the facts behind strange circumstances and hidden secrets. Neither do they have the capacity to bear them, except a proximate angel, messenger
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prophet or a perfect believer, because the Almighty Allah has already tested their faith and had illuminated them with the effulgence of faith. It is mentioned in traditions of the Imams: Do not regard us as partner to God and do not believe in our divinity. Other than that you can say anything regarding excellence and perfections. The Almighty Allah has said: 29B َ ﻛ ْ ﻮَ ﻟْﻞُﻗ ْ نَ أَﻞْ ﺒَ ﻗـُ ﺮْﺤَ اﻟْﺒَ ﺪِ ﻔَ ﻨَ ﱢﻲ ﻟ ﺑَ رِﺎتَ ﻤِ ﻠَ ﻜِا ﻟًادَ ﺪِ ﻣُ ﺮْﺤَ اﻟْﺒَﺎن ا ً دَ ﺪَ ﻣِ ﻪِ ﻠْ ﺜِ ﻤِﺎ ﺑَ ﻨْ ﺌـِ ﺟْ ﻮَ ﻟَ ﱢﻲ و ﺑَ رُﺎتَ ﻤِ ﻠَ ﻛَ ﺪَ ﻔْ ﻨـَ ﴾١٠٩﴿ ﺗـ 911B“Say: If the sea were ink for the words of my Lord, the sea would surely be consumed before the words of my Lord are exhausted, though We were to bring the like of that (sea) to add there to.” (Surah Kahf 18:109) 2189BIt is mentioned in traditions that we are the words of Allah as our perfections cannot be encompassed. 2190BAs some poet has said: 2191BThe water of the sea is not sufficient to write your merits, because the register of deeds is so thick that all its water is not sufficient to wet the fingers in order to count its pages.
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Fourth Objective: Recognition of the Imam
The Imam can be recognized through many aspects: First Aspect
What is most apparent and easiest and is in accordance of divine wisdom and mercy. As you know there is express text from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) for some persons’ Imamate and there is declaration of the previous Imam for the succeeding Imam as well. As we shall learn, the twelve Imams (a.s.) are appointed by Allah, the Prophet and the previous Imams. Second Aspect
The Imam is superior to the entire Ummah, including those who falsely claimed this office and Imamate is not outside them. Third Aspect
Miracle related to Imamate. Ahle Sunnat say that Imamate is obtained through allegiance of few persons, even one person, as happened in case of Abu Bakr and he became Caliph only by the allegiance of Umar. Some even say that five persons should give allegiance; as happened in case of Shura. They are content with allegiance of five persons and do not ask for more. All this is something, which no sane individual can suggest regarding the creatures that in spite of having invalid aims and corrupt views, five individuals or one person can give allegiance to an ignorant man.
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Also that all creatures should obey him in religious and secular matters and if they don’t accept, killing them is lawful, or rather obligatory. Even though the opponent be Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.) or Imam Hasan (a.s.) or Imam Husain (a.s.) and the obedience of the profligate Yazid be obligatory on the people; and due to opposition of that tyrant ruler, illegitimate born, drunkard and smeared with all the sins, the killing of Imam Husain (a.s.), the beloved grandson of the Prophet, chief of the youths of Paradise should be lawful or rather obligatory! An allegiance, which took place secretly in Saqifah Bani Saidah with the collusion of some hypocrites and enemies of Amirul Momineen (a.s.), Imam Hasan (a.s.) and Imam Husain (a.s.), and no Bani Hashim man, Salman, Abuzar, Miqdad, Ammar, Zubair, Usamah was present there. On the contrary, without all companions being informed of that, and it should be named as consensus (Ijma) and Amirul Momineen (a.s.) and all companions should be forcibly brought to pay allegiance and it should be named as consensus of those who have a say and mentioned in their books as such. Can any sane individual suggest that the Almighty Allah based the leadership of world and religion, which is in fact successorship of prophethood, on such farce? If a leader is appointed as the headman of a village, it is only after the majority of the people of that village reach consensus on his appointment. This would be discussed in detail in the coming pages. So we came to know that the appointment of the Imam is related to one of the three and each of them have been proved from widely related reports of the Holy Imams (a.s.) narrated to us through reliable and honest scholars, whose integrity is established for us and we are aware of their reality with knowledge by perception (Ainul Yaqeen). But if we wish to exhaust the argument on the adversaries, we should prove it through the traditions of their reliable books. That is why our scholars (may Allah have mercy on them) have
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exhausted proof on them through their reliable books, because if we were to reason through our books, they would simply deny it. In the same way, if they reason against us through their fabricated traditions, which hypocritical companions had fabricated in greed of wealth and pelf, it is not necessary to accept them. Therefore, we should prove the veracity of our faith through traditions widely related and popular in both sects or mentioned in their reliable books. They should also reason through widely related traditions or those mentioned in our reliable books and not reason through fabricated traditions found only in their books, regarding which some of their scholars have also admitted that they are concocted. Also, due to severe bigotry, they abandoned books containing the excellence of Ahle Bayt (a.s.) and defects of the tyrant Caliphs. Therefore, I would, in this treatise, explain through their reliable and famous books, which they cannot deny. For example Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim, which they consider to be almost at par with Quran and Jamiul Usool of Ibne Athir, one of their greatest scholars; and traditions compiled in their six authentic books (Sihah Sitta), including Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Muwattah Malik, Sunan Nasai, Jame Tirmidhi, Sunan Abu Dawood Sajistani; and Mishkat, whose author is one of their most influential scholars Scholars like Tabibi have written glosses on these books and today they are popular in all areas of the world. He says in his foreword: I have quoted these traditions from some books; when I attribute a tradition to them it is as if I have attributed it to the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). The book of Istiab of Ibne Abde Barr, who is also their famous scholar and his book, is also popular among them. The book of Sharh Ibne Abil Hadid, whose author is among their great scholars and the books of Durre Manthur of Suyuti, whose
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author was their accomplished scholar; Tafsir Thalabi, on which all their Quranic commentaries depend; Tafsir Kabir of Fakhre Raazi, who is their Imam; Tafsir Kashaf, Tafsir Nishapuri, Tafsir Baidhawi and Tafsir Waahidi and other such books, which are trusted and reliable among them. As for the traditions of Ahle Bayt (a.s.), I have mentioned them in Hayatul Quloob. We should know that the religion of the delivered sect (Firqe Najiya) is that according to the textual declaration of the Prophet, after the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), the immediate Caliph is Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.); while Ahle Sunnat say that people appointed Abu Bakr after the passing away of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and he is the first caliph. Abu Bakr appointed Umar as the Caliph after him and he is the second Caliph. At the time of his death, Umar appointed a six-member Shura committee to appoint a Caliph and Amirul Momineen (a.s.) was included in that committee. Umar devised it in such a way that either Amirul Momineen (a.s.) should be killed or be forced to pay allegiance to Uthman, because he included Amirul Momineen (a.s.) with Uthman, Talha, Zubair, Abdur Rahman bin Auf and Saad bin Abi Waqqas and said that if all have consensus on one person, he would be the Caliph and if they oppose and one side has more members, they should eliminate the side with less members. If both sides have equal members, the choice of Abdur Rahman bin Auf’s side should be given preference and members of the opposite side should be eliminated if they do not concur with the side of Abdur Rahman bin Auf. When they came out of Umar’s place, Imam Ali (a.s.) observed: He has devised a perfect plot to eliminate me; because Abdur Rahman bin Auf is the cousin of Saad and Uthman is the son-in-law of Uthman; these three can never go against each other. Even if Talha and Zubair support me, since Abdur Rahman bin Auf would be on the opposite side, I would be
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killed or I will have to pay allegiance to one of them. It happened exactly. After that even though Amirul Momineen (a.s.) mentioned his excellences and all agreed, Abdur Rahman bin Auf said to Amirul Momineen (a.s.): I pledge allegiance to you on the condition that you will act according to the Book of Allah, Sunnah of the Messenger and lifestyle of Abu Bakr and Umar. Imam Ali (a.s.) said: I will act according to the Book of Allah and Sunnah of the Messenger; but not according to the lifestyle of Abu Bakr and Umar. Abdur Rahman bin Auf made this offer, because he knew well that Imam Ali (a.s.) would never agree to act on the lifestyle of Abu Bakr and Umar. Then he made the same offer to Uthman, who accepted it readily. So Abdur Rahman and Saad gave allegiance to Uthman and people also paid allegiance under compulsion. In this way, they regard Uthman as the third Caliph. When his injustices and innovations exceeded all limits, the companions reached consensus and killed him and paid allegiance to Amirul Momineen (a.s.), the rightful Caliph. Therefore, they regard Imam Ali (a.s.) as the fourth, though some sycophants of Bani Abbas rulers invented the lie that after the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), his uncle, Abbas claimed Caliphate and that he was the Caliph. The invalidity of this claim is absolutely clear, and all who believed it have become extinct. Proof of the Caliphate of Amirul Momineen (a.s.) also disproves this claim.
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Fifth Objective: Imamate and Superiority of Amirul Momineen (a.s.) First Verse 30B َ ةَ اﻟﺼﱠﻼ َﻮنُﻴﻤِ ﻘُ ﻳَﻳﻦِ ﻮا اﻟﱠﺬ ُ ﻨَ آﻣَﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ َ وُ ﻪُﻮﻟُ ﺳَ رَ وُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ُ ﻢُ ﱡﻜ ﻴِ ﻟَ ﺎ وَ ﱠﻤ ﻧِ إ َﻮنُ ﻌِاﻛَ رْﻢُ ﻫَ وَﺎةَ ﻛ ﱠ اﻟﺰَﻮنُ ﺗْ ﺆُ ﻳـَ ﴾٥٥﴿ و 912B“Only Allah is your Guardian and His Apostle and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay the poor-rate while they bow.” (Surah Maidah 5:55) 2217BThere is consensus of Sunni and Shia that this verse was revealed for Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.). In Jamiul Usool, quoting from Sahih Nasai it is narrated from Abdullah bin Salam that he said: I came to the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and asked: Since we have testified about Allah and the Messenger, people have become aloof from us and they are inimical to us; they have sworn not to speak to us. 2218BAt that moment this verse was revealed. Bilal recited the Adhan for Zuhr Prayer. People came forward and started praying. Some were in prostration and some were bowing; and some were brushing teeth. Suddenly a beggar arrived and asked for alms. Amirul Momineen (a.s.) gave his ring while bowing and the beggar informed the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) that Ali (a.s.) has given that ring to him during bowing. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) recited this verse with the following verse. 2219BIn his Tafsir, Thalabi has narrated that one day Abbas was seated near the Zamzam well and narrating traditions, when Abuzar Ghiffari arrived there suddenly and said: O people, I am Abuzar Ghiffari. I heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) from these ears; If I lie, may my ears become deaf; and I have seen from my eyes; if I am a liar, may my eyes become blind that Ali
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(a.s.) is the leader of the righteous, killer of infidels and the helped one; one, who helps him, is guided and one, who does not help him, is deviated. Indeed, one day I prayed the Zuhr Prayer with the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) when a beggar asked for alms at the gate of the Mosque; no one gave him anything; the beggar raised his hands to the heavens and said: O Allah, be witness that I asked for alms at the mosque of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and no one gave me anything. At that time Imam Ali (a.s.) was bowing. In that same posture, he gestured with the small finger of his right hand, which always had a ring. The beggar stepped forward and took the ring from Ali’s finger. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) was also present there and he observed this. After concluding the prayers, he looked to the heavens and said: My Lord, my brother, Musa had supplicated You: O God, widen my breast with my brother, Harun from my family, make my affair easy and untie the knot of my tongue, so that people may understand what I say and appoint him as my vizier; strengthen my arms through him and make him my partner in my work. So, O Allah, You accepted his supplication and said: Very soon I would strengthen your arms with your brother, Harun and would give you power. O Allah, I am Your servant, Muhammad, Your chosen Messenger. Please widen my heart also and ease my affairs; and appoint from my family, Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.) as my vizier and strengthen my back with him. Abuzar said: The Prophet had hardly concluded his statement, when Jibraeel (a.s.) came down and said: O Muhammad, recite this verse to Ali. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) recited it. This report is narrated by Suyuti through many chains of authorities, by Fakhre Raazi through two chains of authorities and by Zamakhshari, Baidhawi, Nishapuri, Ibne Taba Waahidi,
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Samaani, Baihaqi, Nazari, author of Mishkat, writer of Masabih, and all commentators and tradition scholars of Ahle Sunnat and also Shia authorities like Suddi, Mujahid, Hasan Basri, Amash, Atba bin Abi Hakam, Ghalib bin Abdullah, Qays bin Rabia, Ababa bin Rabi, Ibne Abbas, Abuzar and Jabir bin Abdullah Ansari etc. Hassan and other poets have versified this incident. The crux of the proof on Imamate of Ali (a.s.) is that the word of ‘innama’ is a restrictive word and the term of ‘Wali’ has a number of meanings: Helper, friend, authority holder, owner of discretion et al. The last two meanings are very much similar and the first two meanings cannot be implied in this verse, because helpers and friends are not only Allah, Messenger and some believers described with this quality, on the contrary, all believers are friends of each other as the Almighty Allah has said: 31B ٍ ﺾْ ﻌَ ﺑـُﺎءَ ﻴِ ﻟْ وَ أْ ﻢُ ﻬُﻀْ ﻌَ ﺑـُﺎتَ ﻨِ ﻣْ ﺆُاﻟْﻤَ وَﻮنُ ﻨِ ﻣْ ﺆُاﻟْﻤَ و 913B“And (as for) the believing men and the believing women, they are guardians of each other.” (Surah Taubah 9:71) 2227BAngels are also friends and devotees of believers; as He says: 32B ُ ﺎؤَ ﻴِ ﻟْ وَ أُ ﻦْﺤَ ﻧ ﺎ َ ﻴْ ﱡﻧـ اﻟﺪِﺎةَ ﻴَ ﻲ اﻟْﺤِ ﻓْ ﻢُ ﻛ 914B“We are your guardians in this world’s life.” (Surah Fussilat 41:31) 2228BOn the contrary, some disbelievers are friends and helpers of some believers. If it is said that the plural form is mentioned in the verse, then how it can be restricted to the Imam? 2229BThe reply is that the implication of singular to plural is used in Arabic and non-Arabic languages and it is used in a sense of deep reverence. There are many other points in the verse as well. We don’t even claim that it is restricted to Ali (a.s.), because it is mentioned in our traditions that this verse includes all the
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Imams; and every Imam in proximity of Imamate is definitely honored with this excellence. The author of Kashaf has said that although only Ali is implied in this verse, the plural is used so that others may also follow him. This verse only supports his Wilayat and it only implies him and the implication is of Wilayat and Imamate of Ali. In Sahih Muslim and Sahih Tirmidhi, it is narrated from Amr bin Haseen that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) sent an expedition and appointed Amirul Momineen (a.s.) as the commander of that force. Ali (a.s.) won the battle and took for himself a slave girl from the booty. The people in the army didn’t like this. Four of the companions decided that when they return they will complain to the Prophet. The rule was that when Muslims returned from battle they first met the Prophet and greeted him; then they headed to their homes. When they met the Prophet, one of them complained about Amirul Momineen (a.s.). The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) turned his face away from him. Another man repeated this protest and the Prophet also turned away from him. The third lodged his complain and the Prophet looked away. When the fourth also repeated the same complaint, the Prophet looked at them, while anger showed on his countenance; and he said thrice: What do you want from Ali; indeed Ali is from me and I am from him and he is the guardian (Wali) of every believer man and woman. Ibne Abde Barr has narrated from Ibne Abbas in Istiab that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said to Ali (a.s.): You are the guardian (Wali) of every believer after me. Thus, it is learnt that mastership (Wilayat) is something that is restricted to him, and the word of ‘Wali’ mentioned in this verse is in his honor only. The first phrase of the first tradition shows that the special relationship, which Ali (a.s.) had with the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was not had by anyone else. Moreover, according to the instruction of the Prophet, his being ‘Wali’ proves his Caliphate
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in both ways: because love and attachment was there during his lifetime as well; and every sane individual knows that such a person can never be a subject and follower of Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman. Second Verse
The second verse is:
33B ﱠ ﻮا اﻟﻠُ ﻮا اﺗـﱠﻘ ُ ﻨَ آﻣَﻳﻦِ ﺎ اﻟﱠﺬ َ ﱡﻬ ﻳـَﺎ أَ ﻳ َ ﻴﻦِ ﻗِ اﻟﺼﱠﺎد َ ﻊَﻮا ﻣُﻮﻧُ ﻛ َ وَ ﻪ 915B“O you who believe! be careful of (your duty to) Allah and be with the true ones.” (Surah Taubah 9:119) 2235B…in every matter, especially in word and actions; and in the claim of your faith. It is clear that being with them implies obeying and following them and not being with them physically; because it is impossible and is of no use; and that is the meaning of Imamate, since according to consensus of Muslims, addresses are general in the Holy Quran and they are applicable to the entire nation and valid for every period of time. 2236BTherefore, it is necessary that a truthful one should be present in every age, so that the nation may be with him and it is thus concluded that this is implied from truthful; otherwise it would imply that every person is truthful and following him would be obligatory; whereas such a thing is absurd according to universal consensus. Therefore, truthful should imply truthful in every word and deed and that is the infallible. That is why the existence and obedience of an Imam in every time period is proved. 2237BOther than the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and twelve Imams, no one else is infallible. Thus, the rightfulness of their religions and Imamate of their leaders is exposed that what is the reality behind them. 2238BAlong with this, Suyuti in Durre Manthur and Thalabi in his famous Tafsir Thalabi have narrated from Ibne Abbas and
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Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) that the truthful implied in the verse is Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.). Ibrahim bin Muhammad Thaqafi Kharkoshi, in the book of Sharfun Nabi, has narrated from Asmai from his chains of authorities from Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) that the truthful imply Muhammad and Ali (a.s.) and has narrated from Amirul Momineen (a.s.) that he said: We are the truthful. It is also narrated from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) that Aale Muhammad (a.s.) are the truthful. And it is mentioned in some traditional reports that truthful ones are those in whose honor the Almighty Allah has said: 34B ِ ﻪْ ﻴَ ﻠَ ﻋَ وا اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ُ ﺪَﺎﻫَﺎ ﻋَﻮا ﻣُ ﻗَ ﺪَ ﺻٌ ﺎلَ ﺟِ رَﻴﻦِ ﻨِ ﻣْ ﺆُ اﻟْﻤَ ﻦِ ۖ ﻣ ◌ ْ ﻢُ ﻬْ ﻨـِ ﻤَ ﻓ ُ ﺮِ ﻈَ ﺘْ ﻨَ ﻳـ ْ ﻦَ ﻣ ْ ﻢُ ﻬْ ﻨـِ ﻣَ وُ ﻪَ ﺒْ ﺤَ ﻧ ٰ ﻰَﻀَ ﻗ ْ ﻦَ ۖ ﻣ ◌ ً ﻳﻼِ ﺪْ ﺒَ ﻮا ﺗـُ ﱠﻟ ﺪَﺎ ﺑَ ﻣَ و ٢٣﴿﴾ 916B“Of the believers are men who are true to the covenant, which they made with Allah: so of them is he who accomplished his vow, and of them is he who yet waits, and they have not changed in the least;” (Surah Ahzab 33:23) 2241BIt means: Believers are those, who fulfilled the covenant they had made to Almighty Allah; that they would be steadfast with the Prophet, fight the enemies of faith and will not flee from the battlefield till death; that they would follow the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) with all sincerity, but some of them fulfilled this till they were martyred and some are waiting for martyrdom they have not changed their covenant, which is as it deserves. 2242BIt is mentioned in Sunni and Shia traditions that this verse was revealed in the honor of Ahle Bayt (a.s.) and it implies His Eminence, Hamza, Ja’far Tayyar and Amirul Momineen (a.s.), who made a covenant that till they are not martyred, they would not forsake the help and assistance of the Holy Prophet
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(s.a.w.s.); and they fulfilled this covenant. Those who were martyred were Hamza and Ja’far and those who were awaiting martyrdom was Amirul Momineen (a.s.). They never fled from the battlefield like Abu Bakr, Uthman and other fellows like them; and did not make any changes in the religion of Allah. It is narrated in Asbabun Nuzool through Ahle Sunnat channels that Amirul Momineen (a.s.) said: I am waiting for martyrdom and I have not changed my covenant to Allah, which is as it deserves. I quote two reasonings in the interpretation of this verse to prove my point, one from a famous Ahle Sunnat scholar and another from a great Shia scholar: First Reasoning
It is that Imam Fakhre Raazi, who is the Imam of Ahle Sunnat people, has mentioned in his Tafsir that in this verse, the Almighty Allah has commanded the believers to be with the truthful, so it is necessary that the truthful ones should be present as being present is a condition of that command. Therefore, the truthful ones should be present in every time period and the entire Ummah should not unite on falsehood and it proves that this consensus is not restricted to the period of the Prophet, because it is proved through widely related narrations that the Quran is addressed to all the duty bound. Moreover, the verse includes all times and to restrict it to a particular time will lead to suspension of the command. Also, the Almighty Allah has initially commanded piety to them and this order is universal and it is possible that he might not be pious and that the address should be allowed to him; therefore, this verse proves that when a person is prone to mistakes, he is dutybound to follow another, who is infallible; that is he should be safe from error; and he is the same whom the Almighty Allah has called as truthful.
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The sequence of the command proves that one, who is prone to error is duty-bound to follow the truthful, so that he may keep him away from error and this meaning is applicable to every time period; therefore, it is necessary that an infallible should be present in every age, and we accept that; but we say that the entire community is infallible and the Shia say that only one from the community is infallible and we say that this claim is invalid; for if it is as such, we should know who that person is, so that we may follow him; and we are among those who do not recognize him in the Ummah. (End of Fakhre Raazi’s statement). The Almighty Allah issued this statement from him after completing the argument on his hands and tongue with certainty. He offered such a weak reply, which exposed his reality and bigotry to the whole world and its weakness will not be concealed from any sane person. We reply to him through some aspects for clarification. First Aspect
When he has clarified that people are in need of an infallible to protect them from error, can any sane individual suggest that in times, when the Ummah of the Prophet has spread all over the world, is it possible for any one person to know about the statements of all the scholars of the Ummah? No one can oppose this, in spite of controversies and selfish desires present in the Ummah. The claims of these learned scholars, who think that their expertise is more than that of all scholars; they don’t know that they should have studied the Imamite faith; then how is it possible for them to learn about the views of all Islamic sects? If for supposition sake, they study all the sects and investigate their views, how would it be known that they have narrated their actual faith? It is possible that they had adopted dissimulation (Taqayyah), as is allowed in Imamiyah religion. Moreover, how
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can it be known that they have remained on that religion till their death? Consensus implies the view of the majority. Second Aspect
Even if we accept that such a consensus is possible and its knowledge can be conveyed through investigation, but it is possible in minor matters. How can error be eliminated in all issues? Third Aspect
Apparently or rather obviously it is such that: 35B َ ﻴﻦِ ﻗِ اﻟﺼﱠﺎد َ ﻊَﻮا ﻣُﻮﻧُ ﻛ 917B“Be with the true ones.” (Surah Taubah 9:119) 2255B…means that those who are ordered to be with the truthful would be other than those who are ‘truthful’. Due to this, it shows that they are truthful for each other. 7815BFourth Aspect
2256BIf whatever he said in negation of Shia religion had been true, we should have known who the truthful are. It is like the saying of Jews of Christians that the prophethood of Muhammad is invalid, because if it had been true, we should have recognized him and known his reality; and the saying of Jews that if Isa (a.s.) had been a Prophet, we would have known his reality! The fact is that all this only goes back to their interpretation. What is needed is to give up bigotry and to refer to proofs, reports and books with justice as per the demands of: ﺎ 36B َ ﻨَ ﻠُ ﺒـُ ﺳْ ﻢُﻨﱠـﻬَ ﻳـِ ﺪْ ﻬَ ﻨـَﺎ ﻟَﻴﻨِوا ﻓُ ﺪَﺎﻫَ ﺟَﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ َ و
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“And (as for) those who strive hard for Us, We will most certainly guide them in Our ways.” (Surah Ankabut 29:69) The truth should become clear to them if they are truthful. When they say that the truth has not become clear to them, it is probably that the truth has become clear to them, but they do not admit it due to the love of the world and selfish desires. If they say that negation of investigation of consensus also applies to our scholars, we would reply: they consider consensus as proof, because the infallible is included in it. If two persons reach consensus, and they know that one of them is infallible they regard it as proof and if a hundred thousand persons reach consensus and the infallible is not included among them, they do not accept it as proof, because if mistake and error is possible in each of them, it is possible in all of them together as well. Knowledge of inclusion of infallible is possible from the statements of Shia scholars who lived during the lifetimes of the Holy Imams (a.s.) and near to that period; however, in this treatise, there is no scope for research on this matter. Second Reasoning
When Shaykh Mufeed (r.a.) was asked about the interpretation of this verse and regarding whom it was revealed, the Shaykh (q.s.) replied: It is definitely proved that this verse was revealed in the honor of Amirul Momineen (a.s.) and it continues in his descendants, who are the leaders of faith and the truthful Imams; and a large number of traditions are recorded on this subject. It becomes clear from the style of the verse as well that the Almighty Allah commanded people to follow the truthful ones and not to forsake them. It should also be that those who are addressed and commanded are other than them (the truthful), because it is absurd to order a person to remain with himself and to follow his own command.
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Therefore, we say that the truthful ones means that either all of them are truthful or some of them are truthful; and the former possibility is invalid, because every believer is truthful from the aspect of faith and all are truthful in this circle. Hence, it necessitates that all believers be ordered to follow themselves, which is impossible. If some or all of them are implied that definite article of Alif and Laam (in the verse) should be for external covenant or some non-covenant. On the basis of the first view, this group should be known, the addressees should be familiar with them; verses should have come down with their names and lineage and they should have heard it. The claim of one, who considers it to be for others beyond this group, is invalid, because these ranks are not found in them and they are not given the covenant and they themselves admit that Caliphate was not fixed for them during the lifetime of the prophet. According to another view, some non-covenanted are implied. In that case, these few should be specified and named, otherwise it would entail imposition of a duty, which is unknown and that is impossible and it is known that other than our Imams, no one has claimed specific instruction and neither anyone makes such a claim. Therefore, it is proved that it implies only them. Moreover, we have rational and textual proofs that only they are implied. Rational Argumentation
Since it is commanded in this verse that the Ummah should obey them fully and except for one command no other command is specified, therefore, he should be infallible, otherwise it would imply that the Ummah is commanded to follow them in error and disobedience as well, and this is impossible. Since infallibility is an unseen matter, which except for the Almighty Allah no one can know, therefore, there should be a clear
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declarative text on their Imamate and infallibility and according to consensus such declarative text is not issued for anyone else. Therefore, it is proved that only they are implied. Textual Argumentation
The Almighty Allah has introduced the ‘truthful ones’ in the Holy Quran with some qualities, which have not come together in anyone, except Amirul Momineen (a.s.), because He said: 37B ِ بِ ﺮْ ﻐَاﻟْﻤَ وِ قِ ﺮْﺸَ اﻟْﻤَﻞَ ﺒِ ﻗْ ﻢُ ﻜَﻮﻫُ ﺟُ ﱡﻮا و ﻟَ ﻮُ ﺗـْ نَ ﱠ أ ﺮِ اﻟْﺒَﺲْ ﻴَ ﻟ 919B“It is not righteousness that you turn your faces towards the East and the West.” (Surah Baqarah 2:177) 38B َ ﻜِ ﺋَ ﻼَاﻟْﻤَ وِ ﺮِ ﺧْ اﻵِ مْ ﻮَاﻟْﻴـَ وِ ﺎﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِ ﺑَ ﻦَ آﻣْ ﻦَ ﱠ ﻣ ﺮِ ﱠ اﻟْﺒ ﻦِﻜٰ َ ﻟَ و ِ ﺎبَ ﺘِاﻟْﻜَ وِﺔ َ ﱢﻴﻦ ﻴِاﻟﻨﱠﺒَ و 920B“But righteousness is this that one should believe in Allah and the last day and the angels and the Book and the prophets.” (Surah Baqarah 2:177) 39B َ ﻴﻦِﺎﻛَﺴَاﻟْﻤَ وٰ ﻰَﺎﻣَ ﺘَاﻟْﻴَ وٰ ﻰَ ﺑْ ﺮُي اﻟْﻘِ وَ ذِ ﱢﻪ ﺒُ ﺣٰ ﻰَ ﻠَ ﻋَ ﺎلَﻰ اﻟْﻤَآﺗَ و َ ﻦْاﺑَ و ِ ﺎبَ ﱢﻗ ﻲ اﻟﺮِ ﻓَ وَﻴﻦِ ﻠِاﻟﺴﱠﺎﺋ َ وِ ﻴﻞِ ﱠﺒ اﻟﺴ 921B“And give away wealth out of love for Him to the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer and the beggars and for (the emancipation of) the captives.” (Surah Baqarah 2:177)
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ا 40B َ ﺎمَ ﻗَ أَ و وا ُ ﺪَﺎﻫَا ﻋَ ذِ إْ ﻢِ ﻫِ ﺪْ ﻬَ ﻌِ ﺑَﻮنُﻮﻓُاﻟْﻤَ وَﺎةَ ﻛ ﱠ ﻰ اﻟﺰَآﺗَ وَ ةَ ۖ ﻟﺼﱠﻼ ◌ ِ سْ ﺄَ اﻟْﺒَﻴﻦِ ﺣَ وِ ﱠاء اﻟﻀﱠﺮ َ وِﺎءَ ﺳْ ﺄَﻲ اﻟْﺒِ ﻓَﻳﻦِ ﺮِاﻟﺼﱠﺎﺑ َ ۗ و ◌ َ ﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ َ ﻚِ ﺌٰ َ وﻟُ أ ﻮاُﻗَ ۖ ﺪَﺻ ◌ َ ﻮنُ ﱠﻘ ﺘـُ اﻟْﻤُ ﻢُ ﻫَ ﻚِ ﺌٰ َ وﻟُ أَ ﴾١٧٧﴿ و 922B“And keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate; and the performers of their promise when they make a promise, and the patient in distress and affliction and in time of conflicts- these are they who are true (to themselves) and these are they who guard (against evil).” (Surah Baqarah 2:177) 2267BAfter that the Shaykh said: In this holy verse, the Almighty Allah has gathered all the qualities and then testified it for the one in whom these qualities are present with perfection and definitely with truthfulness and piety. On the contrary, He has deemed truthfulness and piety to be exclusive for them as is established in the science of lexicology. Then the first verse should be joined to it. 2268BIts conclusion would be that you must follow the truthful (Sadiqeen) in whom all these qualities are complete and together; and we don’t find anyone among the companions of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), except Amirul Momineen (a.s.) in whom all these qualities assembled. 2269BTherefore, only he should be implied in the first verse and the entire Ummah should be commanded to follow him in all issues, because in the verse, along with one command another command is not specified and the perfection and assembling on these qualities in the holy personality of Ali (a.s.) is that in the beginning of the verse, belief in Almighty Allah, Judgment Day, angels, Divine Books and the Prophet is mentioned; there is no doubt that he believed in all these things before all the people and according to widely related traditions of Sunni and Shia, he was the first among men to accept the stand of the Prophet.
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Thus, the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) told Lady Fatima Zahra (s.a.): I have married you to one, who is much ahead of the companions in Islam, obedience of God and Messenger; and is most excellent in knowledge. It is also a widely narrated tradition that Amirul Momineen (a.s.) said: I am the sincere servant of God and the brother of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.); and before me, no one has said this and after me no one can say this, except a blatant liar. I prayed the ritual prayer seven years before everyone else. He also used to observe: O Allah, I don’t say regarding anyone in this Ummah that he worshipped You before me. When he held discussions with Khawarij and they accused him of lying, he said: Should I attribute falsehood to Allah, though I am among the first of those who worshipped Him? How they attributed falsehood to the Messenger when I brought faith on him testified for him and helped him? Imam Husain (a.s.) said on the night Imam Ali (a.s.) passed away: Tonight has departed from the world one, who was such that the past people never preceded him in excellence and neither can the future ones do. There are many details in this, and if we were to mention them here it would make the treatise lengthy. After faith, the Almighty Allah has mentioned wealth and charity in the verse and according to Quranic declaration and widely narrated traditions, His Eminence, Amirul Momineen (a.s.) is ahead of all in these qualities as well. First Exclusive Quality
The Almighty Allah says in Surah Hal Ataa: ا 41B ً ﻴﺮِ ﺳَ أَ ﺎ وًﻴﻤِ ﺘَ ﻳَ ﺎ وًﻴﻨِﻜْﺴِ ﻣِ ﱢﻪ ﺒُ ﺣٰ ﻰَ ﻠَ ﻋَﺎمَ اﻟﻄﱠﻌ َﻮنُ ﻤِ ﻌْﻄُ ﻳَ ﴾٨﴿ و
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“And they give food out of love for Him to the poor and the orphan and the captive:” (Surah Insan 76:8) Sunni and Shia commentators and tradition scholars have reached consensus that this verse; on the contrary, the whole Surah, was revealed in the honor of Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain. Then He said: 42B ْ ﻢُ ﻬَ ﻠَ ﻓـً ﺔَ ﻴِ ﻧَ ﻼَ ﻋَا وّ ﺮِ ﺳِﺎرَاﻟﻨﱠـﻬَ و ِ ﻞْ ﺎﻟﻠﱠﻴ ِ ﺑْ ﻢُ ﻬَاﻟَ ﻮْ ﻣَ أَﻮنُ ﻘِ ﻔْ ﻨُ ﻳـَﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ ٌ فْ ﻮَ ﺧ َ ﻻَ و ْ ﻢِ ﱢﻬ ﺑَ ر َ ﺪْ ﻨِ ﻋ ْ ﻢُ ﻫُ ﺮْ ﺟَ أ َ ﻮنُ ﻧَ ﺰْﺤَ ﻳ ْﻢُ ﻫ َ ﻻَ و ْﻢِ ﻬْ ﻴَ ﻠَﻋ ٢٧٤﴿﴾ 924B“(As for) those who spend their property by night and by day, secretly and openly, they shall have their reward from their Lord and they shall have no fear, nor shall they grieve.” (Surah Baqarah 2:274) 2278BThe Shaykh has said that a MustafidhaP2F1P traditional report is recorded that this verse was revealed about Amirul Momineen (a.s.) and there is no controversy in it that he, through his personal physical effort, emancipated so many slaves that their number cannot be computed and there were many fields and orchards, which he planted with his own hands and endowed them for the poor and deprived. 2279BAfter that the Almighty Allah has mentioned the establishment of Prayer and paying of Zakat and it is in the honor of Ali (a.s.) according to the evidence of the holy verse: 43B َ ةَ اﻟﺼﱠﻼ َﻮنُﻴﻤِ ﻘُ ﻳَﻳﻦِ ﻮا اﻟﱠﺬ ُ ﻨَ آﻣَﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ َ وُ ﻪُﻮﻟُ ﺳَ رَ وُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ُ ﻢُ ﱡﻜ ﻴِ ﻟَ ﺎ وَ ﱠﻤ ﻧِ إ َﻮنُ ﻌِاﻛَ رْﻢُ ﻫَ وَﺎةَ ﻛ ﱠ اﻟﺰَﻮنُ ﺗْ ﺆُ ﻳـَ ﴾٥٥﴿ و
1 Extensively narrated
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“Only Allah is your Guardian and His Apostle and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay the poor-rate while they bow.” (Surah Maidah 5:55) …on which the scholars of traditions have mentioned with consensus that when Ali (a.s.) gave Zakat while bowing, this verse was revealed. The author says: It is possible that the Shaykh applied this verse to this meaning or considered ‘and’ in ‘and pay zakat’ to be the ‘and’ of present tense. In such a case, first the spending of wealth was mentioned and specification is better than emphasis. The Shaykh says that after this Almighty Allah has mentioned the fulfillment of promise; and there was no one from companions who did not break the covenant. But Amirul Momineen (a.s.) is one regarding whom no one even suspects that he ever broke the covenant he had made to the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) regarding helping and assisting him, therefore, this quality is also exclusive for him. After that the Almighty Allah speaks of steadfastness and patience in calamities, hardships and struggles and it is known that other than him, no one was as patient in struggles and hardships and it is only his personality, according to consensus of friends and foes that never fled from any battle and wasn’t terrified of even the greatest stalwart. Second Exclusive Quality
2283BAfter the mention of all these qualities, the Almighty Allah said: ﻮا 44B ُ ﻗَ ﺪَ ﺻَﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ َ ﻚِ ﺌٰ َ وﻟُ ۖ أ ◌ َ ﻮنُ ﱠﻘ ﺘـُ اﻟْﻤُﻢُ ﻫَﻚِ ﺌَٰوﻟُأَ ﴾١٧٧﴿ و 926B“These are they who are true (to themselves) and these are they who guard (against evil).” (Surah Baqarah 2:177) 2284BNo one else is as such. The truthful one, whose obedience is commanded and who has all these qualities, is Amirul
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Momineen (a.s.). The plural is used by way of respect, because Arabs used the plural form for a singular person to imply the greatness and loftiness of that person and sometimes they used plural to hint that some others are also included. In such instance, it is possible that it denotes that the Holy Imams (a.s.), who are included in that rank. The author says: Thalabi has narrated from Mujahid in his Tafsir and he narrates from Ibne Abbas that once Amirul Momineen (a.s.) had four dirhams and nothing more; he gave a dirham in charity secretly, a dirham openly, a dirham at night and a dirham during the day; at that time this verse was revealed: 45B َ ﻼَ ﻋَا وّ ﺮِ ﺳِﺎرَاﻟﻨﱠـﻬَ وِ ﻞْ ﺎﻟﻠﱠﻴ ِ ﺑْ ﻢُ ﻬَاﻟَ ﻮْ ﻣَ أَﻮنُ ﻘِ ﻔْ ﻨُ ﻳـَﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ ً ﺔَ ﻴِ ﻧ 927B“ (As for) those who spend their property by night and by day, secretly and openly.” (Surah Baqarah 2:274) 2286B…which was mentioned in the discourse of Shaykh Mufeed. 2287BIt is narrated from Zaid bin Ruban that as many Quranic verses are not revealed for anyone as revealed for Amirul Momineen (a.s.). 7821BThird Exclusive Quality
2288BThirdly, numerous traditions, through Ahle Sunnat and Shia channels are recorded in the interpretation of this verse stating that Ali was the truthful one. Thus, Ibne Marduya, Hafiz Abu Nuaim in Hilya, Suyuti in Tafsir Durre Manthur and other commentators as well have narrated from Ibne Abbas and Mujahid in the explanation of the statement of the Almighty Allah that: 46B ِ ﻪِ ﺑَ ﱠق ﺪَﺻَ وِ قْ ﺎﻟﺼﱢﺪ ِ ﺑَﺎءَي ﺟِ اﻟﱠﺬ َ ۙ و ◌ َ ﻮنُ ﱠﻘ ﺘـُ اﻟْﻤُﻢُ ﻫَﻚِ ﺌَٰوﻟُأ
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“And he who brings the truth and (he who) verifies it as the truth- these are they that guard (against evil).” (Surah Zumar 39:33) It is said that one, who brought the truth is the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and one, who verified it, is Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.). On the basis of this, truth is a relative pronoun and Kufi Arabic experts have deleted the relative pronoun. Then the Almighty Allah says: 47B َ وِ ﺎﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِﻮا ﺑُ ﻨَ آﻣَﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ َ و َ ﻮنُ ﱢﻳﻘ اﻟﺼﱢﺪ ُ ﻢُ ﻫَ ﻚِ ﺌٰ َ وﻟُ أِ ﻪِ ﻠُ ﺳُ ۖ ر ◌ ُ اءَ ﺪَ اﻟﺸﱡﻬ َ و ْ ﻢُ ﻫُﻮرُ ﻧَ وْ ﻢُ ﻫُ ﺮْ ﺟَ أْ ﻢُ ﻬَ ﻟْ ﻢِ ﱢﻬ ﺑَ رَ ﺪْ ﻨِ ﻋ 929B“And (as for) those who believe in Allah and His apostles, these it is that are the truthful and the faithful ones in the sight of their Lord: they shall have their reward and their light.” (Surah Hadid 57:19) 2291BAhmad bin Hanbal and some others have narrated from Ibne Abbas that this verse was revealed for Amirul Momineen (a.s.), who believed in Allah and the Messenger and he was a very truthful verifier and a witness of prophets that they have propagated the message of prophethood. There is reward for him for his verification of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and his light will be there with him on the Siraat Bridge. 2292BThen the Almighty Allah said: 48B ْ ﻢِ ﻬْ ﻴَ ﻠَ ﻋُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ ﻢَ ﻌْ ﻧـَ أَﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ َ ﻊَ ﻣَ ﻚِ ﺌٰ َ وﻟُ ﺄَ ﻓَﻮلُ اﻟﺮﱠﺳ َ وَ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِ ﻊِ ﻄُ ﻳْ ﻦَ ﻣَ و َ ﻴﻦِ ﺤِاﻟﺼﱠﺎﻟ َ و ِ اءَ ﺪَ اﻟﺸﱡﻬ َ و َﻴﻦِ ﱢﻳﻘ اﻟﺼﱢﺪ َ و َ ﱢﻴﻦ ﻴِ اﻟﻨﱠﺒ َ ﻦِ ۚ ﻣ ◌ َ ﻦُﺴَ ﺣَ و ﴾٦٩﴿ﺎ ًﻴﻘِﻓَ رَﻚِﺌَ ٰوﻟُأ 930B“And whoever obeys Allah and the Apostle, these are with those upon whom Allah has bestowed favors from among the
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prophets and the truthful and the martyrs and the good, and a goodly company are they!” (Surah Nisa 4:69) So we can conclude that after the prophets, rank the truthful ones followed by the martyrs and the righteous. Thus, only the truthful are qualified for Imamate and successorship. Shia and Sunni have widely narrated that Ali is the truthful one of this nation. Fakhre Raazi, Thalabi, Ahmad bin Hanbal in his Musnad, Ibne Shahruya in Firdos, Ibne Maghazili and others have narrated from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) that ‘the truthful’ are three: Habib bin Najjar – believer of Aale Yasin, Hizqil – believer of Aale Firon and Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.), who is most excellent of them. Thalabi has narrated through another chain of authorities that the most excellent of all nations are three persons, who did not deny Allah (apostasied) even for a moment: Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.), companion of Aale Yasin and believer of Aale Firon; and these personages are truthful and Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.) is the most excellent of them. Hafiz Abu Nuaim has narrated from Ibad bin Abdullah that he said: I heard Amirul Momineen (a.s.) say: I am the greatest truthful one. No one after me would claim as such, except a liar. I prayed the ritual prayer seven years before everyone. In etymology, truthful is at par with infallible or near to that. Writers of Sihah books say that truthful one is always a verifier and he that verifies his words with his deeds. The Almighty Allah has described the prophets with this epithet. Regarding Prophet Idris (a.s.), He said: 49B َ ﻳﺲِ رْ دِ إِﺎبَ ﺘِ ﻲ اﻟْﻜِ ﻓْ ﺮُ ﻛ ْ اذَ ۚ و ﺎ ◌ ّ ﻴِ ﺒَﺎ ﻧً ﱢﻳﻘ ﺪِ ﺻَﺎنَ ﻛُ ﱠﻪ ﻧِ ﴾٥٦﴿ إ 931B“And mention Idris in the Book; surely he was a truthful man, a prophet,” (Surah Maryam 19:56) 2298BRegarding Prophet Yusuf (a.s.), He said:
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50B ُ ﱢﻳﻖ ﺎ اﻟﺼﱢﺪ َ ﱡﻬ ﻳـَ أُﻒُﻮﺳُ ﻳ 932B“Yusuf! O truthful one!” (Surah Yusuf 12:46) 2299BOne, who is the implication of these verses and owner of these qualities, he is definitely more rightful for Imamate and Caliphate than one, who is not in possession of this quality. 2300BMoreover, they only apply the epithet of ‘truthful’ (Siddiq) to one, who was a blatant liar just as some people with dark complexion are named Kafur (camphor, which is pristine white). 7822BFourth Exclusive Quality
2301BThe Almighty Allah says: 51B ُ ﻪْ ﻨِ ﻣٌ ﺪِﺎﻫَ ﺷُﻮﻩُ ﻠْ ﺘـَ ﻳـَ وِ ﱢﻪ ﺑَ رْ ﻦِ ﻣٍ ﺔَ ﱢﻨ ﻴـَ ﺑـٰ ﻰَ ﻠَ ﻋَﺎنَ ﻛْ ﻦَ ﻤَ ﻓَ أ 933B“Is he then who has with him clear proof from his Lord, and a witness from Him recites it.” (Surah Hud 11:17) 2302BOne having clear proof is the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), but there is dispute as to who is the ‘witness’. It is mentioned in reliable traditions that ‘witness’ implies Amirul Momineen (a.s.) who was the verifier of the rightfulness of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). 2303BIbne Abil Hadid, Ibne Maghazali, Suyuti in Durre Manthur, Tabari and most Ahle Sunnat scholars have narrated through numerous channels from Ibada bin Abdullah and Abdullah bin Harith that one day Amirul Momineen (a.s.) said: There is no one in Quraish in whose praise and condemnation one or more verses are not revealed. A man asked: Which verse is revealed in your honor? Ali (a.s.) was infuriated and he said: Have you not read the following verse of Surah Hud? 52B ُ ﻪْ ﻨِ ﻣٌ ﺪِﺎﻫَ ﺷُﻮﻩُ ﻠْ ﺘـَ ﻳـَ وِ ﱢﻪ ﺑَ رْ ﻦِ ﻣٍ ﺔَ ﱢﻨ ﻴـَ ﺑـٰ ﻰَ ﻠَ ﻋَﺎنَ ﻛْ ﻦَ ﻤَ ﻓَ أ
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“Is he then who has with him clear proof from his Lord, and a witness from Him recites it.” (Surah Hud 11:17) That: the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) is the one with clear proof and I am his witness. When Fakhre Raazi mentioned this verse, he said the Almighty Allah has said for the nobility of that witness that is he is from him only (that is from the Messenger of Allah); that is he is specially related to them and is like a piece of his flesh. On the basis of this interpretation it should be that Amirul Momineen (a.s.) should be one coming after the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and should be his Caliph without any delay; and if he is implied to be his follower in excellence, it proves Imamate, because preferring the inferior to the superior is wrong. Moreover, it proves the infallibility of that gentleman, because as long as a witness is not infallible in testimony, the claim would not be proved. Fifth Exclusive Quality
The verse of:
53B ٌ رِ ﺬْ ﻨُ ﻣَﺖْ ﻧَﺎ أَ ﱠﻤ ﻧِ ۖ إ ◌ ٍ ﺎدَ ﻫٍ مْ ﻮَ ﻞﱢ ﻗـ ُ ﻜِ ﻟَ ﴾٧﴿ و 935B“You are only a warner and (there is) a guide for every people.” (Surah Raad 13:7) 2308BSome have said ‘you are the guide to all groups’; one, who ponders on the style of the verse would realize that the first meaning is clearer as mentioned in extensively narrated Shia traditions and Ahle Sunnat have also narrated through numerous channels. 2309BIt is narrated from Abu Burdah Aslami in Shawahidut Tanzeel that one day the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) asked for water to perform the ritual ablution (Wudhu). When he
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concluded it, he held the hand of Ali (a.s.) and passed it over his chest and said: 54B ٌ رِ ﺬْ ﻨُ ﻣَﺖْ ﻧَﺎ أَ ﱠﻤ ﻧِ إ 936B“You are only a warner.” (Surah Raad 13:7) 2310BThen he placed his hand on the chest of Ali and said: 55B ٍ ﺎدَ ﻫٍ مْ ﻮَ ﻞﱢ ﻗـ ُ ﻜِ ﻟَ ﴾٧﴿ و 937B“And (there is) a guide for every people.” (Surah Raad 13:7) 2311BThen he said: O Ali, you are the light-giver to the people and the sign of guidance. You are the leader of the reciters of Quran, and I witness that you are as such. 2312BHafiz Abu Nuaim Isfahani, the famous Ahle Sunnat tradition scholar, in his book, Maa Nazala Minal Quran fee Haqqe Ali (a.s.) [What is revealed in Quran regarding Ali (a.s.)] has narrated through a number of chains that it is narrated from Ibne Abbas: When this verse was revealed the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) placed his blessed hand on the shoulder of Ali (a.s.) and said: O Ali, only you are the guide and after me will be guided those who are guided. 2313BThalabi has also narrated thus in the commentary of Ibne Abbas. 2314BAbu Nuaim has through another chain of authorities narrated from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) that he said: I am the warner and Ali is the guide. O Ali, the guided ones would be guided by you. 2315BAccording to another report, it is narrated from Amirul Momineen (a.s.) that the warner is the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and the guide is a man from Bani Hashim and by ‘man’, he implied himself.
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Thalabi has, after narrating this traditional report from Amirul Momineen (a.s.) through two chains of authorities, said: ‘He implied himself’. Abdullah bin Ahmad and Ibne Hanbal have also narrated this tradition and this holy verse in Musnad. On the basis of the interpretation, which has come down in authentic traditions of Ahle Sunnat and Shia, it is proved what the delivered Imamiyah sect believes that no time period is devoid of a divine proof, prophet, successor of prophet; that is an Imam, who guides people in religion of God and teaches them the method of His worship, keeps them secure from deviation and misguidance: ﺎ 56B َ اﻧَ ﺪَ ﻫْ نَ أ َ ﻻْ ﻮَ ﻟَيِ ﺪَ ﺘْ ﻬَ ﻨـِﻨﱠﺎ ﻟُﺎ ﻛَ ﻣَ ا وَ ﺬٰ َ ﻬِﺎ ﻟَاﻧَ ﺪَي ﻫِ اﻟﱠﺬ ِ ﱠﻪ ﻠِ ﻟُ ﺪْ ﻤَاﻟْﺤ ُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ 938B“All praise is due to Allah Who guided us to this, and we would not have found the way had it not been that Allah had guided us.” (Surah Araaf 7:43) 7824BSixth Exclusive Quality
2319BThe verse: 57B ِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِﺎتَﺿْ ﺮَ ﻣَﺎءَ ﻐِ ﺘْ اﺑُ ﻪَﺴْ ﻔَي ﻧـِ ﺮْﺸَ ﻳْ ﻦَ ﻣ ِ اﻟﻨﱠﺎسَ ﻦِ ﻣَ ۗ و ◌ ُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ و ِ ﺎﻟْﻌِ ﺑٌوفُ ءَ ر ِ ﺎدَ ﴾٢٠٧﴿ ﺒ 939B“And among men is he who sells himself to seek the pleasure of Allah; and Allah is Affectionate to the servants.” (Surah Baqarah 2:207) 2320BThrough Ahle Sunnat and Shia channels acceptable, or rather widely related traditions have come down that this verse was revealed in the honor of Ali (a.s.) on the night the idolaters
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of Quraish united to eliminate the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) was commanded by Allah to go into concealment in a cave. That night, idolaters of Quraish surrounded the blessed house of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), waiting for daylight. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) was commanded by Allah to make Ali (a.s.) sleep in his bed so that the idolaters of Quraish may be under the impression that the Prophet is asleep there; whereas he should leave Mecca. When the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) mentioned this good news to Ali (a.s.), he was elated and in thankfulness of the blessing that he would be sacrificing his sweet life on the holy life of the chief of the worlds, he prostrated in thanks and went to sleep on the bed of the Prophet under the shade of a hundred naked swords of the idolaters of Quraish. Ahle Sunnat have narrated through various channels numerous traditions that this verse was revealed for Ali (a.s.). Like Fakhruddin Raazi in Tafsir Kabir, Nishapuri in his Tafsir, Thalabi in his Tafsir, Hafiz Abu Nuaim in Nuzoole Ayaat, Ahmad in Musnad, Samani in Fadhail, Ghazzali in Ahyaul Uloom and all historians, tradition scholars and poets have also stated the same. In this treatise, we are content only to mention a few traditional reports of Thalabi and Abu Nuaim. Thalabi, in his famous Tafsir, has narrated from Suddi from Ibne Abbas that this verse was revealed about Ali (a.s.) on the night when the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) fled to the cave and making Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.) sleep in his bed. He has also narrated that when the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) decided to migrate to Medina, he left Ali (a.s.) in Mecca, so that he may repay the loans of the Prophet and return trusts that people had deposited with him. On the night the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) wanted to move to the cave and when the idolaters had surrounded his house, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) ordered Ali (a.s.) to sleep in his bed and
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said: Cover yourself with the green sheet I use and sleep in my bed. If Allah wills, no harm will come to you. Ali (a.s.) followed the instructions. At that time the Almighty Allah revealed to Jibraeel and Mikaeel: I have established brotherhood between you two, and made one of you to exceed the other in age. Which of you would sacrifice his life for the other? None of them volunteered. Almighty Allah revealed: Why did you not emulate Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.)? I made him brother to Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) and he is sleeping on the bed of Muhammad after having staked his life and has preferred Muhammad’s life to his own. Now, descend to the earth and protect him from the mischief of the enemies. The two angels immediately came down; Jibraeel sat at the head of Ali (a.s.) and Mikaeel at his feet and Jibraeel called out: O son of Abu Talib, who can be like you that the Almighty Allah boasts to the angels about you? And the following verse was revealed to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) when he was heading to Medina. Hafiz Abu Nuaim has also mentioned that this verse was revealed about Ali (a.s.) narrating from Ibne Abbas. Seventh Exclusive Quality 58B ْ ﻢُ ﻛ َ ﱢﺮ ﻬَﻄُ ﻳَ وِ ﺖْ ﻴَ اﻟْﺒـَﻞْ ﻫَ أَﺲْ اﻟﺮﱢﺟ ُ ﻢُ ﻜْ ﻨَ ﻋَﺐِ ﻫْ ﺬُ ﻴِ ﻟُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ُﻳﺪِ ﺮُﺎ ﻳَ ﱠﻤ ﻧِ إ ا ً ﻴﺮِ ﻬْﻄَ ﴾٣٣﴿ ﺗ 940B“Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O people of the House! and to purify you a (thorough) purifying.” (Surah Ahzab 33:33) 2327BWe should know that authentic traditions have come down through Ahle Sunnat and Shia channels that this verse was revealed in the honor of Amirul Momineen (a.s.), Lady Fatima (s.a.), Hasan and Husain.
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It is mentioned in all Sihah books of Ahle Sunnat and their other reliable sources as Thalabi has narrated from Abu Saeed Khudri that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: This verse is revealed in the honor of I, Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain (a.s.). Moreover, Thalabi etc. have narrated from Umme Salma that she said: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) was in my chambers; Fatima brought a Harira preparation for the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). The Prophet was seated on a platform, which was his bed. A Khyberi sheet was spread on it. I was praying in the room. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) asked Fatima to call her husband and sons. Ali, Hasan and Husain (a.s.) arrived. All of them sat down to consume the Harira. At that moment the Almighty Allah revealed this verse. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) covered the family members with his sheet, raised his hands to the heavens and prayed: O Lord, these are my family members, so keep away impurities from them and purify them as is it deserves to be purified. Umme Salma says: I put my head into the room and asked: O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.): Am I also included in this honor? He replied: ‘Your end is good, your end is good’, and he did not admit me among them. Thalabi has narrated from Majma that he said: I went to Ayesha with my mother. My mother asked Ayesha, why she had revolted in the Battle of Jamal. She replied: It was a divine decree. My mother asked: What do you say about Ali? She replied: Are you asking about the one, who was most excellent of all men and the husband of the most excellent of the women? Indeed, I saw the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) gather Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain (a.s.) under a sheet and say: O Lord, these are my Ahle Bayt (a.s.), and the special personages. So keep away impurity from them and keep them pure as it deserves. I tried to enter the sheet, but he said: Keep away. Also, it is narrated from Abdullah Ibne Ja’far Tayyar that this verse was revealed for Ahle Bayt (a.s.) that Zainab, the wife
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of Prophet also wanted to join them, but the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) did not allow. It is narrated from Wasila bin Asqa that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: My Ahle Bayt (a.s.) are ‘Ahaqq’ more rightful for Caliphate and everything else. It is narrated from Umme Salma by the author of Jamiul Usool quoting from Sahih Tirmidhi that this verse was revealed in my house. I was seated at the door. I asked the Prophet, ‘Am I not from Ahle Bayt (a.s.)?’ He replied: Your end is good, you are from the wives of the Messenger. At the time of the revelation of the verse, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain were present in that house. The Prophet covered them with the cloak and said: O Lord, these are my Ahle Bayt (a.s.), keep away impurity from them and keep them pure as it deserves. According to another report in Jamiul Usool, the Prophet said: O Lord, these are my Ahle Bayt (a.s.), and the special personages. Umme Salma also begged to be admitted into the cloak, but the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) did not accept; he just said: Your end is good. Then in Sahih Tirmidhi there is a report from Amr bin Salma on the same issue and the author of Jamiul Usool and author of Mishkat have narrated from Sahih Muslim from Ayesha that one day the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) came out wearing a black sheet with designs. He covered Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain in it and recited this verse. Thalabi has also narrated this tradition from Ayesha. Ibne Hajar, the most bigoted of their scholars, has written: It is the view of most commentators that this verse was revealed about Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain, from the aspect that the word of ‘ankum’ is a plural pronoun. It is narrated in Sahih Muslim and Jamiul Usool that Husain bin Samra asked Zaid bin Arqam: Are the wives of the Prophet included in his Ahle Bayt? Zaid replied: No, the wife remains
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with the husband for a time; when he divorces her, she returns to the house of her father and joins her people. On the contrary, Ahle Bayt of the Prophet are his near kindred, on whom Sadaqah is unlawful. In Jamiul Usool it is narrated from Sahih Tirmidhi that Anas bin Malik said: After the verse of purification was revealed in the honor of Ahle Bayt (a.s.), for six months, when the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) came out of his chamber, he stood at the door of Fatima said: The Prayer, my Ahle Bayt (a.s.); come for Prayer. Then the Prophet recited the verse of purification till the end. Shia and Sunni have narrated through many channels from Abu Saeed Khudri, Anas bin Malik, Ayesha, Umme Salma and Wasila etc. that this verse was revealed in the honor of the folks of the cloak (Aale Aba). In other words it is clear from the widely related reports of Shia and Sunni that this verse was only about those five and other wives and family members are not included. Therefore, the verse proves that those personages are immune from disbelief and hypocrisy, doubt and polytheism and every sin, because intention can be taken to mean a number of things: First Implication
The intention, after which, the aim is fulfilled without any delay. As the Almighty Allah said: 59B ُ ﻮنُ ﻜَ ﻴَ ﻓـْ ﻦُ ﻛُ ﻪَ ﻟَﻮلُ ﻘَ ﻳـْ نَﺎ أً ﺌْ ﻴَ ﺷَادَ رَا أَ ذِ إُ ﻩُ ﺮْ ﻣَﺎ أَ ﱠﻤ ﻧِ ﴾٨٢﴿ إ 941B“His command, when He intends anything, is only to say to it: Be, so it is.” (Surah Yasin 36:82)
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Second Implication
Intention in the meaning of determination and it is impossible that it should not be realized for the Almighty Allah. The previous verse also proves that Allah does whatever He intends. Third Implication
Intention in the meaning of imposition of duty and that implication is not possible in this verse due to some reasons: First Reason
The word of innama – ‘only’ – according to the consensus of Arabic scholars, proves exclusiveness. On the contrary, all the duty bound and even the disbelievers are duty bound in this matter and the Almighty Allah says: I did not create the Jinns and humans, except for My worship. Second Reason
According to the context and style of widely related traditions it is known that this verse was revealed in divine praise and glorification, therefore, the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) deemed them special and covered them with the cloak and said: Only these are my Ahle Bayt (a.s.) and special personages. So the verse emphasizing restriction was revealed. Thus, Fakhruddin Raazi has, in spite of extreme bigotry, said: 60B َ ﺲْ اﻟﺮﱢﺟ ُ ﻢُ ﻜْ ﻨَ ﻋَﺐِ ﻫْ ﺬُ ﻴِ ﻟ 942B“To keep away the uncleanness from you.” (Surah Ahzab 33:33) 2349Band
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ا 61B ً ﻴﺮِ ﻬْﻄَ ﺗْ ﻢُ ﻛ َ ﱢﺮ ﻬَﻄُ ﻳَ ﴾٣٣﴿ و 943B“And to purify you a (thorough) purifying.” (Surah Ahzab 33:33) 2350BThat is to honor you. If it had denoted the duty of leaving the sins, in which infidels, sinners and all are included, then what duty and which nobility would have been there in it? 7831BThird Reason
2351BIt is mentioned in most traditional reports that this verse was revealed after the supplication and request of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and in his entreaty he had asked for repulsion of filth and it was not an intention, which is not fulfilled. If this had been the implication, the verse would have rejected the supplication of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and not accepted it. 7832BFourth Reason
2352BIf this meaning had been implied, why Umme Salma exaggerated so much to ask for being admitted into the cloak and why the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) refused her request, if it meant that every person is included in it? And what some adversaries say that this verse is between verses addressing the wives of Prophet, so they must be addressed in this verse also, is invalid due to some reasons: 7833BFirst Proof
2353BThe changing of feminine pronoun into masculine pronoun is proof that the address is not to those ladies. One, who contemplates on verses of Quran knows that such instances are numerous in verses of Quran; that is one incident is mentioned in another incident and there is a lot of change in address as happened in this verse also; that during address to wives, it (the
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address) turned to the believers; after that it reverts to those ladies, in spite of the fact that all attribution is over at this point. If someone notes that change of address at this point is having all the attributions because in this change there is a criticism of wives; that is you all included with the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), on the contrary, your interaction with him is more, so why you do not become like him in purification and rules of civility? Or it is there lest someone thinks that in spite of restriction, such acts occur from the wives, it is possible for such acts (God forbid) to occur from Ahle Bayt (a.s.) also! So this verse is included among the verses of wives only to highlight the infallibility and purity of Ahle Bayt (a.s.). These two reasons, which occurred to this humble servant (Allamah Majlisi) are easier in compatibility and more appropriate than those, which commentators have mentioned. Second Proof
This issue will be considered evidence only if it possesses any factuality, but nothing was learnt from Quran, and this matter was not proved because the author of Jamiul Usool has narrated from Zaid bin Thabit that after that when we collected the Quran, the verse of: 62B ِ ﻪْ ﻴَ ﻠَ ﻋَ وا اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ُ ﺪَﺎﻫَﺎ ﻋَﻮا ﻣُ ﻗَ ﺪَ ﺻٌ ﺎلَ ﺟِ رَﻴﻦِ ﻨِ ﻣْ ﺆُ اﻟْﻤَ ﻦِ ﻣ 944B“Of the believers are men who are true to the covenant, which they made with Allah.” (Surah Ahzab 33:23) 2358B…with Khuzaimah bin Thabit and then we included it in the Quran. 2359BTherefore, it is possible that many previous and succeeding verses might have remained, which are not included in this verse.
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It is narrated from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) that in Surah Ahzab there were many verses in condemnation of the people of Quraish, exceeding the length of Surah Baqarah; but they omitted and distorted it. Third Proof
It is not even known whether the arrangement of Quran is according to revelation, because it is said regarding many Meccan chapters that they contain many Medinite verses and vice versa, as it is possible that they were revealed at some other time and might have been included knowingly or unknowingly. Fourth Proof
It is known from authentic and wide related traditions of Sunni and Shia that this verse is only in the honor of Ahle Bayt (a.s.). If the reason of compatibility of the verses is not clear to us, there is no harm in it. I mentioned this in replies to their objections in my other detailed books and this treatise is insufficient to mention them. When the Almighty Allah has removed impurity from them, it should be that all those addressed in the verse be away from sin, especially when hyperbole is mentioned in the verse after this, which is the clear context of universality. Therefore, it is necessary that those personages be infallible from all sins. If it is said that the verse does not prove infallibility in future, we would say that when infallibility is proved in general, it is sufficient, because no one in the Ummah believes that they were infallible at times and not infallible at other times. This is the difference of compound consensus that they themselves do not accept as valid, in spite of the fact wherever intention is mentioned with this verb form, it denotes fulfillment of the action and it is permanent.
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63B ُ ﻜِ ﺑُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ُﻳﺪِ ﺮُ ﻳ َ ﺮْﺴُ اﻟْﻌُ ﻢُ ﻜِ ﺑُﻳﺪِ ﺮُ ﻳَ ﻻَ وَ ﺮْﺴُ اﻟْﻴُ ﻢ 945B“Allah desires ease for you, and He does not desire for you difficulty.” (Surah Baqarah 2:185) 64B ْ ﻢُ ﻜْ ﻨَ ﻋَ ﱢﻒ ﻔَﺨُ ﻳْ نَ أُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ُﻳﺪِ ﺮُ ﻳ 946B“Allah desires that He should make light your burdens.” (Surah Nisa 4:28) 65B ِ ﺮُ ﻳ ِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ مَ ﻼَﻮا ﻛُ ﱢﻟ ﺪَ ﺒُ ﻳـْ نَ أَونُﻳﺪ 947B“They desire to change the word of Allah.” (Surah Fath 48:15) 66B ْ ﻢُ ﱠﻬ ﻠِ ﻀُ ﻳْ نَ أُﺎنَﻄْ ﱠﻴ اﻟﺸُﻳﺪِ ﺮُ ﻳَ و 948B“ ِ◌ِ◌ِ◌ And the Shaitan desires to lead them astray.” (Surah Nisa 4:60) 2364BThere are many verses like this and when infallibility is proved, Imamate is also proved in those men, from the reasonings mentioned in the infallibility of the Imams, because by consensus of the Ummah, no one else is infallible other than them. 7837BEighth Exclusive Quality
2365BIt is the verse of Mubahila:
67B َ ﻓ ُ عْ ﺪَا ﻧْ ﻮَﺎﻟَ ﻌَ ﺗـْﻞُ ﻘَ ﻓـِ ﻢْ ﻠِ اﻟْﻌَ ﻦِ ﻣَ كَﺎءَﺎ ﺟَ ﻣِ ﺪْ ﻌَ ﺑـْ ﻦِ ﻣِﻴﻪِ ﻓَ ﺎﺟﱠﻚ َ ﺣْ ﻦَ ﻤ ﱠ ﻢُ ﺛْ ﻢُ ﻜَﺴُ ﻔْ ﻧـَ أَ ﺎ وَ ﻨَ ﺴُ ﻔْ ﻧـَ أَ وْ ﻢُ ﻛ َ ﺎءَﺴِ ﻧَ ﺎ وَ ﻧَ ﺎءَﺴِ ﻧَ وْ ﻢُ ﻛ َ ﺎءَ ﻨْ ﺑـَ أَ ﺎ وَ ﻧَ ﺎءَ ﻨْ ﺑـَ أ َ ﻴﻦِ ﺑِ ﺎذَﻰ اﻟْﻜَ ﻠَ ﻋِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َﺖَ ﻨْ ﻌَ ﻟْﻞَ ﻌْﺠَ ﻨَ ﻓـْﻞِ ﻬَ ﺘْ ﺒَ ﴾٦١﴿ ﻧـ
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“But whoever disputes with you in this matter (of Prophet Isa) after what has come to you of knowledge, then say: Come let us call our sons and your sons and our women and your women and our near people and your near people, then let us be earnest in prayer, and pray for the curse of Allah on the liars.” (Surah Aale Imran 3:61) Numerous widely related traditions are recorded through Sunni and Shia channels that this verse was revealed in the honor of the folks of the cloak (Aale Abaa). Thus, the authors of Mishkat and Jamiul Usool and others have narrated from Saad Ibne Abi Waqqas in Sahih Muslim that when the verse of Mubahila was revealed, the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) called Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain (a.s.) and said: O Allah, these are my Ahle Bayt (a.s.). Also, in Mishkat, Jamiul Usool and Sahih Muslim, it is narrated from Ayesha that one morning the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) was covered in a colored sheet. Hasan came to him and he admitted him into the sheet, then Husain arrived and he was also admitted. Then he recited the above verse. Hafiz Abu Nuaim and others have narrated from Ibne Abbas that when the delegation of Najran arrived and the Almighty Allah revealed this verse, the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) came with Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain and said: When I supplicate, you say Amen. On seeing this, the delegation of Najran refused to participate in the imprecation contest and agreed to pay Jizya. The author of Kashaf has narrated that when the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) challenged the Christians to imprecation contest; they sought respite to consider the issue and agreed to participate in the contest the following day. When they consulted among themselves, they asked their chief advisor: O Abdul Masih, what do you think is the best recourse? He replied: Christians, by God, you have realized that Muhammad is a messenger prophet and he has given exhaustive argument
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about Prophet Isa (a.s.). By God, no people ever debated with their prophet and their elders survived and their sons grew up. If you join him in the contest you all would be destroyed that same moment. If you are loyal to your religion and do not wish to abandon it, you should make peace with Muhammad and return home. So they came to the imprecation contest in the morning and saw the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) carrying Imam Husain (a.s.) in his arms and holding the hand of Imam Hasan (a.s.), followed by Lady Fatima (s.a.) and finally Ali (a.s.). The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) had instructed them to say Amen when he supplicates. Observing this scene, the Christian Bishop said: O Christians, I am seeing such faces, that were they to supplicate God to uproot this mountain He would not reject it. Therefore, if you enter into imprecation contest with them, all of you would be destroyed and no Christian would remain on the face of the earth till Judgment Day. They said: O Abul Qasim, we have resolved not to participate in the imprecation contest. You may follow your religion and we would remain on ours. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: If you refuse to participate in the imprecation contest, you must accept Islam so that you may also get all the rights and duties of Muslims, but they refused. So the Prophet said that he would fight against them. but they said that they had no capacity to fight the Arabs; on the contrary, they sought reconciliation. Please don’t fight us and do not terrify us and restrain us from our faith. We will make peace upon payment of 2000 robes as Jizya every year; a thousand in the month of Safar and a thousand in Rajab and thirty ordinary coats of mail as ransom. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) agreed and said: By the one, in whose control my life is, destruction came very close to the people of Najran. If they had participated in the imprecation contest all would have transmogrified into apes and pigs and this valley would have become fire for them. Indeed the Almighty
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Allah would have destroyed Najran and its people; on the contrary, even the bird in the trees. Before the end of the year, all Christians would have been destroyed. Thalabi, in his Tafsir, has also narrated this report verbatim. Then the author of Kashaf, after mentioning the report of Ayesha, has said at the end: When the Prophet admitted them into the cloak, he said: 68B ﱢ اﻟﺮُ ﻢُ ﻜْ ﻨَ ﻋَﺐِ ﻫْ ﺬُ ﻴِ ﻟُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ُﻳﺪِ ﺮُﺎ ﻳَ ﱠﻤ ﻧِ إ َ ﺲْ ﺟ 950B“Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you.” (Surah Ahzab 33:33) 2378BThe description of the event of Mubahila is widely related among Sunni and Shia commentators, tradition scholars and historians; although there is difference of opinion in some of its aspects; but there is no dispute that Mubahila took place with the folks of the blanket and no one else was included with them. In any case, this incident proves the rightfulness of the Prophet and the Imamate of Ali (a.s.) and the excellence of all the folks of the blanket from a number of aspects. A million salutations and benedictions be upon them. 7838BFirst Aspect
2379BIt is that if the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) did not have complete confidence on his rightfulness, he would not have agreed to the contest with such daring; and would not have brought his beloved relatives, who had belief in his veracity against the sharp edge of swiftly acceptable supplication. 7839BSecond Aspect
2380BHe informed them that if you agree to enter into the imprecation contest with me, divine retribution would descend on you. He would not have issued the challenge if he had no
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confidence in his claim, and this exaggeration would have been an expression of his falsehood and no one acts in this way. Moreover, there is consensus of all sects that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was more intelligent than all the wise men of all times. Third Aspect
It is that the Christians refused to accept the challenge. If they had not been aware of the rightfulness of the Prophet, they should not have paid heed to the imprecation of the Prophet and his Ahle Bayt (a.s.). They would have kept their honor secure among their followers and would have stepped forward to confront the Muslims in a mortal battle. They would have involved their ladies, children and wealth in captivity, killings and hardships and not agreed to accept degradation and humility of paying Jizya. Fourth Aspect
It is mentioned in most reports that Christians were dissuading each other from the imprecation contest and saying that the rightfulness of the Prophet has become clear to us and that only he is the promised prophet. That is why they dissuaded each other. Fifth Aspect
It becomes apparent from this great incident that after the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), Amirul Momineen (a.s.), Fatima, Hasan and Husain, are the most excellent among the creatures of God and the most beloved to the Prophet. Even their adversaries and prejudiced opponents like Zamakhshari, Baidhawi and Fakhre Raazi etc. have admitted this. Zamakhshari, who is the most prejudiced of them all, has written in Kashaf: If you say that the issuing of challenge to the
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opponents was to prove that they are false, this matter was only between the Prophet and the opponents; then what was the use of including ladies and children in the imprecation contest? We would reply that their inclusion was proof of greater confidence in his rightfulness than if he had participated in the imprecation contest alone. Since their inclusion was an expression of a daring that along with himself he brought his beloved ones as well to a perilous situation of cursing and destruction and thus clarified that he was certain of the falsity of the opponents. That is he wanted the opponents to be destroyed along with their relatives and friends. He chose to take ladies and children for the imprecation contest as they were most beloved to him than others. It often happens that a person himself steps forward in a dangerous situation so that his dear ones may not suffer any harm. That is they used to take their ladies and children in battles so that they may not flee at the slightest danger. That is why the Almighty Allah has in the verse of Mubahila preferred them to his (Prophet’s) own life so that he may show that they are more dear to him than his life. Then Muhaddith Zamakhshari says: This is the greatest proof for the excellence of the folks of the blanket and no proof can be stronger. (End of Zamakhshari’s statement). We say that when we came to know that those personages were most beloved to the Prophet, it should necessitate that they would be best in morals; because it is clear to every sane person that the Prophet’s love for them was not more than his love for others due to human relations; on the contrary, it was, because the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) loved those who were most beloved in the view of Allah, because many verses and traditions condemn loving children, parents, forefathers and relatives who lack religion. Also, it is known from the life history of the Prophet that he used to remove from his proximity those of his relatives who had no love for God; like Abu Lahab, because he was a disbeliever.
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He also respected those who were devoted to Allah; like Salman, Abuzar, Miqdad and similar believers. Thus, Imam Zainul Abideen (a.s.) says in praise of those personages: When they were the best creatures and best people, to prefer others for Imamate would be logically wrong. Sixth Aspect
Fakhre Raazi, the great Ahle Sunnat scholar, who is famous for his prejudice says that Shia prove from this verse that Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.) is superior to all prophets and companions, except for the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), because the Almighty Allah said: Let us call our selves and your selves. So the self does not imply the holy self of Muhammad, because calling implies calling someone else and a person does not call himself. Therefore, it should imply some other self, and according to consensus of supporters and opponents other than ladies and children, one compared to ‘our selves’ was none other than Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.). So it shows that the Almighty Allah called the self of Ali as self of the Prophet and unity in two selves is impossible. So it must have been a metaphor. And it is fixed in principles of jurisprudence that implication to the nearest metaphor is preferable to applying it to a remote metaphor and the nearest metaphor shares all acts and perfections, except what is outside the pale of evidence and beyond scope of consensus; that is prophethood, and Ali does not share this with him. Therefore, he should share other perfections, and from the perfections of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) is that he was supreme among all prophets and companions. Therefore, Ali (a.s.) should also be superior to all prophets and companions. After explaining all reasonings, he says that since there is consensus that Muhammad is superior to Ali, and also that divine prophets are superior to non-prophets, they also are superior to Ali. But he has not replied to the superiority of Ali over other companions, because he was not having any reply to
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it and the invalidity of the reply he gave about the prophets is also clear, because Shia do not accept this consensus and they say that even if the entire nation has reached consensus, they do not accept it. On the contrary, its invalidity is clear, because it is the belief of most Shia scholars that Ali (a.s.) and all the Holy Imams (a.s.), except for the Last Prophet, are superior to all the prophets. It is mentioned in acceptable or rather widely related traditions narrated from their Imams regarding this since all other prefaces are clear in them, this scholar, who is called as the Imam of the doubters, could not use them. Therefore, Imamate of Amirul Momineen (a.s.) is also proved from this reasoning, because from all the perfections of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) is the obligatoriness of his Imamate and obedience and it is other that prophethood; therefore, it is necessary that he should be an Imam. Also, he being superior to all prophets is necessary for the lofty position of Imamate overlooking the fact that the preference of the inferior is invalid. If he says that it could imply calling the self metaphorically and one metaphor is not preferable to another, this can be replied in a number of ways, but I will be content to present only two replies in this treatise: First Reply
The metaphor in implication to the self is clearer than other metaphors and among Arabs and non-Arabs it is often said: You are equal to my life. This meaning is mentioned in plenty of traditional reports recorded through Shia and Sunni channels on the specialty of Ali (a.s.). Thus, it is mentioned in Sihah books that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said to Ali (a.s.): O Ali you are from me and I am from you. It is mentioned in Firdosul Akhbar that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Ali is to me like the head is to the body.
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According to another report: He is like my soul. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) addressed a group of hypocrites: Establish prayer and pay Zakat, otherwise I will send to you one, who is to me like my self. That is Ali. There are many traditions regarding this and all this is the context of that same metaphor. Second Reply
This verse proves his excellence and Imamate from every aspect, because the Almighty Allah has mentioned third person imperative verb form of ‘Nadoo’. It is from the aspect of inclusion of the addressees or for respect, which is obvious on this occasion. Or it is for the inclusion of the Ummah and on the basis of the last two possibilities the style of the address would be: Let us call our sons and let us call your sons. There is no doubt that the first possibility is clearer; and these two possibilities also: That: we are calling our and your sons, women and selves. Secondly, from us and you each of us should call the sons, women and selves of the two sides. The former is clearer. Thus, Baidhawi and most commentators have clarified this, although most aspects do not interfere in ‘we are from them’, but they were mentioned for the completion of possibilities. Also, it is possible that the plurality of sons, women and selves may for respect or for inclusion of Ummah or the style of address to the addressees may imply ‘let us call our sons and your sons’ the repetition of ‘sons; may be for verbal concession. Since the pronouns are conjunction on genitive form, the repetition of preposition is also genitive form according to experts of Arabic. Or it might be from the aspect that the beginning is apparently probable with circumstantial expression as they are having the eligibility of entering the Mubahila more than any other group; and when he did not find anyone other than them having this eligibility, he brought that group and the
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determination of that group was not necessary before the occurrence of Mubahila. In the same way, it was not necessary for the gathering of the pronouns of ‘our sons’, ‘our women’ and ‘our selves’ that it is having all possibilities and that also in the beginning; because it is known that everyone’s special invitation was by his own group. First Reason
Therefore, we say that if plurality is for respect and the self implies one, who is the motivator of Mubahila and it is known that the motivation for Mubahila was from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.); and on the basis of consensus of traditional reports, Ali (a.s.) was included in Mubahila; therefore, his inclusion would be of no use and the Christians would have said: Why did you bring him when it was not stipulated? Except that that gentleman was the self of the Prophet due to further specification; as if both were like one person. That is why he brought him and this reason, though it is very remote, can be included in our implication and would be more harmful to the opponents only. Second Reason
We say that if the Ummah or the companions were included in the Mubahila, why he did not take from the Mubahila the least from those who were present there? Except we say that inclusion of all generates clamor and it would have been alleged that the Prophet was not confident of his claim that he has brought a huge crowd in order to threaten by his majority and glory or that he relied on the prayer of the people. So he came as a representative of all and brought Amirul Momineen (a.s.) that he should be their Imam and leader.
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Also his sons were the sons of the Prophet and Fatima, daughter of the Prophet was his wife, due to this he was having a special relationship with the Prophet from the whole Ummah and companions. These two personages came for the Mubahila from themselves as well as the whole Ummah, like that group was also the representing the Christians and had come on behalf of all of them. Therefore, this reason also is also most effective in proving our objective. In the same way, the fourth reason also proves the excellence of Ali (a.s.) from the aspect that all companions who were eligible to be included in Mubahila were none other than Ali, his wife and his sons. This is the proof that no one else is having the eligibility of Imamate. Therefore, to stop them does not give them the benefit of the first meaning; in spite of the fact that that meaning should supported by traditions of both sides as has become clear. If it is said that it is applied to nearest metaphor when other meanings are not clear and it is known that on occasions of love and appropriation, this implication is often used; we would reply that even though those traditions, which he mentioned above prove that only this meaning is not implied, but it is not necessary to insist on it and as proof of their being more worthy of Imamate and Caliphate the real aim is on this occasion is sufficient for the purpose discourse, which was repeatedly mentioned. Ninth Exclusive Quality 69B ٌ ﺔَ ﻴِ اﻋَ وٌ نُ ذُﺎ أَ ﻬَ ﻴـِ ﻌَ ﺗَ ﴾١٢﴿ و 951B“And that the retaining ear might retain it.” (Surah Haqqah 69:12) 2408BThat is he obtains and retains the verses of Quran and divine facts. Shia and Sunni scholars have narrated through acceptable channels that this verse was revealed in the honor of Amirul Momineen (a.s.).
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Thus, Thalabi in his Tafsir, Hafiz Abu Nuaim in his Hilya, Wahidi in his Asbabun Nuzul, Tabari in Khasais, Raghib Isfahani in Mahazirat, Ibne Maghazali in Manaqib, Ibne Marduya in his Manaqib, and most Shia and Sunni tradition scholars and commentators have narrated from Amirul Momineen (a.s.), Ibne Abbas, Buraidah Aslami, Zahak and a large number of people and some versions state that Amirul Momineen (a.s.) said: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) embraced me and said: My Lord has commanded me to make you proximate to me and not to keep you away from me and to teach my sciences to you. Therefore, it is incumbent on me to obey my Lord and it is incumbent on you to learn those sciences and not to forget them. After that the captioned verse was revealed. According to another report, when this verse was revealed, the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: I prayed to the Almighty Allah to deem them as your ears and the Almighty Allah accepted my prayer. Amirul Momineen (a.s.) said: After that I never forgot anything I heard from the Prophet; and how was it possible from me to forget, when the Prophet had prayed? Zamakhshari, Fakhre Raazi, in spite of extreme prejudice have narrated this report. Zamakhshari has written in Kashaf that ‘retaining ear’ denotes the ears, which remember whatever they hear, and do not forsake acting on its commands. After that they have mentioned this last report: If you say why the Almighty Allah had mentioned ‘ear’ as a singular and a common noun, we would reply that it is for intelligence of one, who has a very good memory. The condemnation of people is there that one ear, which remembers is sufficient and in the view of Allah it is like a numerous group and there is no need of another group, even though it may fill up the whole world. [End of Zamakhshari’s statement]. The Almighty Allah had made them write it and through their statements admit that the benefit of sending of the Prophet
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and revelation of the verses was especially for Imam Ali (a.s.). Only he is the preserver of divine sciences. Then how can he remain a subject of some ignorant fellows, who were needful of him in all rules and laws and used to inquire about them from him only? The Almighty Allah has said: ﻳ 70B ِ ي اﻟﱠﺬ ِ ﻮَ ﺘْ ﺴَ ﻳْﻞَ ﻫ َ ﻮنُ ﻤَ ﻠْ ﻌَ ﻳـَ ﻻَﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ َ وَﻮنُ ﻤَ ﻠْ ﻌَ ﻳـَ ﻦ 952B“Are those who know and those who do not know alike?” (Surah Zumar 39:9) 2414BAll verses and reasonings mentioned above are supported by the fact that Imam Ali (a.s.) was the most knowledgeable of the people about meanings and words of the Holy Quran. Ibne Hajar has narrated from Ibne Saad that Amirul Momineen (a.s.) said: By Allah, no verse was revealed, but that I know regarding what it was revealed, where it was revealed and at what time it was revealed. Indeed my Lord has bestowed me with a perceptive heart and a speaking tongue. 2415BIt is also narrated from Ibne Saad and Abu Tufayl that Ali (a.s.) said: Ask me about the Book of Allah. Indeed the Almighty Allah has not revealed any verse, but I know whether it was revealed at night or day, whether it was revealed in plains or mountains. 2416BIbne Dawood has narrated from Muhammad Ibne Sirrin that when the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) passed away from this world, Ali (a.s.) did not pay allegiance to Abu Bakr and he said: I have taken an oath that I will not put on my cloak, except to go out for prayers and I will gather the Quran. Then he compiled the Quran according to the order of revelation. 2417BIbne Sirrin says: How nice it would have been if we had received that Quran, because it contained numerous sciences. Tabari has narrated from Umme Salma that he said: I heard from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.): Ali is with Quran and Quran is with Ali and the two shall not separate till they meet me at Hauze Kauthar.
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It is also narrated that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said during his terminal illness: O people, very soon I shall pass away. I don’t say much to you, except that I exhaust my argument on you; indeed I leave among you the Book of Allah and my progeny, my Ahle Bayt (a.s.). Then he raised the hand of Ali and said: This Ali is with Quran and the Quran is with Ali. The two of them would not separate from each other till they meet me at Hauze Kauthar. At that time I would ask how you treated them after me. The author says: When such a person, who in spite of extreme prejudice, has narrated these traditions and has not refuted them; it is sufficient to prove his Imamate and Caliphate, whereas at the time of his passing away, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: I am going and I leave among you in my stead two things; then he took the hand of Ali (a.s.) and said: He is with Quran and the two of them will not separate from each other. It is clear that the words and meaning of Quran is with him only and only he is the commentator of Quran and the Quran testifies to his rightfulness; and following Quran is invalid without following him. After that he emphatically says: On Judgment Day, I will ask you, how you treated them. Any sane individual, who contemplates on this tradition and who is unaffected by prejudice, would understand that it is a clear declaration on his appointment, overlooking the fact that his being well versed is proved and this is sufficient for his being more qualified for Imamate. Tenth Exclusive Quality ﻮا 71B ُ ﻨَ آﻣَﻳﻦِ ﱠ اﻟﱠﺬ نِ إ ا ّ دُ وُ ﻦٰ َ ﻤْ اﻟﺮﱠﺣ ُ ﻢُ ﻬَ ﻟُﻞَ ﻌْﺠَ ﻴَ ﺳِﺎتَﺤِﻮا اﻟﺼﱠﺎﻟ ُ ﻠِ ﻤَ ﻋَ و ٩٦﴿﴾
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“Surely (as for) those who believe and do good deeds for them will Allah bring about love.” (Surah Maryam 19:96) Thalabi said: Allah loves them and puts their love into the hearts of the believers of the heavens and the earth. Then he has narrated through his chain of authorities that Baraa bin Azib reported that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said to Ali (a.s.): Say: O Allah appoint a covenant for me with You and make my love rooted in the hearts of believers. At that time the Almighty Allah revealed this verse. Hafiz Abu Nuaim has mentioned this report in Maa Nazala minal Quran fee Ali quoting his chains of authorities from Baraa bin Azib. Also, through Zahak through his chains of authorities, has narrated from Ibne Abbas that this verse was revealed in the honor of Amirul Momineen (a.s.). That is the Almighty Allah appoints his love in the hearts of believers. Also, it is narrated that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said to Ali: Raise your head and ask your Lord so that He gives you whatever you may ask. Ali (a.s.) raised his hands and said: O Lord, fix a love for me with You. At that time Jibraeel brought this verse. Similarly, Ibne Jubair has narrated in the interpretation of this verse that love for Ali (a.s.) resides in the heart of every believer. It is narrated from Muhammad bin Hanafiyyah that there is no believer, but that the love of Ali (a.s.) is there in his heart. It is also narrated from Ibne Abbas that we were in Mecca. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) held the hand of Ali (a.s.) and then prayed four units of prayer on Mount Badr and looking at the heavens, said to Ali (a.s.): Raise your hands to the heavens and pray and ask for whatever you want from Allah so that He may grant it to you. He prayed: O Allah, appoint for me an oath and love. The Almighty Allah revealed this verse and the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) recited it to the companions. They expressed great astonishment on this incident.
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The Prophet asked: Why are you astonished? The Quran has four parts: one is especially in praise of us, Ahle Bayt, one part in condemnation of our enemies, one part regarding the lawful and the unlawful and one part regarding duties and rules and regulations. Indeed the Almighty Allah has sent the best verses of Quran in praise of Ali (a.s.) and most tradition scholars and commentators have stated that this verse was revealed about him as Nishapuri in his famous Tafsir, Ibne Marduya in Manaqib, Sajistani in Gharaibul Quran, Tabari in Khasais, Ibne Hajar in Sawaiq and other scholars have mentioned in their books. Overlooking the acceptable traditional reports mentioned in Shia books, which we do not mention in this treatise, it is obvious that this devotion, which was sent down by the prayer of the Prophet is specially related to Ali (a.s.). in addition to the love that exists between all believers; on the contrary, this love is a part of faith and abandoning it leads to infidelity and hypocrisy. It is a necessity of Imamate. Also ‘good deeds’ is proper noun and it denotes generality. Therefore, it proves his infallibility and Infallibility is necessary for Imamate. Moreover, God, forbid, if a mistake were to be committed by him, his hatred would become necessary and it is in negation of love; and it supports the fact that it does not denote the love of common believers. It is a love, which is a pillar of religion and faith. On the contrary, it denotes asking: Bestow him that position, due to which love towards him may become incumbent on all believers; and his love is the proof of his faith. Its proof is a traditional report mentioned in Mishkat from Sahih Tirmidhi and Musnad Ahmad Hanbal that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: No hypocrite loves Ali and no believer hates him. It is also narrated from Musnad that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: One, who abuses Ali abuses me. Ibne Abde Barr has said in Istiab that a group of companions have narrated that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said to Ali (a.s.): None loves
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you, but a believer, and none hates you, but a hypocrite. Ali (a.s.) said: By Allah, the Ummi Prophet promised me that none will love me, but a believer and none will hate me, but a hypocrite. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: Only that one loves Ali, who has loved me, and one, who hates Ali, has hated me. One, who hurts Ali, has indeed hurt me and one, who has hurt me, has hurt Allah. It is narrated from Jabir that he said: During the time of the Prophet we did not recognize the hypocrites, except by their hatred to Ali. [So far we mentioned the reports of Ibne Abde Barr]. It is narrated from Sahih Tirmidhi in Jamiul Usool from Imam Ali (a.s.) that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) held the hands of Imam Hasan (a.s.) and Imam Husain (a.s.) and said: One, who loves me, loves them, and loves their father and mother. On Judgment Day he would be in my level with me. Also in Sahih Tirmidhi it is narrated from Abu Dujana that he said: We Ansar used to recognize the hypocrites through their hatred for Ali (a.s.). In Sahih Tirmidhi also, it is narrated from Umme Salma. In Sahih Muslim, Tirmidhi and Nasai it is mentioned that Imam Ali (a.s.) said: By the one, who split the seed, created the grass and created the creatures, the Ummi Prophet told me: None loves you, but a believer and none hate you, but a hypocrite. Ibne Hajar in Sawaiqul Mohriqa has narrated from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) that when Amr Aslami complained to the Prophet about Amirul Momineen (a.s.), he said: You have distressed me. Amr said: I seek refuge of Allah from causing distress to you. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: One, who caused distress to Ali has in fact distressed me. Ibne Hajar narrates that Buraidah had gone to Yemen with Ali (a.s.) and when they returned, he said to his companions: Ali has taken a slave girl from Khums property. Hypocritical
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companions told him to complain about it to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), so that perhaps Ali (a.s.) might be discredited in his view. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) heard this dialogue from behind the door and he came before them furious and said: Why is a group so inimical to Ali? One, who hates Ali, has certainly been inimical to me; and one, who becomes aloof from Ali, has become aloof from me. Ali is from me and I am from him. He is created from my essence and I am created through the essence of Ibrahim (a.s.) and I am better than Ibrahim. Then he recited the verse: 72B ٍ ﺾْ ﻌَ ﺑـْ ﻦِﺎ ﻣَ ﻬُﻀْ ﻌَ ﺑـً ﱠﺔ ﱢﻳ رُ ۗ ذ ◌ ٌ ﻴﻢِ ﻠَ ﻋٌﻴﻊِ ﻤَ ﺳُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ ﴾٣٤﴿ و 954B“Offspring, one of the other; and Allah is Hearing, Knowing.” (Surah Aale Imran 3:34) 2439BO Buraidah, perhaps you don’t know that the right of Ali in Khums is more than that slave girl that Ali has taken. 2440BThis point is mentioned in Jamiul Usool narrating from Sahih Tirmidhi and Sahih Bukhari. 2441BIbne Hajar, Ibne Athir, Tirmidhi, author of Mishkat and other tradition scholars have narrated through various chains of authorities from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) that he said: Indeed the Almighty Allah commanded me to love four persons: Ali, Salman, Abuzar and Miqdad. It is obvious that the command of loving those four persons was, because they did not forsake Ali (a.s.) in any way. 2442BIbne Hajar has narrated through a number of channels from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) that he said: One, who distressed Ali, has distressed me. 2443BIt is narrated from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) that he said: One, who has abused Ali (a.s.), has abused me. 2444BIt is narrated from Umme Salma that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: One, who loves you has loved me, and one,
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who has loved me has loved Allah. One, who hates Ali, has hated me and one, who hates me, has hated Allah. It is narrated from Anas that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: Love of Ali is at the top of the scroll of deeds of a believer. It is narrated from Manaqib Ahmad bin Hanbal that Ali (a.s.) said: I was asleep in an orchard of Medina. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) awakened me and said: You are my brother and the father of my sons. You will fight for my practice after me. One, who dies on my oath, will be in Paradise and one, who dies on your oath, would have fulfilled his oath. One, who dies after you on your love, the Almighty Allah will make his end with me and faith as long as the sun rises and sets. It is narrated in many traditions that if people had united on the love of Ali (a.s.), the Almighty Allah would not have created Hell. It is mentioned in Firdosul Akhbaar of Dailami and other books of Ahle Sunnat from Abdullah Ibne Umar that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: Love of Allah is a goodness, with which sins do not cause any harm and enmity of Ali is that sin, with which all good deeds are useless. It is also narrated from him that love of Ali consumes sins like fire consumes dry wood. Harawi and Gharibain quote from Ubadah bin Samit that he said: We used to test the legitimacy of children through the love of Ali (a.s.). Whichever child was found not loving Ali (a.s.), he was not considered legitimate. There are a large number of traditions in this regard from Shia and Sunni channels and through the style of those reports, it is obvious to every person with insight that these reports either denote Imamate or some other lofty rank, for which Imamate is necessary, because the supremacy of a person in an Ummah and his love being the sign of his faith and legitimacy and a cause of everlasting success and entering perpetual Paradise and that his
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love should be the love of Allah and the Messenger, and his enmity being the sign of hypocrisy and illegitimacy and everlasting wretchedness and everlasting punishment should be enmity of God and Messenger; it could not have been, except that he should be the leader of the Ummah, Caliph of God and successor of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and his Wilayat should be a part of faith and Islam. Rather, he should be deserving of all the pillars of Islam and belief. The rank of Imamate, which follows the rank of prophethood cannot be imagined to be same as love of all believers, even though from the aspect of faith is a cause of divine rewards and it is love of faith, but it is not that their love in itself should be necessary in obtaining belief; and their enmity is evil from the aspect of disobedience, but its limit is that if it is expressed, it would be a great sin, but it does not entail hypocrisy, expulsion from faith and everlasting punishment. Therefore, it is learnt that the Wilayat of Ali (a.s.) is next to the dual testimony of faith; like denial of monotheism and prophethood makes one go out of the pale of Islam, in the same way, denial of Wilayat, on the contrary, abandoning the love of Ali (a.s.) makes a man go out of faith or rather Islam. If someone says that on the basis of whatever you have mentioned, it becomes necessary that the position of Ali would be higher than that of prophethood, although denial of prophethood is a cause of going to Hell, but its admission does not lead one to faith and enter Paradise. We will reply that although confession of prophethood is superior and it is the root, but since confession of Imamate necessarily includes the confession of prophethood and confession of prophethood does not necessarily include confession of Imamate and the confession of Imamate is a part of faith that is why confession of Imamate leads to deliverance and mere confession of prophethood cannot lead to deliverance, because special actualization depends on general actualization and general actualization does not depend on special
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actualization; like where there is no animal it is not necessary that man should be present there; but when man is present there, animal will also be there. In the same way, confession of divine oneness is superior to confession of prophethood, but it does not necessarily lead to confession of prophethood and confession of prophethood necessarily includes confession of the creator and His oneness; but both these confessions cannot guarantee deliverance till confession of Imamate is not added to them. Confession of Wilayat and Imamate of Amirul Momineen (a.s.) and following him, confession of all the Holy Imams (a.s.); also belief in resurrection and all necessary fundamentals of faith are important, because only they will perfect the faith of people and through their explanation the various parts of faith become clear. That is why Wilayat of the Imam leads to increase in ranks and deliverance from chastisement. Eleventh Exclusive Quality 73B ِ ﻦَ ﱠ ﻣ ﺮِ ﱠ اﻟْﺒ ﻦِﻜٰ َ ﻟَ ﺎ وَ ﻫِﻮرُ ﻬُ ﻇ ْ ﻦِ ﻣ َﻮتُ ﻴُ ﻮا اﻟْﺒـُ ﺗْ ﺄَ ﺗ ْ نَ ﺄِ ﱡ ﺑ ﺮِ اﻟْﺒ َﺲْ ﻴَ ﻟ ٰ ﻰَ ﱠﻘ ۗ اﺗـ ﺎ ◌ َ ﻬِاﺑَ ﻮْ ﺑـَ أ ْ ﻦِ ﻣ َﻮتُ ﻴُ ﻮا اﻟْﺒـُ ﺗْ أَ ۚ و ◌ ْ ﻢُ ﱠﻜ ﻠَ ﻌَ ﻟَ ﻮا اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ُ ﱠﻘ اﺗـَ و ﴾١٨٩﴿ َﻮنُﺤِﻠْﻔُﺗـ 955B“It is not righteousness that you should enter the houses at their backs, but righteousness is this that one should guard (against evil); and go into the houses by their doors and be careful (of your duty) to Allah, that you may be successful.” (Surah Baqarah 2:189) 2457BScholars and commentators say that it implies obtaining the issues of the world and the hereafter through proper channels; that knowledge and wisdom should be obtained through its proper sources. Thus, the path of knowledge and its gate are the Imams of Ahle Bayt (a.s.).
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Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) says that Aale Muhammad (a.s.) are the gates of Allah and His mediums; they invite the people to Him and they are the guides. They call people to Paradise and they guide them to it till Judgment Day. This is further supported by a tradition of Jamiul Usul quoted from Sahih Tirmidhi that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate. Also, in Mishkat, it is narrated from Tirmidhi that I am the abode of wisdom and Ali is its gate. It is narrated in Istiab that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate. One, who seeks knowledge, should come through the gate. A similar tradition is mentioned in Manaqib Khwarizmi as well. This tradition is from the widely related ones, which does not have any scope for doubt if one is devoid of prejudice. The verse quoted above thus implies that if we want knowledge and cognition, we must come to Amirul Momineen (a.s.). The best and the most important need for an Imam is his knowledge, which the whole community is in need of. Same is the case regarding judgment of cases. Thus, it is proved that there is no one other than Imam Ali (a.s.), who is so much needed in the Islamic Ummah after the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). We should know that this tradition is another proof that Imam Ali (a.s.) is the most knowledgeable one of the Ummah. Ibne Abde Barr, an important Ahle Sunnat scholar, says in Istiab that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said to the companions: The most knowledgeable of them is Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.). As long as a person does not get expertise in all sciences, he does not become an expert judge. Moreover, it is narrated from Ibne Abbas that Umar used to say: Ali is the most knowledgeable among us about divine laws.
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It is said that people asked Ataa, whether there was anyone among the companions of Muhammad more knowledgeable than Ali (a.s.)? He replied: No. by Allah, I don’t know of anyone more knowledgeable than him. Ataa was a prominent Ahle Sunnat scholar and traditionist. Also, it is narrated from Ibne Abbas that he used to say: By Allah, Ali was given nine parts of knowledge, which were exclusive for him and the tenth part he shared with others. It is also narrated from Saad Ibne Musayyab that Umar used to seek the refuge of God from an eventuality when he would have to face a problem, in which Ali would not be there to solve it for him. He (Umar) used to often remark: If Ali was not there Umar would have perished. Fakhre Raazi, a Sunni Imam, says in Arbaeen on behalf of Shia that no one has any dispute that Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.) was extremely brilliant, knowledgeable and at the pinnacle of learning; whereas the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), who was an epitome of knowledge and wisdom was very much concerned about his training and guidance. Since his childhood, Ali (a.s.) remained under the care of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and in his youth, he became his son-in-law. All the time he was in his presence and no obstacle ever came between the Prophet and his training of Ali (a.s.). Therefore, it is obvious that such a student in service of such a teacher in such special circumstances should reach the pinnacle of perfection and excellence. But Abu Bakr came into the service of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) after having spent half his life and in that age also, he used to meet the Prophet only once a day and that also for a short period. It is famous that: Knowledge in childhood is like inscription on a stone that is never erased; and in old age it is like a mark on earthenware, which is erased even with the slightest touch. Therefore, it is proved from this brief explanation that Ali is most excellent and most knowledgeable.
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The author says: Supporting the discourse of Fakhre Raazi in favor of Shia is a tradition narrated in Jamiul Usool from Sahih Tirmidhi that Ali (a.s.) said: I remained in the company of the Prophet; when I asked him something, he informed me about it; if I remained quiet, the Prophet initiated the discussion. Moreover, it is narrated from Sahih Nasai that Ali said: I held such a position with the Prophet that was not held by anyone else. I used to arrive at the door of the Prophet early in the morning and say: Peace on you, O Prophet of Allah. If the Prophet stopped after clearing his throat I went back, otherwise I joined him. In Mishkat, it is narrated from Sahih Tirmidhi from Umme Atiyyah that she said: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) sent Ali (a.s.) on some battle. I saw him raising his hands to supplicate: O Lord, do not make me die till You bring back Ali to me. There are other such traditions as well, which prove excess of their meeting, their proximity and show the complete arrangement of the Prophet in training of Amirul Momineen (a.s.). Then Fakhre Raazi says that there may be some evidences proving the excellence of Ali (a.s.). First Evidence
The verse:
74B ٌ ﺔَ ﻴِ اﻋَ وٌ نُ ذُﺎ أَ ﻬَ ﻴـِ ﻌَ ﺗَ ﴾١٢﴿ و 956B“And that the retaining ear might retain it.” (Surah Haqqah 69:12) 2482B…which is revealed in honor of Ali (a.s.) and when it becomes restricted to excess of understanding, it would become restricted to excess of knowledge.
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Second Evidence
The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: Ali is the best of you all in adjudication. Since adjudication is needful of all information; so when he is having precedence on every person in adjudication, he is having precedence to everyone in all sciences. Third Evidence
Umar issued wrong judgments a number of times and Ali corrected him. Regarding this he has mentioned many cases, whose mention will prolong this discussion. Such wrong decisions were given by others many times, but such a thing never happened in case of Ali. Fourth Evidence
Ali (a.s.) himself used to say: If Caliphate is given to me and I occupy the seat of Caliphate, without any doubt, I will judge among the Jews according to Taurat, Christians according to Injeel, People of Zabur according to Zabur and Muslims according to Quran. By Allah, I know which verse was revealed in desert and which was revealed at sea; which was revealed in plains and which in mountains; which at night and which in the day; and I know regarding whom it was revealed and why it was revealed. Fifth Evidence
Most excellent knowledge is the knowledge of principles of faith and divine recognition. The sermons of Ali (a.s.) and his statement contain so many secrets of the unity of Godhead, divine justice, prophethood, free will and predestination and circumstances of Judgment Day that they are not found in the statements of any other companion.
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Moreover, all the sects and theologians are attributed to Ali only in this knowledge and the relation of Shia with Ali (a.s.) is obvious, but Khawarij, in spite of the distance they maintain from Ali (a.s.), follow their leaders, who are students of Ali (a.s.). Thus, it is proved that theologians of all sects who are the most superior personages of Imamiyah sect are his students only. In the science of exegesis, Ibne Abbas, who is known as the chief of commentators, was a student of Ali (a.s.). He has reached to such a level in the science of jurisprudence that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: The most judicious among you is Ali. Of his accomplishment is the science of rhetoric and it is known that those who came after him, none of them could even reach to the lowest of his levels. Among those sciences is the knowledge of Arabic syntax and all know that Abul Aswad organized this science through the instructions of Ali. Of this knowledge is the knowledge of mysticism and this knowledge also ends with him. Therefore, it is proved that after the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), Amirul Momineen (a.s.) is the most excellent and he is the teacher of all scholars. When it is proved that he is the most learned in every science, it is necessary that he should be superior to all the people in the universe, as the Almighty Allah has said: 75B َ ﻳـَ ﻻَﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ َ وَﻮنُ ﻤَ ﻠْ ﻌَ ﻳـَﻳﻦِ ي اﻟﱠﺬ ِ ﻮَ ﺘْ ﺴَ ﻳْﻞَ ﻫ َ ﻮنُ ﻤَ ﻠْ ﻌ 957B“Are those who know and those who do not know alike?.” (Surah Zumar 39:9) 2491BHe also said: 76B ٍ ﺎتَ ﺟَ رَ دَ ﻢْ ﻠِﻮا اﻟْﻌُوﺗُ أَﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ َ وْ ﻢُ ﻜْ ﻨِ ﻮا ﻣُ ﻨَ آﻣَﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ ُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِ ﻊَ ﻓْ ﺮَ ﻳـ
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“Allah will exalt those of you who believe, and those who are given knowledge, in high degrees.” (Surah Mujadila 58:11) The author says: It is concluded from these verses along with the verses quoted before that the criterion of loftiness of ranks is faith and knowledge and we learnt about their excess in Imam Ali (a.s.); and it will be more pronounced in the coming pages. Twelfth Exclusive Quality
It is that the Almighty Allah has said: 77B َ ﻴﻦِ ﻨِ ﻣْ ﺆُ اﻟْﻤُﺢِﺎﻟَﺻَ وُﻳﻞِ ﺮْ ﺒِ ﺟَ وُ ﻩَ ﻻْ ﻮَ ﻣَ ﻮُ ﻫَ ﱠ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ نِ ﺈَ ﻓِ ﻪْ ﻴَ ﻠَا ﻋَ ﺮَﺎﻫَﻈَ ﺗْ نِ إَ و 959B“And if you back up each other against him, then surely Allah it is Who is his Guardian, and Jibraeel and the believers that do good.” (Surah Tahrim 66:4) 2494BThat is if Ayesha and Hafasa cooperate with each other to distress the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), Allah is the helper of the Prophet, Jibraeel and the best of the believers; that is one, who is most excellent of them. Shia and Sunni have narrated through many channels that ‘the believers that do good’ denotes Amirul Momineen (a.s.). 2495BIn Shawahidut Tanzeel, it is narrated from Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) that when the verse was revealed, the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) held the hand of Amirul Momineen (a.s.) and said: O people, he is the best of the believers. 2496BHafiz Abu Nuaim has narrated in Maa Nazala minal Quran fee Ali, Thalabi in his Tafsir, Ibne Marduya in Manaqib from Asma binte Umais that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: The best of the believers is Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.). 2497BFakhre Raazi has mentioned in Arbaeen that commentators of Quran say that the best of believers is Ali Ibne Abi Talib
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(a.s.). On this occasion, Maula denotes helper, because the meaning, which is common to Allah, Jibraeel and best of the believers, cannot mean anything other than helper. Therefore, this verse proves the superiority of Ali (a.s.) from two aspects: First Aspect
The word of ‘he’ proves limitation. Therefore, it would mean that the helper of Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) is God, Jibraeel and best of the believers, and no one else; and it is known that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) is on the pinnacle of commanding obedience. Second Aspect
It is that the Almighty Allah initiated with His self, then mentioned Jibraeel and then finally Ali (a.s.); and it is a very lofty rank. [End of the discourse of Fakhre Raazi]. We say that from other aspects also this verse proves the excellence of Imam Ali (a.s.), because the style of discourse proves that at that time the implication of the best of the believers was limited only to Ali (a.s.) and it is automatically obvious that among the companions there were other doers of good in the believers. Thus, either ‘doing of good’ would denote infallibility, capability of Imamate or it would denote every act of goodness and Imamate is also included in it, and this meaning is absolutely clear and if along with those ranks, we prove the superiority of Ali (a.s.) over all companions, there can be no doubt in it.
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Thirteenth Exclusive Quality
78B َ ﻌَ ﺟَ أ ِ ﺎﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِ ﺑَ ﻦَ آﻣْ ﻦَ ﻤَ ﻛِ امَ ﺮَ اﻟْﺤِ ﺪِ ﺠْﺴَ اﻟْﻤَ ةَ ﺎرَ ﻤِ ﻋَ ﺎجﱢ و َ اﻟْﺤَ ﺔَﺎﻳَ ﻘِ ﺳْ ﻢُ ﺘْ ﻠ ِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِ ﻴﻞِ ﺒَ ﻲ ﺳِ ﻓَ ﺪَﺎﻫَ ﺟَ وِ ﺮِ ﺧْ اﻵ ِ مْ ﻮَاﻟْﻴـَ ۚ و ◌ َ ﺪْ ﻨِ ﻋ َونُ ﻮَ ﺘـْﺴَ ﻳ َ ﻻ ِ ۗ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ◌ َ ﻴﻦِ ﻤِ اﻟﻈﱠﺎﻟ َ مْ ﻮَي اﻟْﻘِ ﺪْ ﻬَ ﻳـَ ﻻُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ ﴾١٩﴿ و 960B“What! do you make (one, who undertakes) the giving of drink to the pilgrims and the guarding of the Sacred Mosque like him who believes in Allah and the latter day and strives hard in Allah’s way? They are not equal with Allah; and Allah does not guide the unjust people.” (Surah Taubah 9:19) 79B ْ ﻢِ ﻬِاﻟَ ﻮْ ﻣَ ﺄِ ﺑِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِ ﻴﻞِ ﺒَ ﻲ ﺳِوا ﻓُ ﺪَﺎﻫَ ﺟَوا وُ ﺮَﺎﺟَ ﻫَﻮا وُ ﻨَ آﻣ َﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ ِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ ﺪْ ﻨِ ﻋً ﺔَ ﺟَ رَ دُ ﻢَﻈْﻋَ أْ ﻢِ ﻬِ ﺴُ ﻔْ ﻧـَ أَ ۚ و ◌ َ ونُ ﺰِﺎﺋَ اﻟْﻔُ ﻢُ ﻫَ ﻚِ ﺌٰ َ وﻟُ أَ و 961B“Those who believed and fled (their homes), and strove hard in Allah’s way with their property and their souls, are much higher in rank with Allah; and those are they who are the achievers (of their objects).” (Surah Taubah 9:20) 2501BWe should know that Shia and Sunni commentators and tradition scholars are unanimous that this verse was revealed in praise of Amirul Momineen (a.s.); so much so that the writer of Kashaf, Fakhre Raazi and Baidhawi have not denied it in spite of their extreme bigotry. 2502BThalabi has narrated from Hasan Basri, Shobi and Muhammad bin Kaab Qarti that this verse was revealed about Abbas and Talha bin Shaibah, because they used to boast: Talha used to say: I am the caretaker of the Kaaba and I have the keys; if I want, I can spend the night in the Kaaba. Abbas said: I provide Zamzam water to the pilgrims, if I want I can spend the night in the mosque. Amirul Momineen (a.s.) heard this conversation and said: I don’t know what you are saying; I
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prayed for six months facing Qibla before everyone and fought Jihad. The captioned verse was revealed at that time. In Jamiul Usul, this same traditional report is quoted from Sunan Nasai from Muhammad bin Kaab Qarti. Ibne Marduya and many other people have narrated from Shobi and Ibne Abbas that there was an argument between Amirul Momineen (a.s.) and Abbas. Abbas used to say: I am the uncle of the Prophet and you are his cousin. Providing drinking water to pilgrims and maintaining the building of the Sacred Mosque is my responsibility; what excellence can you have over me? At that time the Almighty Allah sent this verse. Also, it is quoted in the book of Fadhailul Masajid that Hafiz Abu Nuaim narrates from Ibne Abbas and Ibne Asakir narrates from Anas bin Malik that Abbas and Shaibah used to boast among themselves. Abbas said: I am superior, as I am the uncle of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and the water supplier to pilgrims. Shaibah said: that I am superior, as I am the treasurer and caretaker of the House of God; He has appointed me as the treasurer. Amirul Momineen (a.s.) arrived there at this point and they reported this conversation to him. His Eminence said: I am superior to both of you; I am the first person to believe in the Prophet, I migrated and performed Jihad. Later the three of them reported this dialogue to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), but he did not offer any reply, so they returned from there. After some days, this verse was revealed and the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) recited it to them. Hafiz Abu Nuaim in Maa Nazala minal Quran fee Ali has quoted from Ibne Abbas and others in a number of ways that this verse was revealed about the boasting of Ali, Abbas and Shaibah; till the verse of: 80B ِ ﻩِ ﺮْ ﻣَ ﺄِ ﺑُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ ﻲِ ﺗْ ﺄَ ﻳٰ ﱠﻰ ﺘَ ﺣ 962B“Till Allah brings about His command.” (Surah Taubah 9:24)
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Abul Qasim Haskani has narrated from Buraidah that once Shaibah and Abbas were boasting among themselves. At that time they were joined by Ali (a.s.), who asked why they were boasting. Abbas said: Allah has given precedence to me over all, and it is supplying water to the Hajj pilgrims; Shaibah said: I am entrusted with maintaining the Sacred Mosque and it is a higher rank; Amirul Momineen (a.s.) said: Allah bestowed to me in my childhood what He did not bestow to you. They asked what it was. He replied: When I put the sword at your nose, you brought faith in God and the Messenger. Abbas was infuriated at this and he went to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) to complain about Ali. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) called Ali (a.s.) and asked him why he spoke to his uncle in such a manner. He replied: O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), I spoke the truth with emphasis even though it might have infuriated someone. Jibraeel came down and said: O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), your Lord conveys His salutation to you and sends you these verses to recite to them. When he did so Abbas said: We accept. Supporting the fact that these verses are in honor of Ali (a.s.) is that the Almighty Allah has mentioned in these verses that those people are successful. Sunni scholar, Samani has narrated from Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) in the book of Fadhailul Sahaba that they asked Ummul Momineen, Her Eminence, Umme Salma about Imam Ali (a.s.); she replied: I heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) say: Ali and his Shia are successful on Judgment Day. The author says: This verse is revealed for Amirul Momineen (a.s.), therefore, it becomes clear that he is most eligible and rightful for Imamate, because according to these verses belief, Hijrat and Jihad are criteria of pride, excellence and success in both the worlds; and according to unanimity of all Ali (a.s.) was having precedence over all in these qualities. Ibne Abde Barr has narrated from Salman, Abuzar, Miqdad, Khababa, Jabir, Abu Saeed Khudri and Zaid bin Arqam in Istiab that he said: Ali is the first of those who embraced Islam. All
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these persons give precedence to him over all companions. Muhammad bin Ishaq has written that among men, the first to believe in the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) was Ali. After him is Khadija. He has also written that according to numerous channels, it is narrated from Salman that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: The first of you to reach me at Hauze Kauthar will be the one, who believed in me first of all and that is Ali (a.s.). Then he writes that this is mentioned in many traditional reports. It is narrated from Ibne Abbas that Ali had four qualities, which were exclusive only to him: he was the first of all men who prayed with the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.); the standard of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) was held by him in every battle; during Battle of Uhad all fled the battlefield, except him and only he was steadfast; he gave the funeral bath to the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and buried him. Abul Muzaffar Samani says in Fadhailus Sahaba, Dailam in Firdosul Akhbaar, and other tradition scholars have narrated from Abuzar and Abu Ayyub Ansari that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: Angels invoked benediction on Ali for seven years, because no one other than him prayed with me; according to another report, ‘Before anyone becomes a Muslim.’ It is narrated in Firdosul Akhbaar that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: Ali was the first to pray with me. It is among the unanimously agreed issues that Ali was having precedence in faith. In his Musnad, Abdullah bin Ahmad Hanbal has through many chains of authorities mentioned that Ali was the foremost in faith. To discuss this further would prolong our discussion and after this also, some more traditions would be quoted in this book. The perfection of his belief is clear for all who have faith. In the book of Maa Nazala Minal Quran fee Ali, Hafiz Abu Nuaim has narrated from Ibne Abbas that the Almighty Allah did not reveal any Surah in Quran, but that Ali is the chief and noble of that chapter. Indeed the Almighty Allah has on numerous occasions reprimanded the companions of
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Muhammad, but He has never mentioned Ali, except in a nice manner. It is also narrated that some people say that the address of ‘O those who believe’ is to the companions of Muhammad; but Huzaifi says that it is mainly addressed to Ali (a.s.). Mujahid has narrated from Ibne Abbas that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: ‘O those who believe’ is not revealed in any verse, but that Ali (a.s.) is its chief and leader. According to another report, he said that Ali is the Sayyid, chief and leader of that verse. According to yet another report, he is the head and in charge; according to one more report, he the Sayyid and the noble. Hafiz and others have narrated this through numerous authorities from Amash, Mujahid and Ibne Abbas etc. and it clearly implies that one, who has no faith in his Wilayat, is not included among believers. Being the first to act on this verse with perfection of faith and precedence in Islam is exclusive for him; only he is implied in it. Also, Hafiz and others have narrated from Mujahid that on no occasion in Quran is it mentioned ‘O those who believe’, but that the foremost of them is Ali since he was foremost in Islam. It is also supported by the verse, which most Shia and Sunni tradition scholars like Thalabi, Wahidi, Ibne Marduya, Hafiz Abu Nuaim, have narrated through numerous channels that there was an argument between Ali and Walid bin Uqbah, half-brother of Uthman and the latter said to Amirul Momineen (a.s.): Keep quiet, because you are a kid and I am, by Allah, one, whose tongue is more fluent, whose spear is sharper and who is braver in fighting. Ali (a.s.) replied: Shut up, O transgressor. The Almighty Allah revealed the following verse in support of the statement of Ali (a.s.): ﺎ 81B ً ﻘِ ﺎﺳَ ﻓَﺎنَ ﻛْ ﻦَ ﻤَﺎ ﻛً ﻨِ ﻣْ ﺆُ ﻣَﺎنَ ﻛْ ﻦَ ﻤَ ﻓَ ۚ أ ◌ َ ونُ ﻮَ ﺘـْﺴَ ﻳ َ ﴾١٨﴿ ﻻ
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“Is he then who is a believer like him who is a transgressor? They are not equal.” (Surah Sajdah 32:18) After that He said: 82B ً ﻻُ ﺰُ ﻧـٰىَ وْ ﺄَ اﻟْﻤُﻨﱠﺎتَ ﺟْ ﻢُ ﻬَ ﻠَ ﻓـِﺎتَﺤِﻮا اﻟﺼﱠﺎﻟ ُ ﻠِ ﻤَ ﻋَﻮا وُ ﻨَ آﻣَﻳﻦِ ﱠﺎ اﻟﱠﺬ ﻣَ أ َ ﻮنُ ﻠَ ﻤْ ﻌَﻮا ﻳـُﺎﻧَﺎ ﻛَ ﻤِ ﴾١٩﴿ ﺑ 964B“As for those who believe and do good, the gardens are their abiding-place; an entertainment for what they did.” (Surah Sajdah 32:19) 2520BAccording to numerous channels, Hafiz Abu Nuaim and others have narrated from Ibne Abbas and Mujahid etc. that the believer is Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.) and transgressor is Walid bin Uqbah. The reasoning of this verse leaves no doubt in perfection of his faith; on the contrary, it proves his infallibility, as it is revealed about transgressor and revealed to emphasize his entry into Paradise; and this much is sufficient to prove his excellence and faith. 7860BFourteenth Exclusive Quality 83B َ ﺧْ ﻢُ ﻫَ ﻚِ ﺌٰ َ وﻟُ أِﺎتَﺤِﻮا اﻟﺼﱠﺎﻟ ُ ﻠِ ﻤَ ﻋَﻮا وُ ﻨَ آﻣَﻳﻦِ ﱠ اﻟﱠﺬ نِ إ ِ ﱠﺔ ﻳِ ﺮَ اﻟْﺒُ ﺮْ ﻴـ 965B“(As for) those who believe and do good, surely they are the best of men.” (Surah Bayyinah 98:7) 2521BAfter that He said: 84B ُ ﺎرَ ﻬْ ﻧـَْ ﺎ اﻷَ ﻬِ ﺘْ ﺤَ ﺗْ ﻦِي ﻣِ ﺮْﺠَ ﺗٍ نْ ﺪَ ﻋُﻨﱠﺎتَ ﺟْ ﻢِ ﱢﻬ ﺑَ رَ ﺪْ ﻨِ ﻋْ ﻢُ ﻫُ اؤَ ﺰَ ﺟ اً ﺪَ ﺑَﺎ أَﻴﻬِ ﻓَﻳﻦِ ﺪِﺎﻟَ ۖ ﺧ ◌ ُ ﻪْ ﻨَ ﻮا ﻋُﺿَ رَ وْ ﻢُ ﻬْ ﻨـَ ﻋُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ ﻲِﺿَ ۚ ر ◌ َ ﻚِ ﻟٰ َ ذ ُ ﱠﻪ ﺑَ رَ ﻲِ ﺸَ ﺧْ ﻦَ ﻤِ ﴾٨﴿ ﻟ
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“Their reward with their Lord is gardens of perpetuity, beneath which rivers flow, abiding therein for ever; Allah is well pleased with them and they are well pleased with Him; that is for him who fears his Lord.” (Surah Bayyinah 98:8) We should know that many widely related traditions narrated through numerous Shia and Sunni channels say that this verse was revealed about Amirul Momineen (a.s.) and his Shia. Hafiz Abu Nuaim has narrated through his chain of authorities from Ibne Abbas and Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) that when this verse was revealed, the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said to Amirul Momineen (a.s.): The implication of this verse is you and your Shia. On Judgment Day you and your Shia would arrive pleased and satisfied and your enemies would be involved in chastisement, having chains around their necks. Abu Nuaim has also narrated from Harith Awar that Amirul Momineen (a.s.) said: We, Ahle Bayt cannot be compared to others. A man came to Ibne Abbas and mentioned all this in astonishment. Ibne Abbas said: Perhaps in your view, Ali is not like the Prophet. No, he cannot be compared to others. Then he said: This verse is revealed for Ali (a.s.). 85B ِ ﱠﺔ ﻳِ ﺮَ اﻟْﺒُ ﺮْ ﻴـَ ﺧْ ﻢُ ﻫ َ ﻚِ ﺌٰ َ وﻟُ أ ِﺎتَﺤِﻮا اﻟﺼﱠﺎﻟ ُ ﻠِ ﻤَ ﻋَﻮا وُ ﻨَ آﻣَﻳﻦِ ﱠ اﻟﱠﺬ نِ إ ٧﴿﴾ 967B“(As for) those who believe and do good, surely they are the best of men.” (Surah Bayyinah 98:7) 2525BIn Shawahidut Tanzeel, Abul Qasim Haskani has narrated from Buraidah bin Sharajeel, the scribe of Amirul Momineen (a.s.) that he said: I heard Ali (a.s.) say: The soul of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) was captured when the Prophet’s head was at my chest. He asked me at that moment: O Ali, have you heard this statement:
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86B ِ ﱠﺔ ﻳِ ﺮَ اﻟْﺒُ ﺮْ ﻴـَ ﺧْ ﻢُ ﻫ َ ﻚِ ﺌٰ َ وﻟُ أ ِﺎتَﺤِﻮا اﻟﺼﱠﺎﻟ ُ ﻠِ ﻤَ ﻋَﻮا وُ ﻨَ آﻣَﻳﻦِ ﱠ اﻟﱠﺬ نِ إ ٧﴿﴾ 968B“(As for) those who believe and do good, surely they are the best of men.” (Surah Bayyinah 98:7) 2526BThen he said: They are your Shia and our rendezvous is at the Pool of Kauthar. When the nations are gathered for accounting, they would see your shinning faces. 2527BIt is also narrated from Ibne Abbas that this verse is revealed about Ali and his Ahle Bayt. Ibne Marduya and all Sunni tradition scholars have narrated this point through various channels. 2528BIt is supported by what Fakhre Raazi etc. have narrated from Ibne Masud that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: Ali is the best of men; one, who denied this is an infidel. Fakhre Raazi etc have also narrated from Sunni authorities that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) informed about Dhuljazda that he would be killed by the best of creatures. According to another report, he said that the best man of my Ummah would eliminate him. 2529BIbne Marduya has narrated through Abul Bashar Ansari and he narrates from his father that: I went to Ayesha and she asked: Who killed them (the Khawarij)? I replied: Ali. She said: The enmity that I harbor against Ali cannot restrain me from stating the truth. I heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) say: The best man of my Ummah after me would kill them; and he used to often say that truth is with Ali and Ali is with truth. 2530BIt is narrated from Masrooq that he said: I adjured Ayesha to narrate to me whatever she had heard about the Khawarij. She said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) say: They are the worst creatures and the best creature of God and Caliph and from the aspect of proximity, the most highly ranked person would eliminate them.
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Through numerous channels, it is narrated from Masrooq and it is mentioned in some reports that the best of men would eliminate them; whose mediation to Allah is the most proximate. It is mentioned in some reports that the best member of my Ummah would eliminate them. Another report of Musnad Hanbal is also in the same tone. Therefore, it became clear from these traditions, which are accepted by Shia and Sunni, that Ali (a.s.) and his Shia are the best of creatures. That is why he is most eligible and rightful for Imamate and there is no need to mention his precedence in Jihad, because the fiery lightning of his sword would continue to illuminate the believers till Judgment Day and will continue to create jealousy in the hearts of hypocrites, whose details would be mentioned later. Fifteenth Exclusive Quality 87B ْ ﻞُ ﻗ ِ ﺎبَ ﺘِ اﻟْﻜُ ﻢْ ﻠِ ﻋُ ﻩَ ﺪْ ﻨِ ﻋْ ﻦَ ﻣَ وْ ﻢُ ﻜَ ﻨْ ﻴـَ ﺑـَ ﻲ وِ ﻨْ ﻴَ ا ﺑـًﻴﺪِ ﻬَ ﺷِ ﺎﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِ ﺑٰ ﻰَ ﻔَ ﻛ ٤٣﴿﴾ 969B“Say: Allah is sufficient as a witness between me and you and whoever has knowledge of the Book.” (Surah Raad 13:43) 2535BIt means the knowledge of Quran or the protected tablet. It is narrated in acceptable traditions from Sunni and Shia channels that it implies Amirul Momineen (a.s.) and his sons, Hasan and Husain (a.s.) possess complete knowledge of Quran. 2536BThus, Sunnis have narrated from Shobi that no one after the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) had as much knowledge of Quran as Ali. Asam has narrated from Abdur Rahman Salmi that he said: Ibne Masud said: I did not see anyone reciting Quran better than Ali. Abdur Rahman has also narrated that Ibne Masud said: If I had known anyone more knowledgeable about Quran, I
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would have gone to him. I (the narrator) asked: Is Ali more knowledgeable than you? He replied: I have approached him and learnt from him. That is I approached him since he was the most learned. Thalabi has narrated through his chains of authorities from Abdullah bin Attar that he said: I was with Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) in the Masjid when I saw Abdullah bin Salam sitting in a corner. I said: Ahle Sunnat think that Abdullah bin Salam is one, who had the knowledge of the Book. Imam (a.s.) said: It was Amirul Momineen (a.s.), who had the knowledge of the Book of Allah. Thalabi and Abu Nuaim have, through their chains of authorities, narrated from Muhammad Ibne Hanafiyyah that ‘One, who has the knowledge of the Book’ was Ali. Suyuti has narrated that people asked Ibne Jubair: Is Ibne Salam the ‘one, who has the knowledge of the Book’? He replied: How can it be possible? This chapter was revealed in Mecca and Ibne Salam embraced Islam in Medina. Therefore, it is concluded that Ali was having much more knowledge about Quran than others and the Almighty Allah says that there is no dry and wet thing, but that its knowledge is in the Quran. Thus, Ali (a.s.) was more learned than the whole Ummah and even the prophets. This verse proves the superiority and Imamate of Ali (a.s.) through three ways: Firstly: his being most learned – as was mentioned repeatedly. Secondly, the Almighty Allah made him His equal in testifying to the veracity of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). And there can be no rank loftier than this. Thirdly, to suffice only on the testimony of Ali (a.s.) proves his infallibility, because other than the infallible, the claim cannot be proved by the testimony of any one person and infallibility is the proof of Imamate as was mentioned before.
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It is the verse of Najwa, regarding which Shia and Sunni commentators have narrated that when companions of the Prophet posed excessive queries, which caused great discomfort to him, the Almighty Allah revealed this verse to test the companions, so that it becomes clear who is sincerely truthful in sacrificing his life and property for the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). 88B َ ﻳَ ﻦْ ﻴَ ﻮا ﺑـُ ﱢﻣ ﺪَ ﻘَ ﻓـَﻮلُ اﻟﺮﱠﺳ ُ ﻢُ ﺘْ ﻴَ ﺎﺟَا ﻧَ ذِﻮا إُ ﻨَ آﻣَﻳﻦِ ﺎ اﻟﱠﺬ َ ﱡﻬ ﻳـَﺎ أَ ﻳ ْ يَ ﺪ ً ﺔَﻗَ ﺪَ ﺻْﻢُاﻛَ ﻮْﺠَ ﻧ 970B“O you who believe, when you consult the Apostle, then offer something in charity before your consultation.” (Surah Mujadila 58:12) 2545BBut as admitted by Baidhawi and all commentators, no one from the companions consulted the Prophet in confidence for ten days, except Amirul Momineen (a.s.). Both sects are unanimous on this point. At last, the verse was abrogated and the Almighty Allah said: 89B ٍ ﺎتَ ﻗَ ﺪَ ﺻْ ﻢُاﻛَ ﻮْﺠَ ﻧْيَ ﺪَ ﻳَ ﻦْ ﻴَ ﻮا ﺑـُ ﱢﻣ ﺪَ ﻘُ ﺗـْ نَ أْ ﻢُ ﺘْ ﻘَ ﻔْﺷَ أَ ۚ أ ◌ ْ ﻢَ ﻟْ ذِ ﺈَ ﻓ َ ﻮا وُ ﻠَ ﻌْ ﻔَ ﺗـ ﻮا ُ ﻴﻌِ ﻃَ أَ وَﺎةَ ﻛ ﱠ ﻮا اﻟﺰُآﺗَ وَ ةَ ﻮا اﻟﺼﱠﻼ ُﻴﻤِ ﻗَ ﺄَ ﻓْ ﻢُ ﻜْ ﻴَ ﻠَ ﻋُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َﺎبَ ﺗ ُ ﻪَﻮﻟُ ﺳَ رَ وَ ۚ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ◌ َ ﻮنُ ﻠَ ﻤْ ﻌَﺎ ﺗـَ ﻤِ ﺑٌ ﻴﺮِ ﺒَ ﺧُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ ﴾١٣﴿ و 971B“Do you fear that you will not (be able to) give in charity before your consultation? So when you do not do it and Allah has turned to you (mercifully), then keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate and obey Allah and His Apostle; and Allah is Aware of what you do.” (Surah Mujadila 58:13)
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Hence, it shows that there is reprimand in this verse for all companions, except Imam Ali (a.s.), as he alone acted on it, according to the agreement of all commentators. Hafiz Abu Nuaim and all commentators have narrated from Mujahid that Imam Ali (a.s.) said: There is one verse in Quran, on which no one acted, other than me and no one after me would ever act on it; and it is the verse of Najwa. I had a dinar, which I changed into ten dirhams and when I wanted to ask something confidential from the Prophet I gave a dirham in Sadaqah till the verse was abrogated. In another report, he said: Through His blessings the Almighty Allah condoned the people of this Ummah from acting on the command of that verse. Suddi has narrated from Ibne Abbas that they used to consult the Prophet in private when they needed, till this caused great discomfort to the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). At that time, the Almighty Allah made it incumbent on all that anyone wanting to consult the Prophet in private should first give Sadaqah and it was very difficult from them. Hafiz Abu Nuaim has, in his book, Maa Nazala Minal Quran fee Ali, has narrated from Ibne Abbas through many chains of authorities that when this holy verse was revealed, no one dared to first pay Sadaqah and then speak to the Prophet in private; and the first to give Sadaqah was Ali (a.s.). He changed one dinar into ten dirhams and consulted the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) ten times in private; each time giving one dirham in Sadaqah. The second report is what is narrated from Ibne Abbas that when this verse was revealed people stopped consulting the Prophet and Amirul Momineen (a.s.) gave Sadaqah and consulted him; and other than him, no one paid any Sadaqah. So the hypocrites said: Muhammad has taken this step only to make his cousin famous. We should know that his exclusiveness with the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) in this quality is great nobility for Ali (a.s.). It also exposes the falsity of the claim of adversaries that
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their tyrant Caliphs spent huge wealth on the way of Allah. It is obvious that if they had any interest in religion, during those ten days they would have given a dirham or even a piece of date; so that they would not have become eligible of these reprimands. Seventeenth Exclusive Quality ﻮا 90B ُ ﱠﻗ ﺮَ ﻔَ ﺗـَ ﻻَﺎ وًﻴﻌِ ﻤَ ﺟِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِ ﻞْ ﺒَ ﺤِﻮا ﺑُ ﻤِﺼَ ﺘْاﻋَ و 972B“And hold fast by the rope of Allah all together and be not disunited.” (Surah Aale Imran 3:103) 2552BThe ‘rope of Allah’ is the metaphor of what the Almighty Allah has deemed to be the cause of salvation of this Ummah and it is mentioned in many traditions that it implies Ahle Bayt of the Messenger (s.a.w.s.). As Thalabi has stated in his Tafsir, narrating from Aban bin Taghlib said that Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) said: We are those, whom the Almighty Allah has called as ‘rope of Allah’. Hafiz Abu Nuaim has also narrated the same from Abu Jofi Saigh from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.). 2553BAhle Sunnat scholars have narrated from Abu Saeed Khudri that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: People, I leave two ropes among you; if you remain attached to them, you will never go astray after me and they are loftier than each other in rank. The Book of Allah is that rope, which stretches from the heavens to the earth and the other rope is my progeny and Ahle Bayt. Indeed, they will not separate from each other till they join me at the Pool of Kauthar. 7864BEighteenth Exclusive Quality 91B ِ ﻰ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ ﻟِﻮ إُ ﻋْ دَﻲ أِﻴﻠِ ﺒَ ﺳِ ﻩِ ﺬٰ َ ﻫْﻞُ ۚ ﻗ ﻲ ◌ ِ ﻨَ ﻌَ اﺗـﱠﺒـ ِ ﻦَ ﻣَ ﺎ وَ ﻧَ أٍ ةَ ﻴﺮِﺼَ ﺑٰ ﻰَ ﻠَ ﻋ 973B“Say: This is my way: I call to Allah, I and those who follow me being certain.” (Surah Yusuf 12:108)
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Many traditions are narrated from Ahle Bayt (a.s.) that it implies one, who followed the Prophet before everyone else, and that is Ali (a.s.). Ibne Marduya has narrated this from Ahle Sunnat tradition scholars and also from Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.). It is mentioned in another traditional report that it implies Aale Muhammad (a.s.). Moreover, the Almighty Allah said: 92B َ ﻴﻦِ ﻨِ ﻣْ ﺆُﺎﻟْﻤِ ﺑَ وِ ﻩِ ﺮْﺼَ ﻨِ ﺑَ كَ ﱠﺪ ﻳَي أِ اﻟﱠﺬ َ ﻮُ ﴾٦٢﴿ ﻫ 974B“He it is Who strengthened you with His help and with the believers.” (Surah Anfal 8:62) 2555BIt is mentioned in authentic traditional reports of both sects that ‘believers’ imply Ali (a.s.) or the help of Allah’ implies the help, which the Almighty Allah has rendered through Ali (a.s.). On the basis of the first meaning, it implies that their best and their leader is Ali. Or believers imply those who believed in the Imamate and Wilayat of Ali (a.s.). Thus, Suyuti has, in Durre Manthur, narrated from Abu Huraira that it is written on the divine throne (Arsh) as follows: 2556BThere is no god, except Me and I have no partner; Muhammad is My servant and Messenger; I have helped him through Ali. 2557BThis is the meaning of what the Almighty Allah has said: 93B َ ﻴﻦِ ﻨِ ﻣْ ﺆُﺎﻟْﻤِ ﺑَ وِ ﻩِ ﺮْﺼَ ﻨِ ﺑَ كَ ﱠﺪ ﻳَي أِ اﻟﱠﺬ َ ﻮُ ﴾٦٢﴿ ﻫ 975B“He it is Who strengthened you with His help and with the believers.” (Surah Anfal 8:62) 2558BHafiz Abu Nuaim has narrated in Hilya and Kulaini has quoted Abu Salih from Abu Huraira and has narrated a report of the same matter. Thalabi, has, in his commentary, narrated from Ibne Jubair from Abul Humra, servant of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) that he said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) say:
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On the night of ascension (Meraj) I saw written on the left side of the divine throne: I strengthened Muhammad with Ali and helped him through Ali. Hafiz Abu Nuaim has narrated through two chains of authorities from Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) that the following verse was revealed in the honor of Ali: 94B َ ﻴﻦِ ﻨِ ﻣْ ﺆُ اﻟْﻤَ ﻦِ ﻣَ ﻚَ ﻌَ اﺗـﱠﺒـ ِ ﻦَ ﻣَ وُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ ﻚُ ﺒْ ﺴَ ﱡ ﺣ ﻲِﺎ اﻟﻨﱠﺒَ ﱡﻬ ﻳـَﺎ أَ ﴾٦٤﴿ ﻳ 976B“O Prophet! Allah is sufficient for you and (for) such of the believers as follows you.” (Surah Anfal 8:64) 2561BIt is Ali (a.s.), who has followed you before all. Muhaddith Hanbali has said that it is Ali, who is the leader of believers. 2562BThe author says: These verses and traditions; which are accepted by both the sects are proofs that Amirul Momineen (a.s.) is the real follower of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and is specialized with complete and real help to the Prophet. This much is sufficient for his precedence. It is also concluded that after the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), calling to Allah or propagation of religion is confined only to Ali (a.s.). 7865BNineteenth Exclusive Quality ْﻢُ 95B ۖ ﻮﻫُﻔِوﻗَ ◌ َ ﻮنُﻮﻟُ ﺌْﺴَ ﻣْﻢُ ﱠﻬ ﻧـِ ﴾٢٤﴿ إ 977B“And stop them, for they shall be questioned:” (Surah Saffat 37:24) 2563BHafiz Abu Nuaim has narrated in Hilya and in some other books; Abul Qasim Haskani has written in Shawahidut Tanzeel; Ibne Shiruya in Firdosul Akhbaar, Ibne Marduya in Manaqib and other tradition scholars have narrated through many chains of authorities from Ibne Abbas and Abu Saeed Khudri that people would be interrogated about love for Ali (a.s.).
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Hafiz Abu Nuaim has narrated in Manaqibatul Muttahireen through many chains of authorities from Buraidah etc. that once we were in the company of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). He said: By the one, in whose control my life is, on Judgment Day no one would be able to move ahead till he is not interrogated about four things: (1) Regarding his age (life), how he spent it (2) Regarding his body, through what actions he weakened it (3) Regarding his wealth, how he obtained it and how he spent it (4) Regarding the love of us, Ahle Bayt. Umar asked: O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), what is the sign of loving you after your passing away? The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) placed his hand on the head of Ali (a.s.) and said: The sign of my love is this person; one has loved him has loved me; and one, who has been inimical to him has been inimical to me. The reasoning of these traditions is already mentioned in the above discussion. Twentieth Exclusive Quality 96B ٰ ﻰَ ﺑْ ﺮُﻲ اﻟْﻘِ ﻓَ ﱠة دَ ﻮَ ﱠ اﻟْﻤ ﻻِا إً ﺮْ ﺟَ أِ ﻪْ ﻴَ ﻠَ ﻋْ ﻢُ ﻜُ ﻟَ ﺄْ ﺳَ أ َ ﻻْﻞُ ۗ ﻗ ◌ ْ ﻦَ ﻣَ و ﺎً ﻨْ ﺴُﺎ ﺣَﻴﻬِ ﻓُ ﻪَ ﻟْ دِ ﺰَ ﻧً ﺔَ ﻨَ ﺴَ ﺣْفِ ﺮَ ﺘْ ﻘَ ﻳـ 978B“Say: I do not ask of you any reward for it, but love for my near relatives; and whoever earns good, We give him more of good therein.” (Surah Shura 42:23) 2567BAccording to the traditions of Shia and Sunni, the meaning of this verse is that I don’t ask for any recompense for my propagation of faith, except that you love my relatives. One, who acts to us with goodness, we would increase that and enhance his reward. On another occasion he said: ﻟ َْﺄَ 97B ﺎ ﺳَ ﻣْﻞُﻗ ْ ﻢُ ﻜَ ﻟَ ﻮُ ﻬَ ﻓـٍ ﺮْ ﺟَ أْ ﻦِ ﻣْ ﻢُ ﻜُ ﺘ
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“Say: Whatever reward I have asked of you, that is only for yourselves.” (Surah Saba 34:47) Muslim has narrated from Ibne Zubair that in this verse, the relatives imply the nearest kindred of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and Abu Hamza Thumali has in Tafsir of Ibne Abbas narrated that when the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) migrated to Holy Medina, Ansar approached him and said: Since you have many expenses, you may take as much from our wealth as you like. At that moment the above verse was revealed. Abu Hamza Thumali has narrated from Suddi and Thalabi has narrated from Ibne Abbas that ‘earning of good’ implies love for Aale Muhammad (a.s.). According to Shia and Sunni traditional reports, it is narrated from Imam Hasan Mujtaba (a.s.) that he said in his sermon: We are those Ahle Bayt, whose love the Almighty Allah has made incumbent on every Muslim in this verse; as He says: 98B ٰ ﻰَ ﺑْ ﺮُﻲ اﻟْﻘِ ﻓَ ﱠة دَ ﻮَ ﱠ اﻟْﻤ ﻻِا إً ﺮْ ﺟَ أِ ﻪْ ﻴَ ﻠَ ﻋْ ﻢُ ﻜُ ﻟَ ﺄْ ﺳَ أ َ ﻻْﻞُ ۗ ﻗ ◌ ْ ﻦَ ﻣَ و َ ﺣْفِ ﺮَ ﺘْ ﻘَ ﻳـ ﺎ ً ﻨْ ﺴُﺎ ﺣَﻴﻬِ ﻓُ ﻪَ ﻟْ دِ ﺰَ ﻧً ﺔَ ﻨَ ﺴ 980B“Say: I do not ask of you any reward for it, but love for my near relatives; and whoever earns good, We give him more of good therein.” (Surah Shura 42:23) 2570BThe earning of good is also love and devotion to us. Abul Qasim Haskani has, in Shawahidut Tanzeel, narrated from Jubair and he narrates from Ibne Abbas that when this verse was revealed, the companions asked: O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), who are those whose love has become incumbent on us? The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) replied: It is Ali, Fatima, and their sons (a.s.). According to the report of Abu Nuaim, it is their two sons. 2571BThalabi has also narrated a report of the same matter from Ibne Abbas.
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In Shawahidut Tanzeel¸ it is narrated from Abu Amama Bahili that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: The Almighty Allah created the prophets from different trees and I and Ali are created from one and the same tree. I am the root of tree and Ali is its branch; Hasan and Husain (a.s.) are its fruits and our Shia are its leaves. One, who becomes attached to one of its shoots, would be delivered. One, who is inclined to anyone other than him would go to Hell. If a person worships Allah for a thousand years between Safa and Marwah and then repeats this for another thousand years till he becomes brittle like Musk, while not having love for Ali (a.s.), the Almighty Allah would cast him into Hell. Then he recited this verse. Hafiz Abu Nuaim has, through many chains of authorities, narrated from Zaid bin Arqam that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) came to Lady Fatima (s.a.) and Hasan and Husain were also present there. The Prophet held the two doorposts and said: I am at war with one, who is at war with you and I am at peace with one, who makes peace with you. This point is mentioned in the report of Umme Salma and Abu Saeed Khudri as well. Abu Huraira has narrated that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) glanced at Imam Ali (a.s.), Hasan and Husain and mentioned the same. It is narrated from Jabir that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) was in Arafat and Ali stood at his side. At that time the Prophet said: Ali, come here. Then he held his hand and said: You and I are created from one and the same tree; I am the trunk and you are the branch. Hasan and Husain are its shoots; one, who is attached to one of its shoots, would be admitted into Paradise by Allah. Thalabi has mentioned in the interpretation of: 99B ِ ﺮْ اﻟﻄﱠﻴ َ ﻖِ ﻄْ ﻨَ ﺎ ﻣَ ﻨْ ﱢﻤ ﻠُ ﻋ 981B“We have been taught the language of birds.” (Surah Naml 27:16)
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The when the lark screeches, it says: May the Almighty Allah curse the enemies of Aale Muhammad (a.s.). Thalabi, the author of Kashaf and Fakhre Raazi have narrated from Jarir bin Abdullah that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: One, who dies on the love of Aale Muhammad (a.s.), dies a martyr. And one, who dies on the love of Aale Muhammad (a.s.), dies delivered. And one, who dies on the love of Aale Muhammad (a.s.) dies forgiven and one, who dies on the love of Aale Muhammad (a.s.) dies with perfect faith and one, who dies on the love of Aale Muhammad (a.s.), the angel of death and Munkir and Nakeer give him glad tidings of Paradise. And one, who dies on the love of Aale Muhammad (a.s.) is taken to Paradise like a bride is conducted to her husband. And one, who dies on the love of Aale Muhammad (a.s.), two doors are opened in his grave towards Paradise and one, who dies on the love of Aale Muhammad (a.s.); the Almighty Allah sends angels with mercy to visit his grave. And one, who dies on the love of Aale Muhammad (a.s.) dies on the Sunnah and congregation (Jamaat). But one, who dies on the enmity of Aale Muhammad (a.s.), dies in despair from the mercy of Allah. And one, who dies on the enmity of Aale Muhammad (a.s.) dies a disbeliever. And one, who dies on the enmity of Aale Muhammad (a.s.) would not be able to smell the fragrance of Paradise. In Sharh Nahjul Balagha, Ibne Abil Hadid has quoted from Musnad Ibne Hanbal that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) recited a sermon and said: O people, I make a bequest to you to love my brother and cousin, Ali. One, who loves him, is a believer and one, who hates him, is a disbeliever and hypocrite. His friend is my friend. His enemy is my enemy and one, who is inimical to me will abide in Hell. It is narrated in Tafsir Thalabi that on the Night of Ascension (Meraj), an angel came to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) from the Almighty Allah and said: O Messenger of Allah
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(s.a.w.s.), you ask all the prophets, on which issue they were sent. When the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) inquired, those prophets and messengers replied: On the Wilayat of you and Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.). Traditions on this matter are so numerous that they cannot be computed. Fakhre Raazi has said in his Tafsir that Aale Muhammad (a.s.) are those, whose matter returns to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). And those, whose matter returns more to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), would be the progeny of the Prophet; and doubtlessly, the relationship of Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was most proximate and this matter is known to one and all. Therefore, it is incumbent that they should be his progeny. Some have difference of opinion and they say that progeny are relatives of the Prophet and some said that it is the Ummah. If we apply it to near relationship, it is those personages only; if we apply to the Ummah who accepted the call of the Prophet, even then it is the same personages. Therefore, it is proved that in every way, only they comprise the progeny; but other than them the inclusion of anyone else in the progeny is going against the obvious tenor. Thus, it is narrated from the author of Kashaf that when this verse was revealed, people asked: O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), who are those near relations, whose love is obligatory on us? The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) replied: It is Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain. Therefore, it is proved that these four personages are the near kindred of the Prophet; so it is necessary that they should be specialized with more respect and there are some evidences for this: First Proof
It is the revelation of verse in the honor of these personages.
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Second Proof
Second proof is that when it is proved that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) was fond of Lady Fatima (s.a.) and he said: Fatima is a part of me, whatever hurts her hurts me; and it is proved through widely related traditions that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) loved Ali, Hasan and Husain (a.s.), therefore, it is obligatory on the whole Ummah to love them, because the Almighty Allah has said: 100B َ ونُ ﺪَ ﺘْ ﻬَ ﺗـْ ﻢُ ﱠﻜ ﻠَ ﻌَ ﻟُﻮﻩُ ﻌِ اﺗﱠﺒ َ ﴾١٥٨﴿ و 982B“And follow him so that you may walk in the right way.” (Surah Araaf 7:158) 101B ِ ﻩِ ﺮْ ﻣَ أْ ﻦَ ﻋَﻮنُ ﻔِﺎﻟَﺨُ ﻳَﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ ِ رَ ﺬْﺤَ ﻴْ ﻠَ ﻓـ 983B“Therefore, let those beware who go against his order.” (Surah Nur 24:63) 102B ُ ﻛْنِ إْﻞُﻗ ُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ُ ﻢُ ﻜْ ﺒِ ﺒْ ﺤُﻲ ﻳِﻮﻧُ ﻌِ ﺎﺗﱠﺒ َ ﻓَ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ ﱡﻮن ﺒِ ﺤُ ﺗْ ﻢُ ﺘْ ﻨ 984B“Say: If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you.” (Surah Aale Imran 3:31) 103B ٌ ﺔَ ﻨَ ﺴَ ﺣٌ ةَ ﻮْﺳُ أِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِﻮلُ ﺳَﻲ رِ ﻓْ ﻢُ ﻜَ ﻟَﺎنَ ﻛْ ﺪَ ﻘَ ﻟ 985B“Certainly you have in the Apostle of Allah an excellent exemplar.” (Surah Ahzab 33:21) 2589BAll these verses prove following and emulating the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.).
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Third Proof
The third proof is that praying for the progeny is a great position. Therefore, they prove that loving Aale Muhammad (a.s.) is an obligatory duty. Moreover, the author of Kashaf has narrated from Suddi that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said to Lady Fatima (s.a.): Bring your husband and both your sons; when they arrived the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) covered them with a robe and raising his hands to the heavens prayed: “O Allah, these are Aale Muhammad (a.s.), so please shower Your blessings on them; indeed You are the praised and glorified.” Umme Salma says: I lifted the corner of the robe in order to join them; but the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) pulled it away and said: You are having a good end. Twenty-first Exclusive Quality 104B ٍ ﺂبَ ﻣُ ﻦْﺴُ ﺣَ وْ ﻢُ ﻬَ ﻟ ٰ ﻰَﻮﺑُ ﻃ ِﺎتَﺤِﻮا اﻟﺼﱠﺎﻟ ُ ﻠِ ﻤَ ﻋَﻮا وُ ﻨَ آﻣَﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ ٢٩﴿﴾ 986B“(As for) those who believe and do good, a good final state shall be theirs and a goodly return.” (Surah Raad 13:29) 2592BThalabi has narrated from Ibne Abbas that Tuba is a tree in Paradise, whose root is in the palace of Ali (a.s.) and one of its branches is in the house of every believer. 2593BAlso, it is narrated from Jabir from Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) that people asked the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) regarding Tuba. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: It is a tree in Paradise; whose root is in my palace and its branches cover all the folks of Paradise. When he was asked the second time, he said: It is a tree in Paradise, whose root is in the house of Ali and its branches cover all the folks of Paradise. Then people asked: Once you said that: “Its root is in my house” and the second time
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you said: “It is in the house of Ali (a.s.).” He said: In Paradise, my and Ali’s house is the same and the root of that tree is in one house. We should know that I have mentioned in Hayatul Quloob all the verses, which theologians have narrated in the honor of Amirul Momineen (a.s.) and Ahle Bayt (a.s.), but in this book, we shall be content to mention only these many traditional reports.
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Sixth Objective: Widely related traditions of the Two Sects
Proving the Imamate, Caliphate and excellence of Imam Ali (a.s.) and also the defects of his enemies This objective will be divided into some sections:
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Section One: Tradition of Ghadeer Khum
It is the tradition of Ghadeer Khum, which is a clear declaration of the Wilayat of Imam Ali (a.s.). On that day the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) declared the Imamate of Ali (a.s.). We should know that the incident of Ghadeer is from among the widely related events. One, who denies that it is widely related is in fact denying the existence of Mecca, because just as the existence of Mecca and Medina is widely related, and so far the remnants of that Masjid remains and all the inhabitants of that locality narrate this incident from their forefathers and they inform about the location of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). Just as the farewell Hajj and all the battles of the Prophet are widely related, in the same way is the halting of the Prophet in Ghadeer Khum in order to declare the lofty rank of Amirul Momineen (a.s.); gathering his companions and reciting the sermon and no one has opposed these matters; and even if they have differed in some details of the incident and sermon. And their difference is against logical reasoning; because traditions of this meaning are so extensive that there is no scope in this book for all of them; therefore, we present a brief description of this event along with traditions mentioned in famous Sihah books of Ahle Sunnat. Sayyid Ibne Tawus has said in Iqbal that the textual declaration of the Imamate of Imam Ali (a.s.) is beyond description; but I state the name of the scholars who have written books on this matter and mentioned traditions on this topic in their writings. Among them is Masud bin Nasir Sajistani, who is among the trustworthy scholars of Ahle Sunnat. He has quoted through 120 companions the tradition of Ghadeer in his book of Wilayat, which consists of seven parts. Muhammad bin Jarir Tabari, the historian, has in Radde Alal Kharqusiya narrated the tradition of Ghadeer through seventy
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five channels. Abul Qasim Haskani has narrated through many channels. Ibne Uqdah Hafiz in his Kitabul Wilayah has narrated it through 105 channels. The details of this incident are mentioned by the author of Inshirad Ali from reliable books of Ahle Sunnat from Huzaifah bin Yaman. He says: When the Almighty Allah revealed the following verse: 105B ْ ﻢِ ﻬِ ﺴُ ﻔْ ﻧـَ أْ ﻦِ ﻣَﻴﻦِ ﻨِ ﻣْ ﺆُﺎﻟْﻤِ ﺑ ٰ ﻰَ ﻟْ وَ ﱡ أ ۖ ﻲِاﻟﻨﱠﺒ ◌ ْ ﻢُ ﻬُﺎﺗـَ ﱠﻬ ﻣُ أُ ﻪُاﺟَ وْ زَ أَ ۗ و ◌ َ ﻦِ ﻣِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِﺎبَ ﺘِﻲ ﻛِ ﻓ ٍﺾْ ﻌَ ﺒـِ ﺑ ٰ ﻰَ ﻟْ وَ أ ْ ﻢُ ﻬُﻀْ ﻌَ ﺑـ ِ ﺎمَ ﺣْ رَْ ﻮ اﻷُوﻟُ أَ و َ ﻳﻦِ ﺮِﺎﺟَ ﻬُاﻟْﻤَ وَﻴﻦِ ﻨِ ﻣْ ﺆُاﻟْﻤ 987B“The Prophet has a greater claim on the faithful than they have on themselves, and his wives are (as) their mothers; and the possessors of relationship have the better claim in the ordinance of Allah to inheritance, one with respect to another, than (other) believers, and (than) those who have fled (their homes).” (Surah Ahzab 33:6) 2604BThe companions said: It is the verse of Wilayat, because of which you people are more deserving of it than our lives. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Listening to our statements and obeying them in all matters whether you like it or not. Companions say: We heard and we obeyed. Then the Almighty Allah revealed the following verse: 106B ْ ﻢُ ﺘْ ﻠُ ﻗـْ ذِ إِ ﻪِ ﺑْ ﻢُ ﻜَ ﻘَاﺛـَي وِ اﻟﱠﺬ ُ ﻪَﺎﻗَﻴﺜِ ﻣَ وْ ﻢُ ﻜْ ﻴَ ﻠَ ﻋِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ ﺔَ ﻤْ ﻌِوا ﻧُ ﺮُ ﻛ ْ اذَ و ﺎَ ﻨْ ﻌَﻃَ أَ ﺎ وَ ﻨْ ﻌِ ﻤَ ﺳ 988B“And remember the favor of Allah on you and His covenant, with which He bound you firmly, when you said: We have heard and we obey.” (Surah Maidah 5:7)
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All these events occurred in Medina. Then we set out for Mecca for the Farewell Hajj in the company of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). Jibraeel came down and said: Your Lord conveys His greetings; and says that you should appoint Ali as the leader of people. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) wept so much upon hearing this that his beard became wet and he said: O Jibraeel, my community has just emerged from the period of Ignorance. I brought them into faith through the force of sword, till they obeyed me; what their condition will be in future when I make the second a ruler on them? Jibraeel heard this and returned. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) had sent Ali (a.s.) to Yemen before the Farewell Hajj and he returned from there and joined the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) in Hajj in Mecca. One day, Imam Ali (a.s.) was praying near the Kaaba and was bowing when a beggar begged for alms. His Eminence gave his ring to him; upon which the following verse was revealed: 107B َ ةَ اﻟﺼﱠﻼ َﻮنُﻴﻤِ ﻘُ ﻳَﻳﻦِ ﻮا اﻟﱠﺬ ُ ﻨَ آﻣَﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ َ وُ ﻪُﻮﻟُ ﺳَ رَ وُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ُ ﻢُ ﱡﻜ ﻴِ ﻟَ ﺎ وَ ﱠﻤ ﻧِ إ َﻮنُ ﻌِاﻛَ رْﻢُ ﻫَ وَﺎةَ ﻛ ﱠ اﻟﺰَﻮنُ ﺗْ ﺆُ ﻳـَ ﴾٥٥﴿ و 989B“Only Allah is your Guardian and His Apostle and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay the poor-rate while they bow.” (Surah Maidah 5:55) 2608BAs mentioned in the discussion of verses of Quran in his honor, the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: God is the greatest and recited the verse and said: Get up, let us see in whom the qualities, which the Almighty Allah has mentioned, have become apparent. When the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) entered the Masjid, he saw a beggar leaving. 2609BThe Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) asked him from where he was coming. He replied: From that person, who is praying there. He donated this ring to me when he was bowing down. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) raised the slogan of ‘God is the greatest’ and went to Ali (a.s.) and asked:
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O Ali, what noble deed did you perform today? When Amirul Momineen (a.s.) mentioned the ring, the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) recited the Takbir the third time. Seeing this, the hypocrites looked at each other and said: Our consciences cannot accept that he should get power over us. We shall go to the Messenger and ask him to change him with someone else. When this was mentioned to the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), the Almighty Allah revealed: ﻲ 108B ِ ﺴْ ﻔَ ﻧـِﺎءَ ﻘْ ﻠِ ﺗْ ﻦِ ﻣُ ﻪَ ﱢﻟ ﺪَ ﺑُ أْ نَﻲ أِ ﻟُﻮنُ ﻜَﺎ ﻳَ ﻣْﻞُ ﻗ 990B“Say: It does not beseem me that I should change it of myself.” (Surah Yunus 10:15) 2612BThe interpretation of this verse is that when our clear verses were recited to those who do not have faith in Judgment Day, they said in place of this Quran get some other Quran. Remove the mention of Ali from it. O Messenger, tell them that it is not in my control, that I should change anything according to my personal choice. I only follow what is revealed to me. Indeed I am terrified of a great chastisement if I disobey my Lord. At that moment Jibraeel came down once more and said: O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), complete the issue of the Caliphate of Ali. 2613BThe Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) asked: O Jibraeel, have you heard about the planning of hypocrites regarding this? Jibraeel again went up to the heavens and other than the report of Huzaifah, according to another report; the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) went on the pulpit in Mina and said: 2614BO people, I leave among you two things; if you follow them, you would never be led astray, and they are the Book of Allah (Quran) and the kind and the knowing God has informed me that these two will not separate from each other till they reach me at the Cistern of Kauthar like these two fingers (And he joined the index fingers of both his hands). 2615BAnd he said: One, who remains attached to them, would gain salvation and one, who opposes them, would be destroyed.
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O people, have I conveyed the message of prophethood? People replied: Yes, O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). The Prophet said: O Allah, be a witness. At last it was the Day of Tashriq – the 13th of Zilhajj. At that time the Almighty Allah revealed Surah Nasr. The Prophet said: It is the news of my near demise, since it proves that I have completed the job of religious propagation; therefore, I should now turn my attention to the hereafter. Then he entered Masjid Kheef and said: Announce to the people to gather. When they gathered, he recited a sermon and said: O people, I leave among you two important things, which are greater than each other. One is the Book of Allah, which is held on one side by Allah and on the other side it is held by you. So hold it strongly. The second is my progeny, my Ahle Bayt and indeed the kind and the wise God has informed me that these two will not separate from each other till they arrive at the Kauthar Cistern to me. He joined the index fingers of both the hands and said: I do not say like this; then he joined the index finger and the middle finger of the same hand and said: They will come like this. Some hypocrites said: Muhammad wants to place Imamate among his Ahle Bayt. Then fourteen persons from them went into the Kaaba and after mutual consultation, took a vow that if Muhammad dies or is killed, they would not allow Caliphate to go to his Ahle Bayt. At that time the Almighty Allah revealed the following verses: 109B َ أ َ ﻮنُ ﻣِ ﺮْ ﺒُ ﱠﺎ ﻣ ﻧِ ﺈَا ﻓً ﺮْ ﻣَﻮا أُ ﻣَ ﺮْ ﺑـَ أْ ﴾٧٩﴿ م 991B“Or have they settled an affair? Then surely We are the settlers.” (Surah Zukhruf 43:79) 110B ْ ﻢُاﻫَ ﻮْﺠَ ﻧَ وْ ﻢُ ﱠﻫ ﺮِ ﺳُ ﻊَ ﻤْﺴَ ﻧ َ ﱠﺎ ﻻ ﻧَ أَﻮنُ ﺒَ ﺴْﺤَ ﻳْ مَ ۚ أ ﺎ ◌ َ ﻨُ ﻠُ ﺳُ رَ وٰ ﻰَ ﻠَ ﺑـ َﻮنُ ﺒُ ﺘْﻜَ ﻳْﻢِ ﻬْﻳَ ﺪَ ﴾٨٠﴿ ﻟ
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“Or do they think that We do not hear what they conceal and their secret discourses? Aye! And Our messengers with them write down.” (Surah Zukhruf 43:80) In the tradition of Huzaifah, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Pack up and start for Medina. When they reached Sahnan, the Almighty Allah commanded the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) to announce the Imamate of Ali to the people. Therefore, His Eminence halted at Johfa. When people settled down in their places, Jibraeel (a.s.) again came down and said: Announce the Imamate of Ali. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: O Lord, my people are new converts; if I make this announcement, people would say that I am partial to my cousin. Masud bin Nasir Sajistani has narrated from Ibne Abbas that when Jibraeel came down in Johfa, the Prophet publicly asked: Am I not having more precedence over the believers than their own selves? People said: Yes, O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), indeed you are. The Prophet said: Of whomsoever I am the master, this Ali is also his master; O Allah, love one, who loves Ali and be inimical to one, who is inimical to Ali and help one, who helps Ali and forsake one, who deserts Ali. Ibne Abbas said: By Allah, his obedience became incumbent on that day; then he said in the first report: When people were about to set out from there Jibraeel came down with the following verse: 111B َ ﱢﻚ ﺑَ رْ ﻦِ ﻣَ ﻚْ ﻴَ ﻟِ إَ لِ ﺰْ ﻧُﺎ أَ ﻣْ ﱢﻎ ﻠَ ﺑـُﻮلُ ﺎ اﻟﺮﱠﺳ َ ﱡﻬ ﻳـَﺎ أَ ۖ ﻳ ◌ ْ ﻞَ ﻌْ ﻔَ ﺗـْ ﻢَ ﻟْ نِ إَ و ُ ﻪَ ﺘَﺎﻟَ ﺳِ رَﺖْ ﱠﻐ ﻠَﺎ ﺑـَ ﻤَ ۚ ﻓ ◌ ِ اﻟﻨﱠﺎسَ ﻦِ ﻣَ ﻚُ ﻤِﺼْ ﻌَ ﻳـُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ و 993B“O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people.” (Surah Maidah 5:67)
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Huzaifah says: This verse was revealed when we were in Ghadeer Khum and the weather was so hot that if a piece of meat were to be kept on the ground, it would have got roasted automatically. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) had it announced to the people to gather; and Miqdad, Abuzar, Salman and Ammar were commanded to sweep the thorns from the place below the trees and to construct a pulpit from rocks. So they prepared a pulpit and covered it with a cloth. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) ascended the pulpit and recited an eloquent and a lengthy sermon till he said: I witness for my self the servitude of Allah and testify to His divinity and I am fulfilling His revelation, which He has sent to me due to fear that if I don’t convey His command, a great calamity would befall me and the Almighty Allah has revealed: 112B َ ﻚْ ﻴَ ﻟِ إَ لِ ﺰْ ﻧُﺎ أَ ﻣْ ﱢﻎ ﻠَ ﺑـُﻮلُ ﺎ اﻟﺮﱠﺳ َ ﱡﻬ ﻳـَﺎ أَ ﻳ 994B“O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you.” (Surah Maidah 5:67) 2626BThen he said: O people, I have not been shortcoming in conveying the message of God, and I will explain to you the reason of the revelation of this verse. Indeed, Jibraeel came to me again and again and commanded me on behalf of the Almighty Allah that I should say to all the people that Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.), my brother and my Caliphate after me. 2627BO people, I know the things the hypocrites say which are not in their minds and they regard them as trivial, although they are great in the view of Allah; and they have harassed me a great deal regarding Ali (a.s.). They said: He is the ‘ear’; that is Muhammad accepts whatever Ali says, since those hypocrites used to see that Ali is always in my company and all the time I am attentive to him; till the Almighty Allah revealed this verse: 113B ٌ نُ ذُ أَ ﻮُ ﻫَﻮنُﻮﻟُ ﻘَ ﻳـَ ﱠ و ﻲِ اﻟﻨﱠﺒَونُ ذْ ﺆُ ﻳـَﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ ُ ﻢُ ﻬْ ﻨـِ ﻣَ و
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“And there are some of them who molest the Prophet and say: He is one, who believes everything that he hears.” (Surah Taubah 9:61) Then the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: I can even mention their names. You should understand that Allah has appointed Ali as your Wali, ruler and Imam and made it obligatory on all Muhajir and Ansar, desert dwellers and citizens, non-Arabs and Arabs, free man and slave, elders and youngsters, black and white and everyone, who confesses to the oneness of God, therefore, his command is applicable to all. Accursed is one, who opposes him and it is a mercy for one, who testifies for him. People, ponder upon the Quran and understand its clear verses and act on them and follow its ambiguous verses. By Allah, no one can make the interpretation of Quran clear, except Ali. People, the pure ones from Ali and my progeny, who would be born through his loins, are the minor important thing and Quran is the major important thing. These two would not separate from each other; till they arrive to me at the Cistern of Kauthar and after me rulership of believers is not lawful for anyone, except Ali. Then he held the arms of Ali and made him stand on his right. Then he raised his hand and said: People! Who has more authority on your lives more than your own selves? People said: Allah and His Messenger. Then he said: Of whomsoever I am the master; this Ali is also his master. O Allah, love one, who loves him and be inimical to one, who is inimical to him. Help one, who helps him and abandon one, who deserts him. People, indeed the Almighty Allah has completed your religion for you along with his Wilayat. And no verse was addressed to the believers, except that He began with him and in Surah Hal Ata the testimony of faith and achieving the pleasure of Allah is not given, except from him. Allah has not sent Surah Hal Ata, except in his honor and praise. The progeny of every prophet is from his loins and my progeny is from the loins of Ali and none is inimical to Ali, except the evil and the unfortunate and none loves Ali, but the pious and religious.
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Surah Asr was revealed in the honor of Ali. It interpretation is that Allah swears by the time of Qiyamat, that man, that the enemy of Aale Muhammad (a.s.) is in loss, except those who have believed in the Wilayat of Ali and have performed the good deeds along with helping their religious brothers; and they have guarded the truth and Wilayat of Ali and his progeny and they would continue to be patient in hardships and mischiefs of the occultation of the Qaim of Aale Muhammad (a.s.). People, believe in God, His Messenger and that light, which the Almighty Allah has mentioned in Quran; it is the light of Imamate, which is present in Ali and it is present in the Imams from his progeny till Mahdi (a.s.); who would recover the rights of us, Aale Muhammad (a.s.) from the usurpers. People, I am the Messenger of Allah on you and divine prophets have passed. I am following their manners and practices. Doubtlessly Ali is imbued with the qualities of patience and thankfulness. The Imams after me would be born from his loins only. People, before this, many have gone astray. I am the straight path, which Allah has commanded in Surah Hamd, through which you should pray to Allah for guidance. After me is Ali and after him are the Holy Imams (a.s.) who would guide the people to truth and guidance. Indeed I have mentioned the truth and explained it to you. After me, Ali will explain it to you. After this sermon, I invite you to shake hands with me and pay allegiance to Ali (a.s.) and confess to his Imamate. And you should know that I take allegiance for God and Ali takes the allegiance for me. I take the allegiance for him on behalf of Allah. 114B ِ ﻪِ ﺴْ ﻔَ ﻧـٰ ﻰَ ﻠَ ﻋُﺚُ ﻜْ ﻨَ ﺎ ﻳـَ ﱠﻤ ﻧِ ﺈَ ﻓَﺚَ ﻜَ ﻧْ ﻦَ ﻤَ ۖ ﻓ ◌ َ ﺪَﺎﻫَﺎ ﻋَ ﻤِ ﺑٰ ﻰَ ﻓْ وَ أْ ﻦَ ﻣَ و ﺎً ﻴﻤِ ﻈَا ﻋً ﺮْ ﺟَ أِﻴﻪِ ﺗْ ﺆُ ﻴـَﺴَ ﻓَ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ُ ﻪْ ﻴَ ﻠَ ﴾١٠﴿ ﻋ
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“Therefore, whoever breaks (his faith), he breaks it only to the injury of his own soul, and whoever fulfills what he has covenanted with Allah, He will grant him a mighty reward.” (Surah Fath 48:10) People, all of you shake hands with me through your palms; doubtlessly the Almighty Allah has commanded me that I should take confessions from your tongues that you have agreed to the rulership of Ali and those Imams, who would come after me. Who will be from my progeny and the progeny of Ali (a.s.); as I have mentioned, my progeny will continue through his loins. So, those who are present should inform those who are absent. Now, tell me that you have heard and obeyed and say: We are satisfied with whatever you have conveyed from Almighty Allah. Our hearts, our tongues and our hands pledge allegiance to you. We shall live on this faith and die on this faith and would be raised on Judgment Day in this condition and will not at all make any changes in it. We do not have an iota of doubt in this covenant, which you mentioned with Allah and with you, Ali, Hasan, Husain and the Imams. We do so with our hearts and tongues; and we will not change this covenant with another and will convey this to all we meet. People raised slogans from all sides: Yes, we heard it and we obeyed the command of Allah and the Messenger and brought faith in it with sincerity. Then they surrounded the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and Ali (a.s.) and extended their hands for pledging allegiance, till the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) prayed the Zuhr and the Asr prayer in one time and the rest of the day was spent in taking allegiance. Due to scarcity of time, Maghrib and Isha prayers were also prayed together. This is a brief sermon, which Imamiyah and Ahle Sunnat scholars have narrated from Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) and from others. The sermon, which I have quoted in Biharul Anwar, also contains most of the verses revealed in the honor of Ali and it is mentioned in traditional reports that when the Messenger of
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Allah (s.a.w.s.) had conveyed all the rules of religion, except Hajj and Wilayat, Jibraeel came and said: The Almighty Allah sends you His greetings and says: I did not take up any prophet from the world till I completed his religion and made his proof incumbent on the creatures. Two great issues of your religion are remaining, which you have not conveyed (completely): One is the obligation of Hajj and the other is the matter of your succession, because I have never left the earth without a divine proof and neither will I do so after you. O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), the Almighty Allah commands you to inform all the townspeople, villagers and nomads to perform the Hajj with you and to learn the rules and regulations of Hajj from you. The main aim was that people should come from all nooks and corners of the Muslim world and learn from the Prophet directly about the issue of his succession. Thus, all Muslims attended the Hajj with His Eminence; they numbered more than seventy thousand; same as the number of the followers of Prophet Musa (a.s.) from whom he had taken allegiance for Harun (a.s.), but they broke that allegiance and followed the calf and the Samiri. In the same way, the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) took allegiance for Caliphate of Amirul Momineen (a.s.) from the same number of people, and they also broke the allegiance and turned away and first they followed the calf and then the Samiri. In other words, after the call of Thalbiya arose between Mecca and Medina and when they reached Arafat, Jibraeel arrived and said: O Muhammad (s.a.w.s.), the Powerful and Majestic Lord sends you His greetings and says that your tenure in the world is near its end. I impose a duty on you, without which there is no other option and it is necessary that you should give precedence to your succession on all matters and divine knowledge, inheritance of the past prophets, and entrust all weapons, ark of covenant and all that has come into your possession from the miracles and signs of the prophets, to your
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successor and Caliph after you who is My perfect proof on My creatures; that is Ali (a.s.). Whom, you should appoint as the leader; so that he might be a sign on the path of guidance. That: he may renew their allegiance and oath and remind them of the covenant, which I had taken from creatures on the day of Alast – which is the oath of fealty to Ali (a.s.) as the successor of the Prophet and master of believers. It is so, because I have never taken up any prophet, but only after completing My religion and I have after completed My blessings on the believers, so that they might obey My Wali and have firm belief in My oneness; that is why I am fond of his friends and inimical to his enemies. So this day, O Muslims, I will perfect My religion for you and complete My bounties on you. I have chosen for you the religion along with the mastership of My Wali. It is Ali (a.s.), My sincere servant, the successor of My Prophet and his Caliph after him. He is My proof on My creatures; his obedience is joined with the obedience of My Messenger, and the obedience of both of them is joined to My obedience. One, who has obeyed Ali, has in fact obeyed Me and one, who has disobeyed him has in fact disobeyed Me. I have made him a sign between Myself and My creatures. One, who recognizes him as Imam, is a believer and one, who denies his Imamate, is a disbeliever. One, who makes someone else as his partner in Imamate, is a polytheist and one, who meets Me along with his Wilayat, would enter Paradise and one, who meets with his enmity, would go to Hell. Therefore, O Muhammad, give cognition of Ali to the people and remind them of My covenant. But His Eminence feared the hypocrites that they would reveal their disbelief and disperse, because he knew their enmity to Amirul Momineen (a.s.). He told Jibraeel: May Allah keep Ali safe from the mischief of enemies. He also delayed in announcing his Imamate till Jibraeel again arrived in Masjid Kheef and emphasized it; but he did not bring the glad tiding of his being secure from the mischief of the enemies. When they were at the midpoint between Mecca and Medina; and reached
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Karaun Naeem, Jibraeel came down again and further emphasized this matter. The Prophet said: Jibraeel, I am afraid that the hypocrites would falsify me, and will not accept my instructions regarding Ali. Then he set out from there and reached Ghadeer Khum, which is one Farsakh before Johfa. Again Jibraeel arrived when five hours of the day had passed and the day was extremely hot. This time Jibraeel came with guarantee of protection from the mischief of enemies and said: O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), Allah sends you His greetings and says: 115B َ ﱢﻚ ﺑَ رْ ﻦِ ﻣَ ﻚْ ﻴَ ﻟِ إَ لِ ﺰْ ﻧُﺎ أَ ﻣْ ﱢﻎ ﻠَ ﺑـُﻮلُ ﺎ اﻟﺮﱠﺳ َ ﱡﻬ ﻳـَﺎ أَ ۖ ﻳ ◌ ْ ﻞَ ﻌْ ﻔَ ﺗـْ ﻢَ ﻟْ نِ إَ و ُ ﻪَ ﺘَﺎﻟَ ﺳِ رَﺖْ ﱠﻐ ﻠَﺎ ﺑـَ ﻤَ ۚ ﻓ ◌ ِ اﻟﻨﱠﺎسَ ﻦِ ﻣَ ﻚُ ﻤِﺼْ ﻌَ ﻳـُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ و 997B“O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people.” (Surah Maidah 5:67) 2649BIt is clear from Shia and Sunni traditions that the words of ‘regarding Ali’ were also in the verse after ‘O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord’. At that time Lady Fatima Zahra (s.a.) had reached near Johfa. When he Prophet issued instructions those who has gone ahead were recalled and he waited for those who were following. He halted on the right side of the road at a place called Ghadeer. He then recited a lengthy sermon, which is mentioned in all books. 2650BWhen people gathered around the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and Ali Murtada (a.s.) for pledging allegiance, the first, who paid allegiance were Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Talha and Zubair. The allegiance continued for three days. Most Ahle Sunnat have mentioned this event and quoted this sermon. When their bigoted scholars realized that complete denial of this incident would be extremely embarrassing, they reported this
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incident with a sermon only containing words, which do not go against their belief in succession of Prophet. Every sane person understands that if so many traditions and verses are revealed in an incident and people were made to halt at such a difficult place and in such a difficult time, it cannot be just to repeat a few words. Now we will quote some statements mentioned in their famous Sihah books, because everything cannot be mentioned in this treatise. In Jamiul Usool it is narrated from Sahih Muslim through Yazid bin Hamam from Zaid bin Arqam that he said: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) stood among us one day and delivered a sermon at a pool known as Ghadeer situated between Mecca and Medina. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) praised and glorified Allah and dispensed good advice to us and reminded us of Him. Then he said: People, I am a mortal and it is likely that the messenger of my Lord comes and summons me to Him and that I will have to accept his call and depart for the other world. I leave among you two important things: the first of them being the Book of Allah, which is having guidance and light. Therefore, you are to remain attached to the Book of Allah. Then he motivated the people regarding the Book of Allah. Then he said: The second is my Ahle Bayt (a.s.). I remind you of Allah regarding them; and he repeated this twice. Hassan bin Sirah asked Zaid: Who are his Ahle Bayt? Are his wives not included among his Ahle Bayt? He replied: His wives are from the people of his family; but here Ahle Bayt imply those, on whom Sadaqah is unlawful, like the progeny of Ali, progeny of Aqil, progeny of Ja’far and progeny of Abbas. Haseen asked: Is Sadaqah unlawful on them all? He replied: Yes. It is mentioned in Jamiul Usool that this is elaborated further in another report. That is the book of Allah and it contains guidance and light. One, who adopts it and acts on it, is guided and one, who exceeds them, is deviated.
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In another report, it is mentioned that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: I leave among you two great things: the Book of Allah and it is the rope of Allah; one, who obeys it, is guided, and one, who leaves it, is deviated. The author says: I have explained the meaning of Ahle Bayt before, who are only the folks of the blanket and whatever Zaid has said, is from his own opinion, which is not reliable and is not according to our aim, because the three Caliphs are certainly beyond the circle of Ahle Bayt and the near kindred of the Prophet are those who did not claim Imamate at that time and were all united on the Caliphate of Amirul Momineen (a.s.). If someone claims that they have become extinct, according to consensus of true faith, a Caliph will be present till Judgment Day. The second important thing is ‘my Ahle Bayt’. People asked: Who are the Ahle Bayt (a.s.); does it includes the wives as well? He replied: No, because a wife remains with the husband for a time. When she is divorced, she returns to the place of her father and joins her people. His Ahle Bayt are his near relatives and the male relatives from the paternal side, on whom Sadaqah is unlawful. Thalabi has interpreted the verse: ﻮا 116B ُ ﱠﻗ ﺮَ ﻔَ ﺗـَ ﻻَﺎ وًﻴﻌِ ﻤَ ﺟِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِ ﻞْ ﺒَ ﺤِﻮا ﺑُ ﻤِﺼَ ﺘْاﻋَ و 998B“And hold fast by the covenant of Allah all together and be not disunited.” (Surah Aale Imran 3:103) 2660BHe has narrated from Abu Saeed Khudri that: I heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) say: People, I leave two heavy things among you; that is two important matters, who are my successors. If you adopt them, you will not be misguided and each of them is bigger than the other. The first is the Book of Allah and it is a rope stretching from the heavens to the earth. The second is my Ahle Bayt (a.s.); they will not separate from each other till they meet me at the Pool of Kauthar.
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Ibne Maghazali and others have also narrated this report through a large number of channels. At the end, it is mentioned that the Prophet said: Be careful, how you deal with them after me. The same topic is mentioned in Sahih of Abu Dawood Sajistani and Sahih Tirmidhi from Zaid bin Arqam. Abdullah bin Ahmad bin Hanbal has in his Musnad, narrated from Baraa bin Azib that: We were with the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) in a journey, when we halted at Ghadeer Khum, people were called for congregational prayer and the ground was swept clean below a couple of trees where the Prophet prayed the Zuhr Prayer. Then he asked: Do you not know that I am having more authority on the lives of believers than their own selves? People said: Yes, you have. Then he held Ali’s hand and said: Of whomsoever I am the master; this Ali is also his master. Then he said: O Allah, love those who love Ali and be inimical to those who are inimical to Ali. Umar said: O Ali, congratulations to you, you have become the master of all believing men and women. Zaid bin Arqam narrates: We halted in the valley of Khum with the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). The Prophet recited the prayer and then delivered a sermon. A sheet was spread on the tree to shade the Prophet from the sun. He asked: Do you not witness that I have more authority on the life of every believer than his own self? People replied: Yes. Then the Prophet said: Of whomsoever I am the master; this Ali is also his master. O Allah, love one, who loves him and be inimical to one, who is inimical to him. It is mentioned in Musnad Hanbal and in the book of Hafiz Abu Nuaim it is narrated from Abul Tufayl that Ali (a.s.) gathered people in an elevated place in Kufa and adjured them in the name of God, to relate what they heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) in his favor in Ghadeer Khum. A large number of companions from that crowd testified to the veracity of this statement till the words of ‘be inimical to one, who is inimical to
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him’. In Musnad this matter is narrated through many chains of narrators from a large number of companions. Thalabi and Ibne Maghazali have narrated that on the day of Ghadeer, people dispersed from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) asked Ali (a.s.) to gather the people. When all gathered, the Prophet stood up and leaning on the hand of Ali and said: People, you have shown detestation to me and acted against me till I thought that you are not inimical to any family other than mine. But the Almighty Allah has deemed Ali in relation to me as I am related to God; and He is pleased with him, like I am pleased with him, because he does not adopt anything over my proximity and love. Then he raised his hands and said: Of whomsoever I am the master; this Ali is also his master. O Allah, love those, who love him and be inimical to one, who is inimical to him. People began to weep and wail and said: O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), we become aloof from you, so that you may not be hard on us. We seek the refuge of Allah from the fury of Prophet. Then Prophet became well satisfied with them. Ibne Abde Barr has written in Istiab that Buraidah, Abu Huraira, Jabir, Baraa bin Azib and Zaid bin Arqam have all narrated the tradition of Ghadeer from the Prophet. Mishkat has narrated the tradition of Ghadeer from Baraa bin Azib and Zaid bin Arqam. In Sahih Tirmidhi, it is as mentioned above; then it is said: After that Umar met Ali (a.s.) and said: Congratulations to you for this rank; you became my master and master of every believing man and woman. Hafiz Abu Nuaim, in the book of Maa Nazala minal Quran fee Ali, has narrated from Amash and he in turn has narrated from Atiyyah that this verse was revealed about Ali (a.s.): 117B َ ﻚْ ﻴَ ﻟِ إَ لِ ﺰْ ﻧُﺎ أَ ﻣْ ﱢﻎ ﻠَ ﺑـُﻮلُ ﺎ اﻟﺮﱠﺳ َ ﱡﻬ ﻳـَﺎ أَ ﻳ 999B“O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you.” (Surah Maidah 5:67)
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In Asbabun Nuzul, Wahidi has narrated this same tradition from Abu Saeed Khudri and Abu Bakr Shirazi and Marzabani have narrated it from Ibne Abbas. Thalabi has also narrated it in his Tafsir and in Manaqib Khwarizmi it is narrated from Abdur Rahman bin Abu Laila and he from his father has narrated that he said: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) gave the standard to Ali in Khyber and Allah bestowed victory at his hands and on the day of Ghadeer, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) displayed Ali (a.s.) and said that he is the master of every believing man and woman and said: I am from you and you are from me. He also said: You will fight for the interpretation of Quran just as I have fought for the revelation of Quran and said: You are in relation to me as Harun was to Musa (a.s.) and I am at peace with one, who is at peace with you and I am at war with one, who is at war with you. And he said: After me, you will clarify all that is ambiguous. And he said: Only you are the firm rope. And he said: After me, only you are the Imam of every believing man and woman. You are the one in whose honor the following verse was revealed: 118B ِ ﺮَ ﺒْ ﻛَْ ﺞﱢ اﻷ َ اﻟْﺤَ مْ ﻮَ ﻳـِﻰ اﻟﻨﱠﺎسَ ﻟِ إِ ﻪِﻮﻟُ ﺳَ رَ وِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ ﻦِ ﻣٌانَ ذَ أَ و 1000B“And an announcement from Allah and His Apostle to the people on the day of the greater pilgrimage.” (Surah Taubah 9:3) 2673BAnd you announced these verses publicly. Only you would act on my Sunnah and remove harm of religion from my Ummah. He said: I would be the first to be resurrected on Judgment Day. 2674BAnd he said: O Ali, I will come to the Pool of Kauthar and you will be with me; and I am the first to enter Paradise and you will be with me. After me Hasan, Husain and Fatima (a.s.) will enter.
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He also said: O Ali, the Almighty Allah revealed to me to mention your excellence in public; that is why I have narrated it. He said: O Ali, be careful and avoid the enmity of those who are inimical to you, which they will not reveal till after my death. Allah has cursed them and those who curse have (also) cursed them. Then the Prophet started weeping. People asked: Why are you crying? The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) replied: Jibraeel has informed me that my companions would oppress him, withhold his rights and fight him and after him would slay his descendants. Jibraeel has informed that their oppression for his sons would end when the Qaim appears and his call would be raised and all the people of the Ummah would have consensus on his love his enemies would be less. One, who is not devoted to him, would be degraded. There will be many who would praise him. These matters would become evident at a time when before that cities would be destroyed and human beings would become weak and despaired of deliverance. At that time our Qaim would appear. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: His name will be same as my name and he will be from the descendants of my daughter, Fatima. The Almighty Allah will make truth evident from him and through him falsehood would perish. People would follow him; some willingly and some due to fear. Then the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) stopped weeping and said: Glad tidings to you for deliverance, because the promise of Allah is always true and the command of Allah is never invalidated. He is wise and knowing. Doubtlessly, divine victory is close. Then he said: O Allah, these are my Ahle Bayt (a.s.). Keep away impurities from them and purify them as it deserves. O Allah, please keep them secure and exalt their honor. Continue my succession among them; indeed Thou art powerful over everything.
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In Tafsir Thalabi, it is narrated from Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) under the exegesis of the verse: 119B َ ﱢﻚ ﺑَ رْ ﻦِ ﻣَ ﻚْ ﻴَ ﻟِ إَ لِ ﺰْ ﻧُﺎ أَ ﻣْ ﱢﻎ ﻠَ ﺑـُﻮلُ ﺎ اﻟﺮﱠﺳ َ ﱡﻬ ﻳـَﺎ أَ ﻳ 1001B“O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord.” (Surah Maidah 5:67) 2682BIt is in the honor of Ali (a.s.) and it is narrated from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) that the verse was revealed with the above words followed by: ‘Regarding Ali (a.s.).’ When the verse was revealed, the Prophet held the hand of Ali (a.s.) and said: Of whomsoever I am the master, this Ali is also his master. 2683BThalabi has also narrated that when Sufyan bin Uyyana was asked about the following verse: 120B ٍ ﻊِاﻗَ و ٍابَ ﺬَ ﻌِ ﺑٌﻞِﺎﺋَ ﺳ َ لَ ﺄَ ٌﻊِ ﴾١﴿ ﺳ اﻓَ دُﻪَ ﻟ َﺲْﻴَ ﻟَﻳﻦِﺮِﺎﻓَﻜْﻠِﻟ ٢﴿﴾ ِ ج ِ ﺎرَ ﻌَي اﻟْﻤِ ذِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ ﻦِ ﴾٣﴿ ﻣ 1002B“One demanding demanded the chastisement, which must befall. The unbelievers- there is none to avert it – from Allah, the Lord of the ways of Ascent.” (Surah Maarij 70:1-3) 2684BThat regarding whom was this verse revealed. He replied: I heard from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) narrating through his holy forefathers that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) halted at Ghadeer Khum, gathered all the people; held the hand of Ali (a.s.) and said: Of whomsoever I am the master, this Ali is also his master. This report received wide publicity and people in every area of the Islamic territories became aware of it. 2685BHarith bin Noman Fahri came to the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) when he was seated among his companions. Harith dismounted from his she-camel, tethered her and met the Prophet.
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He said: O Muhammad, you ordered on behalf of the Almighty Allah that we should testify to His oneness and your messengership and we accepted; you asked us to pray five times a day and we accepted; you commanded fasting during the month of Ramadhan and we accepted it; you ordered us to perform the Hajj of the Kaaba and we accepted it, but you were not content till you held the hands of your cousin and gave precedence to him over us and said: Of whomsoever I am the master, this Ali is also his master. Please tell us whether you did this on your behalf or from the side of the Almighty Allah? The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: By the one, except whom there is no god, the excellence of Ali (a.s.) over us is from the side of the Almighty Allah. On getting this reply, Harith turned to leave, saying: O Allah, if whatever Muhammad has said is truth, drop a stone on my head from the sky or send down a painful chastisement on us. He had not yet reached his mount, but that a stone from the sky fell on his head piercing him and passed out through his anus. He died in pain immediately. Then the Almighty Allah revealed the following verses: 121B ٌ ﻞِﺎﺋَ ﺳ َ لَ ﺄَ ٍﻊِ ﺳ ٌﻊِ ﴾١﴿ اﻗَ و ٍابَﺬَﻌِﺑ اﻓَ دُﻪَ ﻟ َﺲْﻴَ ﻟَﻳﻦِﺮِﺎﻓَﻜْﻠِﻟ ٢﴿﴾ ِ ج ِ ﺎرَ ﻌَي اﻟْﻤِ ذِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ ﻦِ ﴾٣﴿ ﻣ 1003B“One demanding demanded the chastisement, which must befall. The unbelievers- there is none to avert it – from Allah, the Lord of the ways of Ascent.” (Surah Maarij 70:1-3) 2689BAbul Qasim Haskani, a famous Ahle Sunnat scholar, has also quoted this tradition from Huzaifah Ibne Yaman and in most of his books, he quotes from Abu Saeed Khudri that: We had hardly returned from the event of Ghadeer when this verse was revealed:
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122B ُ ﻴﺖِﺿَ رَ ﻲ وِ ﺘَ ﻤْ ﻌِ ﻧْ ﻢُ ﻜْ ﻴَ ﻠَ ﻋُﺖْ ﻤَ ﻤْ ﺗَ أَ وْ ﻢُ ﻜَﻳﻨِ دْ ﻢُ ﻜَ ﻟُﺖْ ﻠَ ﻤْ ﻛَ أَ مْ ﻮَاﻟْﻴـ ﺎًﻳﻨِ دَ مَ ﻼْﺳِْ اﻹُ ﻢُ ﻜَ ﻟ 1004B“This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion.” (Surah Maidah 5:3) 2690BThe Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: I thank the Almighty Allah for perfecting the religion, completing His favor and His satisfaction at the Wilayat of Ali (a.s.). 2691BAccording to another traditional report he said: God is the greatest, God is the greatest, I thank Allah…till the end of the verse. The following verse was also revealed: 123B ِ نْ ﻮَﺸْاﺧَ وْ ﻢُ ﻫْ ﻮَﺸْﺨَ ﺗَ ﻼَ ﻓْ ﻢُ ﻜِﻳﻨِ دْ ﻦِوا ﻣُ ﺮَ ﻔَ ﻛَﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ َﺲِ ﺌَ ﻳَ مْ ﻮَاﻟْﻴـ 1005B“This day have those who disbelieve despaired of your religion, so fear them not, and fear Me.” (Surah Maidah 5:3) 2692BIt is narrated from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) that the disbelievers despaired and the oppressors – that is the hypocrites – became greedy. 2693BThe author of Jamiul Usool has narrated from Sahih Muslim from Tariq bin Shahab that some Jews said to Umar: If such a verse had been revealed among us: 124B ُ ﻜَ ﻟُﺖْ ﻠَ ﻤْ ﻛَ أَ مْ ﻮَاﻟْﻴـ ُ ﻴﺖِﺿَ رَ ﻲ وِ ﺘَ ﻤْ ﻌِ ﻧْ ﻢُ ﻜْ ﻴَ ﻠَ ﻋُﺖْ ﻤَ ﻤْ ﺗَ أَ وْ ﻢُ ﻜَﻳﻨِ دْ ﻢ ﺎًﻳﻨِ دَ مَ ﻼْﺳِْ اﻹُ ﻢُ ﻜَ ﻟ 1006B“This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion.” (Surah Maidah 5:3) 2694BWe would have celebrated the day of its revelation as the Day of Feast (Eid).
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Suyuti has quoted in Durre Manthur from Ibne Marduya and Ibne Asakir has narrated from Abu Saeed that when the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), on the day of Ghadeer Khum, appointed Ali (a.s.) and declared his Wilayat, Jibraeel came to the Prophet with the following verse: 125B ُ ﻴﺖِﺿَ رَ ﻲ وِ ﺘَ ﻤْ ﻌِ ﻧْ ﻢُ ﻜْ ﻴَ ﻠَ ﻋُﺖْ ﻤَ ﻤْ ﺗَ أَ وْ ﻢُ ﻜَﻳﻨِ دْ ﻢُ ﻜَ ﻟُﺖْ ﻠَ ﻤْ ﻛَ أَ مْ ﻮَاﻟْﻴـ ﺎًﻳﻨِ دَ مَ ﻼْﺳِْ اﻹُ ﻢُ ﻜَ ﻟ 1007B“This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion.” (Surah Maidah 5:3) 2696BIbne Marduya, Khatib and Ibne Asakir have narrated from same chains of authorities from Abu Huraira that on the day of Ghadeer, which was 18PthP Zilhajj, the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: Of whomsoever I am the master; this Ali is also his master. 2697BJarir, through his chains of authorities, narrates from Ibne Abbas under the exegesis of the verse of: 126B َ ﱢﻚ ﺑَ رْ ﻦِ ﻣَ ﻚْ ﻴَ ﻟِ إَ لِ ﺰْ ﻧُﺎ أَ ﻣْ ﱢﻎ ﻠَ ﺑـُﻮلُ ﺎ اﻟﺮﱠﺳ َ ﱡﻬ ﻳـَﺎ أَ ﻳ 1008B“O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord.” (Surah Maidah 5:67) 2698BThat from whatever was revealed on the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) regarding Ali (a.s.) on the day of Ghadeer, is: 127B ُ ﻪَ ﺘَﺎﻟَ ﺳِ رَﺖْ ﱠﻐ ﻠَﺎ ﺑـَ ﻤَ ﻓْﻞَ ﻌْ ﻔَ ﺗـْ ﻢَ ﻟْ نِ إَ و 1009B“And if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message.” (Surah Maidah 5:67) 2699BMoreover, it is narrated from Ibne Marduya from Ibne Masud that he said: During the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), we used to recite this verse as follows:
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128B َ ﱢﻚ ﺑَ رْ ﻦِ ﻣَ ﻚْ ﻴَ ﻟِ إَ لِ ﺰْ ﻧُﺎ أَ ﻣْ ﱢﻎ ﻠَ ﺑـُﻮلُ ﺎ اﻟﺮﱠﺳ َ ﱡﻬ ﻳـَﺎ أَ ﻳ 1010B“O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord.” (Surah Maidah 5:67) 2700BRegarding Ali, the master of believers… 129B ُ ﻪَ ﺘَﺎﻟَ ﺳِ ر َﺖْ ﱠﻐ ﻠَﺎ ﺑـَ ﻤَ ﻓْﻞَ ﻌْ ﻔَ ﺗـ ْ ﻢَ ﻟ ْ نِ إَ ۚ و ◌ َ ﻦِ ﻣ َ ﻚُ ﻤِﺼْ ﻌَ ﻳـُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ و ِ ۗ اﻟﻨﱠﺎس ◌ َ ﻳﻦِ ﺮِﺎﻓَ اﻟْﻜَ مْ ﻮَي اﻟْﻘِ ﺪْ ﻬَ ﻳـَ ﻻَ ﱠ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ نِ ﴾٦٧﴿ إ 1011B“O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people.” (Surah Maidah 5:67) 2701BIbne Hajar has written in Fathul Bari Sharh Sahih Bukhari that Tirmidhi and Nasai have narrated the tradition of: Of whomsoever I am the master, this Ali is also his master; and there are many chains of narrators of this tradition. Then he has quoted all of them. 2702BIbne Uqdah Hafiz has in Judai, narrated it through many good and correct chains of authorities. The author of Jumrah, which is a famous book of grammar, has written that Khum is a place where the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) explicitly declared the Wilayat of Ali (a.s.) and most writers of excellence have quoted that Ibne Uqdah has in the Book of Wilayat quoted the tradition of Ghadeer through 125 chains of authorities and from 125 companions. Muhammad bin Jarir has narrated it through 75 chains of authorities. 2703BThe couplets of Hassan Thabit, which he composed at the order of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) regarding the event of Ghadeer are Mutawatir (related through exceeding channels) and mentioned in all books. 2704BIt is narrated from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) that he said: I am astonished regarding Ali that every person secures his right
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by two witnesses and for the testimony of Ali (a.s.) 10000 witnesses were present in Medina, who heard about the appointment of Ali (a.s.) from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), but he was unable to secure his rights. Abu Saeed Samman has narrated that Shaitan came to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) in the form of an old man and said: So few are those obey you regarding what you have declared about your cousin. At that moment the Almighty Allah revealed the following verse: 130B َ ﱠ ﻓ ﻻِ إُﻮﻩُ ﻌَ ﺎﺗـﱠﺒـ َ ﻓُﻨﱠﻪَ ﻇُﻴﺲِ ﻠْ ﺑِ إْ ﻢِ ﻬْ ﻴَ ﻠَ ﻋَ ﱠق ﺪَ ﺻْ ﺪَ ﻘَ ﻟَ و َ ﻴﻦِ ﻨِ ﻣْ ﺆُ اﻟْﻤَ ﻦِﺎ ﻣًﻳﻘِ ﺮ 1012B“And certainly the Shaitan found true his conjecture concerning them, so they follow him, except a party of the believers.” (Surah Saba 34:20) 2706BAfter that a group of hypocrites united on the violation of pledge given to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and said: Yesterday Muhammad said in Masjid Kheef whatever he said and he said today what he said. Now, when he reaches Medina, he would emphasize on that allegiance. The best option is to eliminate him before he enters Medina. At night, fourteen hypocrites laid in wait for him on a mountain pass between Johfa and Abwa in order to assassinate him. Seven hypocrites hid at the right side of the pass and another seven laid on the left, in order to frighten his she-camel, so that she will tumble over the cliff with its rider. 2707BThe Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) set out after praying the midnight prayer and the companions moved ahead him. He was mounted on a fast moving she-camel. When he climbed the pass, Jibraeel called the Prophet that some people were lying in wait to assassinate him. The Prophet looked behind and asked: Who is there behind me? Huzaifah said that it was him. He asked: Did you hear it? Yes, O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), said Huzaifah. 2708BThe Prophet said: Keep it confidential. When the Prophet reached those people, he called each of them by name and parentage. When they heard this, they descended and joined the
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caravan. The Prophet caught up with them, recognized them and identified their camels. When he came down, he asked: Why have some people taken an oath in the Kaaba that if Muhammad dies or is killed, we would not allow the Caliphate to remain in his Ahle Bayt and then intended to eliminate me? But they swore that they have not hatched any such plot. At that moment the Almighty Allah revealed the following verse: 131B ِ ﺑَﻮنُﻔِﻠْﺤَﻳ َ ﺪْ ﻌَوا ﺑـُ ﺮَ ﻔَ ﻛ َ وِ ﺮْ ﻔُ اﻟْﻜَ ﺔَ ﻤِ ﻠَ ﻮا ﻛُﺎﻟَ ﻗْ ﺪَ ﻘَ ﻟَ ﻮا وُﺎﻟَﺎ ﻗَ ﻣِ ﺎﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﻮاُﺎﻟَ ﻨَ ﻳـْ ﻢَﺎ ﻟَ ﻤِ ﱡﻮا ﺑ ﻤَ ﻫَ وْ ﻢِ ﻬِ ﻣَ ﻼْﺳِ ۚ إ ◌ ُ ﻢُﺎﻫَ ﻨْﻏَ أْ نَ ﱠ أ ﻻِﻮا إُ ﻤَ ﻘَﺎ ﻧـَ ﻣَ و ِ ﻪِ ﻠْﻀَ ﻓْ ﻦِ ﻣُ ﻪُﻮﻟُ ﺳَ رَ وُ ۚ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ◌ ْ ﻢُ ﻬَا ﻟً ﺮْ ﻴـَ ﺧُﻚَﻮا ﻳُﻮﺑُ ﺘَ ﻳـْ نِ ﺈَ ۖ ﻓ ◌ ْ نِ إَ و ا ْ ﱠﻮ ﻟَ ﻮَ ﺘـَ ﻳـ ِ ةَ ﺮِ ﺧْ اﻵَﺎ وَ ﻴْ ﱡﻧـ ﻲ اﻟﺪِﺎ ﻓًﻴﻤِ ﻟَﺎ أًاﺑَ ﺬَ ﻋُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ُ ﻢُ ﻬْ ﱢﺑـ ﺬَ ﻌُ ۚ ﻳـ ◌ ْ ﻢُ ﻬَﺎ ﻟَ ﻣَ و ٍﻴﺮِﺼَ ﻧَ ﻻَ ﱟ و ﻲِ ﻟَ وْ ﻦِ ﻣِضْ رَْ ﻲ اﻷِ ﴾٧٤﴿ ﻓ 1013B“They swear by Allah that they did not speak, and certainly they did speak, the word of unbelief, and disbelieved after their Islam, and they had determined upon what they have not been able to effect, and they did not find fault except because Allah and His Apostle enriched them out of His grace; therefore, if they repent, it will be good for them; and if they turn back, Allah will chastise them with a painful chastisement in this world and the hereafter, and they shall not have in the land any guardian or a helper.” (Surah Taubah 9:74) 2709BAmong Ahle Sunnat commentators, Kalbi and Mujahid have said: It means that they plotted to frighten the she-camel of the Prophet to kill him. It is mentioned in a lengthy traditional report of Huzaifah that the cliff was called Harsh. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) called me and Ammar; he ordered me to lead the camel and asked Ammar to drive it from the rear. When we reached that pass, the fourteen hypocrites, who had arrived with cans filled with sand, threw the cans at the hooves of the she
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camel and it was on the verge of being startled when the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) reassured her. Be still, there is nothing to fear. At that moment the Almighty Allah gave power of speech to that she-camel and she said: O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), by Allah, I will not move as long as you are on my back. When those accursed ones saw that the she-camel was not startled they came forward to push it over the cliff. At that time, I and Ammar pulled out our swords to confront them. It was a dark night. They despaired of achieving their aim. Lightning flashed at that moment and Huzaifah recognized all of them and said: There were nine persons from Quraish; The first, second and third; Talha, Abdur Rahman bin Auf, Saad bin Abi Waqqas, Abu Ubaidah, Muawiyah bin Abu Sufyan, Amr Aas and five others: Abu Musa Ashari, Mughira bin Shoba, Aws bin Khadsan, Abu Huraira and Abu Talha Ansari. The author says: Although the report of Huzaifah contains many important points, it is extremely lengthy; whose scope is not there in this book and there are a large number of traditions as well on this matter; and whatever we have mentioned is sufficient for people who are fair. Ibne Kathir Shafei has mentioned in the biography of Tabari: I saw one of his books, in which he had compiled the different versions of the tradition of Ghadeer in a bulky volume. I saw another book as well, in which the chains of narrators of the traditions of Tabari were compiled. Abu Maani Jofi has quoted that he used to be astonished and he used to say: I saw in a book shop of Baghdad, a book, in which reports of the tradition of Ghadeer were collected. Behind its back was written: This is the 28th volume of the tradition of: Of whomsoever I am the master; this Ali is also his master, which would be followed by volume 29. Numerous Ahle Sunnat scholars have admitted that this tradition is widely related (Mutawatir) and Sayyid Murtada has written in Kitab Shafi that we have not seen any sect of Islam
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denying the tradition of Ghadeer. On the contrary, they have disagreed in the evidences of Caliphate. Thus, with the grace of Almighty, I present the evidences of Imamate – Firstly, ‘Maula’: It means one, who is vested with authority, a ruler and one, whose obedience is necessary. In every issue it is used in this sense only. Secondly, it implies the same meaning, which is assumed by the Ahle Sunnat scholars; that is ‘friend’. Firstly: Meaning of Maula
We will study the meaning of the word according to the sense understood by experts of Arabic language, who have all used it in this sense in their prose and poetry. Ubaidah, the architect of Arabic language and grammar, writes in his Tafsir regarding the verse of the Holy Quran: 132B ُ اﻟﻨﱠﺎرُ ﻢُاﻛَ وْ ﺄَ ۖ ﻣ ◌ ْ ﻢُ ﻛَ ﻻْ ﻮَ ﻣَ ﻲِ ۖ ﻫ ◌ ُ ﻴﺮِﺼَ اﻟْﻤَﺲْ ﺌِ ﺑَ ﴾١٥﴿ و 1014B“Your abode is the fire; it is your friend and evil is the resort.” (Surah Hadid 57:15) 2717BIt means that Hellfire is preferable for you. Baidhawi, Zamakhshari and all commentators have mentioned the same meaning. Then commentators have agreed regarding the verse: 133B َ ﻮنُ ﺑَ ﺮْ ﻗـَْ اﻷَ وِانَ ﺪِاﻟَ اﻟْﻮَ كَ ﺮَ ﱠﺎ ﺗـ ﻤِ ﻣَ ﻲِاﻟَ ﻮَﺎ ﻣَ ﻨْ ﻠَ ﻌَ ﻞﱟ ﺟ ُ ﻜِ ﻟَ و 1015B“And to everyone We have appointed heirs of what parents and near relatives leave.” (Surah Nisa 4:33) 2718BIt means that he is the owner of inheritance and is more deserving for it. Reciters of Quran and Arabic language experts say that Maula and Awla imply the same. Many great litterateurs and poets have used ‘Maula’ in the same sense, but to mention them here would prolong the discussion.
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Abul Qasim Anbari has mentioned eight meanings of the word of Maula, one of them being ‘superior-most’ (Awla Be Shayyin). Ibne Athir has written in Nihaya that the word of Maula has been used in the tradition repeatedly and it is a noun that a large number of people have understood that it implies lord, master, blessing-giver, deliverer, helper, friend, follower, cousin, ally, one, who has pledged allegiance to someone, slave, freed-slave, one, who is given some blessing, one, who is a guardian of a matter and who remains firm on it, he is the Master and Wali of that matter. Among the traditions in which the word of Maula is mentioned is the tradition of: Of whomsoever I am the master, this Ali is also his master, which carries many of the above meanings. Among such traditions is also the tradition that the marriage of a woman who marries without the permission of her guardian is invalid. According to another traditional report Walioha is mentioned: That is one, who is the guardian of that matter. The author of Kashshaf says: The verse: ﺎ 134B َ ﻧَ ﻻْ ﻮَ ﻣَﺖْ ﻧَ أ 1016B“Thou art our Patron.” (Surah Baqarah 2:286) 2722BThat is: You are our master and we are your servants; or you are our helper or the caretaker of our affairs. Secondly: On this juncture, Wali implies one, who has full authority; he is the one vested with authority and power. We prove this from some angles: 7872BFirst Angle
2723BThat is we should say that it cannot imply freed slaves and ally, because His Eminence did not have such a quality. (He was neither a freed slave nor was having a pact with any tribe). Regarding first the meaning is clear and the second isn’t
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possible, because the Prophet never entered into a pact with anyone that he might be honored as a result of it. We can eliminate other possibilities as well; because they are invalid in themselves; like the emancipator of slaves, master, neighbor, son-in-law, opposite and other meanings are also not intended, like cousin. Secondly Angle
The second type is what is known from evidence that it is not implied: like Wilayat, religious love, help in religion, devotion and freedom, because it is clear that love and help of every believer is obligatory and the Holy Quran confirms this. That is why there was no need of such clarification at that time, when the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) had gathered people at such an inconvenient time at such an inconvenient place. In the same way, if it implied freedom, its relation with cousin was known as an issue related to the period of Ignorance. It did not require such an elaborate arrangement. Also Umar’s saying: You have become the master of me and master of all believer men and women, opposes that meaning. Therefore, he should be foremost with the future of the community and Imamate is there in this sense only. It is that reason, which Sayyid Murtada has mentioned, but this humble servant has thought of some other aspects: First Aspect
Most Ahle Sunnat scholars like Khushji etc. have in confusion thought of the possibility that Maula implies helper and devotee; it is clear for all sane people that to mention this point at such a time, during a journey and informing the people about it is just not logical, because many other rules and regulations were having more importance, to convey which, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) had not made such elaborate
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arrangements. If this was the implication, there was no need to gather the people and inform them. On the contrary, he should have made a bequest to Amirul Momineen (a.s.) to help those whom he had helped, and to love those whom he had loved. There was no benefit of informing other people regarding this, except that it should denote that kind of help and love as the rulers are having with the subjects. Or that it should have necessitated that the people should follow and obey him, so that he may help them on all occasions and that they should love him, because of his faith. Therefore, in this case, our claim is proved. Second Aspect
It is that even if we assume that it denotes lover and helper; according to the context of this incident, every person who is sane, would understand that the real aim is Imamate and Caliphate. Just suppose, at the time of his death, a ruler summons all his forces and holds the hand of a relative, who was most beloved to him in the world, says: Of whomsoever I was a friend and helper, this person is also his helper and friend; and after that he prays for those who would help him and curses those who degrade him; but he does not appoint anyone else as his Caliph; in that case I don’t think his subjects would doubt that his intention of motivating them to his help, love and obedience was in fact his nomination as his successor. Third Aspect
It is that when a king who issues an order (which is compulsory to be obeyed); if he says regarding a weak and helpless person: Of whomsoever I am the helper, so and so person is also his helper; it seems evil and absurd; because a king can help anyone. Even if that weak man were to help people, he would be able to help only a few. Therefore, this statement according to general parlance proves that this person
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regarding whom the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) is making this declaration, he should have the same rank as that of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) in religion and the world; and at least have the capability of applying the command; and the same can be mentioned about love as well; thus, in any case, this statement proves Imamate. Second reason: Among those causes, which show that Maula denotes one vested with authority and Imam; it is that from those traditions mentioned previously context is present in them that this implies Imamate, because in the first part of the statement, he said: Am I not having more authority on your lives than your own selves? After that he said: Of whomsoever I am the master, this Ali is also his master. Therefore, one, who is familiar with the rules of speech, knows that the first question is clear context that Maula implies one having authority as was mentioned before. And as in the preceding statement there is no particularization, therefore, it shows universality, because experts of Arabic say that omission of absolute implies generality, which does not have any context of time and tense; otherwise the statement would become complex and confusing, especially when in the position of ‘from their own selves’. It is necessary for him to have every lawful authority in his own self; and he should discretion in all his personal matters. Then if he is preferable to his self, he has the right to issue any command regarding them; and to act on any plan that he may consider appropriate for their religion and the world and they should not have any authority. The meaning of Imamate is this only. Moreover, it is clear that the first question, which the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) asked them and the admission, which he elicited from them, means what the Almighty Allah, has proved for the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). 135B ْ ﻢِ ﻬِ ﺴُ ﻔْ ﻧـَ أْ ﻦِ ﻣَﻴﻦِ ﻨِ ﻣْ ﺆُﺎﻟْﻤِ ﺑٰ ﻰَ ﻟْ وَ ﱡ أ ﻲِاﻟﻨﱠﺒ
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“The Prophet has a greater claim on the faithful than they have on themselves.” (Surah Ahzab 33:6) Commentators have consensus that the meaning of the verse is same as what we have mentioned. Thus, Zamakhshari has written in Kashshaf that the Prophet is having more authority in every issue of the people than their own selves. Therefore, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) issued an absolute statement and did not make it conditional. Therefore, it is obligatory that His Eminence should be loved by them more than their own lives and his order should be more applicable to them than their own order; and right of the Prophet should be more incumbent on them than the right of their lives. Also, affection for the Prophet should have precedence for them more than their affection on their selves. They should be prepared to lay down their lives for the Prophet and they should protect him in battles, more than their own selves. They should not follow what their self invites to; on the contrary, they should follow only what the Prophet commands. They should discard those things, which the Prophet forbids. All commentators have said that it is clear from the context of the statement that the implication of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) for Amirul Momineen (a.s.) is same precedence, which he was himself having. The claim of some prejudiced Ahle Sunnat scholars like Kushji etc. that: “The context of the statement: ‘O Allah, love those who love him’, shows that Maula implies devotee and helper,” is invalid. On the contrary, the context favors Maula implying one vested with authority through many aspects: First Reason
When general rulership and greater kingship is proved for the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) there was need of armies and well wishing advisors; and to prove this rank for one person among a large number of people was a cause for jealousy and enmity,
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which is the possibility of abandonment of help and assistance; especially, inspite of the fact that he knew that hypocrites were harboring former enmities; that is why he prayed for helpers and cursed those who picked faults in him; thus emphasizing this point. Also, it is clear that such a prayer should be exclusive for rulers and owners of authority and is not suitable for anyone among the subjects. Second Reason
It is that this prayer proves infallibility, which is a necessary requirement of Imamate, because if sin were possible from him, it would have been incumbent on one, who is aware of it, to restrain them and express enmity to him. Therefore, one for whom this unconditional prayer is there, it proves that he will never commit any sin to deserve severing of relations and withholding of help. Third Reason
If it is as we say that Maula implies one vested with authority, it would imply the Prophet’s seeking help and obedience from his Ummah. And if it implies helper and devotee, as the Ahle Sunnat say, its aim would be to explain that the Prophet is their helper and devotee. Therefore, to pray for one, who helps is more suitable for the first meaning, as opposed to the second meaning, as will be clear to those, who ponder on this. Fourth Reason
It is clear from traditions of Shia and Ahle Sunnat that the verse of:
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136B ُ ﻴﺖِﺿَ رَ ﻲ وِ ﺘَ ﻤْ ﻌِ ﻧْ ﻢُ ﻜْ ﻴَ ﻠَ ﻋُﺖْ ﻤَ ﻤْ ﺗَ أَ وْ ﻢُ ﻜَﻳﻨِ دْ ﻢُ ﻜَ ﻟُﺖْ ﻠَ ﻤْ ﻛَ أَ مْ ﻮَاﻟْﻴـ ﺎًﻳﻨِ دَ مَ ﻼْﺳِْ اﻹُ ﻢُ ﻜَ ﻟ 1018B“This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion.” (Surah Maidah 5:3) 2742B…was revealed on the day of Ghadeer. Suyuti, who is among the greatest scholars of the modern age, in his book of Ittifaq, has narrated from Abu Saeed Khudri and Abu Huraira that this verse was revealed on the day of Ghadeer; and it is the proof that Maula implies greater Imamate, because the issue, which perfects faith and completes the religion for Muslims, on the contrary, which is the greatest blessing for them, is Imamate; through which the management of the world and religion is complete. It is through that belief that the deeds of Muslims are accepted. 7881BFifth Reason
2743BIt is mentioned in Shia and Sunni traditional reports that the verse of: 137B َ ﱢﻚ ﺑَ رْ ﻦِ ﻣَ ﻚْ ﻴَ ﻟِ إَ لِ ﺰْ ﻧُﺎ أَ ﻣْ ﱢﻎ ﻠَ ﺑـُﻮلُ ﺎ اﻟﺮﱠﺳ َ ﱡﻬ ﻳـَﺎ أَ ﻳ 1019B“O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord.” (Surah Maidah 5:67) 2744B…was revealed in this event, as we have mentioned before. Fakhre Raazi has, in Tafsir Kabir, mentioned that this verse was revealed in excellence of Ali (a.s.) and when it was revealed, the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) held Ali (a.s.) and said: Of whomsoever I am the master, this Ali is also his master. O Allah, love one, who loves him and be inimical to one, who is inimical to him. Help one, who helps him and degrade one, who degrades him. At that time Umar met Ali (a.s.) and said: O son Abu Talib,
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congratulations to you. Today you have become the master of me and of all believer men and women. Then Fakhre Raazi says: It is the statement of Ibne Abbas, Baraa bin Azib and Muhammad bin Ali. Thalabi in his Tafsir and Haskani in Shawahidut Tanzeel and a large number of scholars have written that this verse was revealed on the issue of Ghadeer. And it is clear that Maula implies Imam and Caliph, because of the divine threat: O Messenger, if you do not announce it, it is as if you have not delivered His message; and the fear of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) that it may not cause mischief; and the guarantee of the Almighty Allah that He would secure him from the mischief of hypocrites; all these prove that the issue, on declaration of which the Prophet was appointed, should be such that its propagation should be a cause of reformation of the religion and world of the people, and because of it the lawful and unlawful should be clear till Judgment Day and the ways of religion should be safe from being lost and its acceptance should be difficult for the nature of people. Among all the possibilities that they have mentioned; not one of them seems plausible from the context, except for Caliphate and Imamate, which the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) announced, through which religion and faith endures and through which the issue of religion remain systematic. Due to the malice raging in the hearts of those people, it was feared that the hypocrites would create some mischief. So the Almighty Allah guaranteed security to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) from their mischief. Sixth Reason
Reports of Shia and Sunni, which comprise of this clear declaration; in the view of one, who has even the least justice, they are widely related in connotation, if we discard this statement, at least it would entail that the meaning of Maula is in
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the meaning of Imamate, especially when it also includes the manners of prophets, kings and rulers, which they follow at the time of their demise in appointing their successors as it is mentioned in most traditions that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: I am departing from among you, along with the contexts mentioned before. Seventh Reason
It is clear from the prose and poetry of those who were present in that crowd that they understood Maula in the meaning of Caliphate. As in the case of Hassan bin Thabit, regarding whom it is mentioned in books of biography that he took the permission of the Prophet and composed a panegyric (Qasida) on this matter and the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) showered praise on him; and all poets, companions and companions of companions, like Harith bin Noman Fahri, who had understood this meaning and the Prophet verified him; such proofs are present in large numbers and this is the strongest evidence that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) meant this only. It is astounding that in other cases Ahle Sunnat scholars are content with one or two reporters to narrate an issue and in prose they reason great issues from a little hint, but when it comes to Imamate, they remove the veil of shame and flee into the fort of denial. May the Almighty Allah keep us and them from prejudice and enmity; and may He guide us to goodness and righteousness.
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Section Two: Hadith Manzilah
The tradition of ‘position’ (Hadith Manzilah) is mentioned in Shia and Ahle Sunnat sources and it is widely related through both channels and what is common in all sects is that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) on many occasion said to Ali (a.s.): You are in position to me as Harun was to Musa, but after me there would be no Prophet. On this juncture we shall be content only mention a few traditions, which are present in their authoritative books. The author of Jamiul Usool has narrated from Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Tirmidhi from Saad bin Waqqas that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) left Ali (a.s.) in Medina and Ali (a.s.) said: O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), are you leaving me among ladies and children? The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Are you not satisfied that you are to me as Harun was to Musa (a.s.)? It is mentioned in the report of Tirmidhi that no prophet is to come after me. Then Muslim has narrated this report in full from Ibne Musayyab: This tradition reached me through the chains of authorities of Saad, since I wanted to hear it directly from him, I went to him and asked: Have you heard this tradition from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.)? He placed his fingers in his ears and said: May both these ears become deaf if I have not heard it. Also in Jamiul Usool, the full tradition is narrated from Sahih Muslim on the authority of Jabir Ansari. It is also mentioned in Sahih Muslim and Sahih Tirmidhi that when Muawiyah Ibne Abu Sufyan appointed Saad bin Abi Waqqas as the governor, he asked: What prevents you from cursing Abu Turab? Saad replied: As long as I remember those three things, which I have heard about Ali (a.s.), I will not curse him. Even if
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one of them had been in my favor, I would have treasured it more than red haired camels. I heard from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) saying to Ali (a.s.) when he left him in Medina at the time of proceeding on an expedition…then he mentioned the same as stated previously; but in this case, he said: There is no prophethood and messengership after me. Then Saad said: In the Battle of Khyber, I heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) say: Tomorrow, I would give the standard to one, who loves Allah and His Messenger and Allah and His Messenger also love him. All of us craned our necks, hoping that perhaps he would grant the standard to us, but the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) asked for Ali. When he arrived, he was having sore eyes. The Prophet applied his saliva on his eyes and gave the standard to him. At last, the Almighty Allah bestowed victory at his hands. When the verse of purification was revealed, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) called for Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain (a.s.) and said: O Allah, these are my Ahle Bayt. Ibne Abde Barr has written in Istiab, which is their most authentic book, that Ali (a.s.) did not remain behind in any battle, in which the Prophet was present, after he migrated to Medina, except for the Battle of Tabuk, when the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) left him in Medina to protect it and his family members, and said: You are to me as Harun was to Musa, except that there is no prophet after me. He also says that numerous companions of the Prophet have narrated this tradition and this report is most authentic. Saad bin Waqqas has narrated this tradition from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). The report of Saad has come down through many channels. It is also related through Ibne Abbas, Abu Saeed Khudri, Umme Salma, Asma binte Umais, Jabir bin Abdullah and many others; but to mention all of them here would prolong the discussion
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Fatima, daughter of Amirul Momineen (a.s.) has narrated from Asma binte Umais that she said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) say to Ali (a.s.): You are to me as Harun was to Musa, except that there is no prophet after me. According to the report of Ibne Abbas: You are my brother and my companion. Ibne Uqdah Hafiz, who is considered trustworthy by all, has written a large book on the chains of authorities of this tradition. Ibne Hanbal in his Musnad, which is like their Sihah, has narrated this tradition from a large number of companions. In Tarikh Kamil, Ibne Athir has narrated this tradition from Muhammad bin Ishaq. Dailami has narrated it from Umar bin Khattab in Firdosul Akhbaar. That the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said to Imam Ali (a.s.): You are the first of the Muslims and in faith the first of believers. You are in relation to me as Harun was to Musa (a.s.). Qadi Ali bin Mohsin Tanukhi, an Ahle Sunnat scholar, has narrated this tradition from Amirul Momineen (a.s.), Umar, Saad bin Abi Waqqas, Ibne Masud, Ibne Abbas, Jabir Ansari, Abu Huraira, Abu Saeed Khudri, Jabir bin Samra, Malik bin Huwairath, Baraa bin Azib, Zaid bin Arqam, Abu Rafe, Abdullah bin Aufi, his brother, Zaid, Abu Shariha, Huzaifah bin Usaid, Anas bin Malik, Abu Huraira Aslami, Abu Ayyub Ansari, Aqeel bin Abi Talib, Jaish bin Junada, Muawiyah bin Abu Sufyan, Umme Salma, Asma binte Umais, Saad bin Musayyab, Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.), Habib bin Abi Thabit, Fatima bin Ali, Sharjeel bin Saad. All of them have narrated from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). Ibne Hajar has said in Fathul Bari Sharh Sahih Bukhari in the explanation of this traditional report that in the report of Ibne Musayyab, the following words are additional that when the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said this to Imam Ali (a.s.), Ali said twice: Now, I am satisfied. He says that in the beginning of the report of Baraa bin Azib and Zaid bin Arqam it is added that the Messenger of Allah
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(s.a.w.s.) said to Imam Ali (a.s.): It is necessary that either I should stay in Medina or you. When Imam Ali (a.s.) heard this, he opted to stay in Medina. After that he heard some hypocrites spreading the rumor that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) left Ali (a.s.) in Medina, because he was disappointed with him. So Ali (a.s.) followed the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and told him what the people were saying. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) asked: Are you not pleased with the fact that you are to me like Harun was to Musa; except that there is no prophet after me? After this, Ibne Hajar says: The original tradition is narrated in addition to Saad, through Ali, Umar, Abu Huraira, Ibne Abbas, Jabir bin Abdullah, Baraa bin Azib, Zaid bin Arqam, Abu Saeed Khudri, Anas bin Malik, Jabir bin Samra, Jaish bin Junadah, Muawiyah and Asma binte Umais etc. Ibne Asakir has mentioned all its channels in the biography of Ali. [End of Ibne Hajar’s discourse.] Sayyid Razi in Nahjul Balagha, which is accepted by both the sects, has narrated from Imam Ali (a.s.) that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said to him: You hear what I hear, and you see what I see; except that you are not a prophet; on the contrary, you are my vicegerent and your matters are headed in the right direction. Ibne Abil Hadid, the famous Ahle Sunnat scholar and traditionist, comments on this statement, supporting it through a large number of reports and then says: The proof in Quran and Sunnah that Ali was the vicegerent of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) is that the Almighty Allah has narrated the statement of Musa (a.s.) that he said: ﻲ 138B ِ ﻠْ ﻫَ أْ ﻦِا ﻣً ﻳﺮِ زَ ﻲ وِ ﻟْﻞَ ﻌْاﺟَ ﴾٢٩﴿ و 1020B“And give to me an aider from my family:” (Surah Taha 20:29)
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ﻲ 139B ِ ﺧَ أَونُﺎرَ ﴾٣٠﴿ ﻫ 1021B“Harun, my brother,” (Surah Taha 20:30) ي 140B ِ رْ زَ أِ ﻪِ ﺑْ دُ ﴾٣١﴿ ﺪْاﺷ 1022B“Strengthen my back by him,” (Surah Taha 20:31) ي 141B ِ ﺮْ ﻣَﻲ أِ ﻓُ ﻪْ ﻛ ِ ﺮْﺷَ أَ ﴾٣٢﴿ و 1023B“And associate him (with me) in my affair,” (Surah Taha 20:32) 2775BThe Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) has also said in the tradition accepted by all Muslim sects that: You are to me as Harun was Musa, except that there is no prophet after me. Thus, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) has proved all the ranks and positions for Amirul Momineen (a.s.), which Harun was having in relation to Musa. 2776BTherefore, it is necessary that he should be the vizier of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), one to strengthen his back and one, who supports his prophethood; and if the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) had not been the last of the prophets, Ali (a.s.) would have definitely shared prophethood with the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). 2777BIbne Abil Hadid has said in another place in Sharh Nahjul Balagha that on the occasion of Shura Imam Ali (a.s.) said to the five persons whom Umar has deemed as equals of Ali (a.s.): Is there anyone among you other than me, regarding whom the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: You are in relation to me as Harun was to Musa; except that there is no prophet after me? All said: No one other than you is as such. 2778BThe author of Sawaiqul Mohriqa has also approved this tradition, in spite of the fact that his prejudice and bigotry is extreme and he is the worst enemy of Ali (a.s.) and worse than the Khawarij. However, he has refused to believe in the wide
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occurrence (Tawatur) of this tradition, although no other tradition is as widely reported, because every Ahle Sunnat traditionist has narrated it through numerous companions, who are such that the statement of each of them is considered decisive proof in the primary and secondary matters of religion, as is clear from the style of their books of fundamental beliefs. In most principles of faith, they reason through a tradition present in their six canonical books of traditions, overlooking those widely related traditions narrated through each Imam in Shia channels. But reasoning the Imamate of Imam Ali (a.s.) is possible through this tradition for many reasons: First Reason
The clear term of relation (Manzilah) in common parlance denotes unconditionality, especially when some traits are excepted. For example, if someone says that so and so person is like me, except that he is a miser. Everyone will understand that he is like him in all perfections, except generosity. Thus, this statement proves that all the relationships that existed between Harun and Musa should exist between Imam Ali (a.s.) and the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), except for prophethood. It is clearly proved that Caliphate of Ummah was among those relationships, as Musa had said to Harun: ﻲ 142B ِ ﻣْ ﻮَﻲ ﻗـِﻲ ﻓِ ﻨْ ﻔُ ﻠْاﺧ 1024B“Take my place among my people.” (Surah Araaf 7:142) 2782BThus, when Musa (a.s.) went away from Bani Israel, Harun (a.s.) acted as his representative; that is why, it is necessary that this condition should be proved for Imam Ali (a.s.) as well and this matter is different from the meaning of prophethood, which has been excepted. If they say that it might denote vicegerency during the Prophet’s lifetime, we would reply that the exception
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of prophethood after his passing away clearly proves that the implication is general, otherwise exception was not necessary. Second Reason
Among the ranks of Harun (a.s.) was that he was superior to all the followers of Musa (a.s.) Thus, it is necessary that Imam Ali (a.s.) should also be the most excellent of the followers of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and from the aspect of reason, preferring the inferior is wrong as we have concluded previously. Third Reason
It is clearly proved through widely narrated traditions that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) many times reiterated that if some particular relationship had been implied, he would not have declared it on different occasions, as he declared it at the time of closing the doors of everyone in the Masjid, except that of Imam Ali (a.s.). The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) stated the same at the time of naming Hasan, Husain and Mohsin as the sons of Harun (a.s.): Shabbar, Shabbir and Mushabbar. He issued the same declaration at the time of appointing him as the Caliph in Medina. On the day of Ghadeer Khum, he repeated the same statement when he appointed Imam Ali (a.s.) as his Caliph. Thus, it is proved that it implies all the positions, especially the position of Caliphate. Fourth Reason
It is well known or rather widely related that whatever has occurred in Bani Israel, the same would occur in the Islamic nation as well, as is mentioned by the author of Nihaya etc. that it has come in many traditions that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said:
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You will tread the path of those who have preceded you, like a pair of shoes, which are equal and like two arrows, equal to each other. It is mentioned in some traditional reports that if those people had entered the lair of a porpoise, you would also follow suit. No incident in Bani Israel was as significant as the incident of the golden calf; therefore, it is necessary that some event should occur in this Ummah as well, resembling that. It is not, except that they forsook following the Caliph and successor of the Prophet and weakened him and the hypocrites dominated him. This is supported by reports narrated through Shia and Sunni channels; that when Imam Ali (a.s.) was forcibly taken to the Masjid to pledge allegiance to Abu Bakr, Ali (a.s.) turned to the grave of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and recited the verse, in which Harun had complained to Musa (a.s.) regarding the injustice wrought on him by the people. That is the following verse: ﻲ 143B ِ ﻨَﻮﻧُ ﻠُ ﺘـْ ﻘَوا ﻳـُﺎدَ ﻛ َ ﻲ وِﻮﻧُ ﻔَ ﻌْﻀَ ﺘْ اﺳَ مْ ﻮَ ﱠ اﻟْﻘ نِﱠ إ مُ أَ ﻦْاﺑ 1025B“Son of my mother! Surely the people reckoned me weak and had well-nigh slain me.” (Surah Araaf 7:150) 7888BFifth Reason
2788BSome adversaries have stated that successorship and Caliphate of Musa (a.s.) was transferred to the progeny of Harun (a.s.). Thus, among the relationships that Harun has with Musa (a.s.) is also the rank that his descendants were successors and Caliphs of Musa (a.s.). That is why it is necessary that Hasan and Husain (a.s.), who according to the consensus of Shia and Sunni, are named after the sons of Harun, should be the Caliphs of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and their respected father should also have been the Caliph of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). 2789BAccording to general consensus and according to all Ahle Sunnat scholars, who have narrated these circumstances,
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including Muhammad Shahristani in Al-Milal wan Nihal under the discussion of Jews, the rank of prophethood was shared by Musa and Harun (a.s.). Since Musa (a.s.) had said: ي 144B ِ ﺮْ ﻣَﻲ أِ ﻓُ ﻪْ ﻛ ِ ﺮْﺷَ أَ ﴾٣٢﴿ و 1026B“And associate him (with me) in my affair,” (Surah Taha 20:32) 2790BThus, Harun was the successor of Musa (a.s.), but during the lifetime of Musa (a.s.), as a result of his passing away that trust was transferred to Joshua, so that he may convey this appointment to Shabbir and Shabbar: sons of Harun (a.s.), because successorship is sometimes permanent and sometimes temporary. 7889BSixth Reason
2791BThe Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) appointed Imam Ali (a.s.) as his Caliph in Medina during the Battle of Tabuk, but it is not known if he ever dismissed him from this post; that is why it is necessary that he should be the Caliph after his passing away also. If we disregard all other relationships, there is no doubt that it proves maximum proximity, love and special choice. 2792BTherefore, it is necessary to give precedence to such a great personality, having such distinctions and spiritual proximity, such merits that are known to the entire world, over those who have no such excellences. Otherwise it would be nothing, but bigotry and denial and also against logic and reason; it is nothing, but a great mistake and defect and cannot be accepted by any rational being. 2793BAnd (only) Allah guides to the right path.
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Section Three: Love of Imam Ali (a.s.) for Allah
Imam Ali (a.s.) loved the Almighty Allah and the Almighty Allah loved him exclusively. This is mentioned on a number of occasions: First Occasion
In Jamiul Usul, it is narrated from Sahih Tirmidhi from Anas bin Malik that one day, when a roasted bird was brought to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) he said: O Allah, send Your most beloved creature to me, so that he may join me in partaking this dish. Thus, Ali (a.s.) arrived and shared the dish with him. It is mentioned in Musnad Ahmad Hanbal from Safina, freed slave of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) that a lady of Ansar brought two roasted bird placed between two loaves of bread as gift for the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). When she placed it before the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), he prayed: O Allah, bring the most beloved person to Your Prophet. So Ali (a.s.) arrived and called from outside. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) asked: Who is that? Safina said: It is Ali (a.s.). The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Open the door. Ali (a.s.) entered and shared the fowls with the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). Ibne Maghazali Shafei has narrated this tradition through thirty channels. Among them is that Anas bin Malik used to say: A roasted bird was brought to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) as gift; when it was placed before him, he said: O Allah, send the most beloved person to me, so that he may share this bird with me. I said to myself: O Allah, be it a person from Ansar, but Ali (a.s.) arrived and knocked softly. I asked: Who is that? He replied: Ali. I said the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) is busy. He went away. When I went to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), he again said: O Allah, bring the most beloved person to me so that he may share
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this bird with me. Again I said to my mind: O Allah, be it a person from Ansar, but again Ali (a.s.) arrived and knocked at the door. I asked: Who is that? He replied: Ali. I said: The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) is busy. He went away again. When I came to the Prophet, he repeated the same request. Then Ali came again and knocked the door hard. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said thrice: Open the door. When I opened the door and the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) saw him, he said thrice: Come. Ali (a.s.) sat down and the two gentlemen consumed that bird. According to another report, Ibne Hanbal has narrated from Anas that when Imam Ali (a.s.) entered, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) asked: Why are you late? I prayed to the Almighty Allah three times to send to me His most beloved creatures to share this bird with me; if you had not come the third time also, I would have prayed to Allah naming you to bring you to me. Imam Ali (a.s.) said: O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), I came three times and every time Anas turned me away. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) asked Anas to explain his action. He said: I wanted it to be someone from my community. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Everyone favors his own community. According to another report, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) asked: Is there anyone among the Ansar more excellent than Ali? Sunni and Shia have narrated through proper channels that on the day of Shura, Imam Ali (a.s.) presented various arguments to the members of Shura and among them was this excellence also. All agreed to his veracity. Imam Ali (a.s.) sought the testimony of Anas in this regard, but he said: I don’t remember. Imam Ali (a.s.) said: If you are lying, you will be involved in such leprosy that you will not be able to conceal it in your head gear. After that when he was struck with leprosy, he used to say time and again: It is due to the curse of Ali. Ibne Marduya has stated in Manaqib narrating from Abu Rafe, the freed slave of Ayesha that when that bird was placed
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before the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), he said: Alas, if the commander of believers, chief and master of Muslims and leader of the pious had shared this fowl with me. Imam Ali (a.s.) arrived and the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) shared the bird with him. Akhtab Khwarizmi has also narrated this tradition from Ibne Abbas. As mentioned above, anyone, who is even slightly inclined to justice and he is aware of the books of opponents, he would know that this report is even beyond the limits of widely related; because Tirmidhi in his Sahih, Hafiz Abu Nuaim in Hilyatul Awliya, Balazari in his Tarikh, Kharkoshi in Sharful Mustafa, Samani in Fadhailus Sahaba, Tabari in Kitabul Wilayat, Ibne Yasa in his Sahih, Abul Aala in Musnad, Ahmad bin Hanbal in Fadhail, Qatri in Ikhtisaad have narrated it. Among tradition scholars, Muhammad bin Ishaq, Muhammad bin Yahya Azdi, Mazani, Ibne Shaheen Suddi, Abu Bakr Baihaqi, Malik, Ishaq bin Abdullah bin Abi Talha, Abdul Malik bin Umair, Masud bin Kudam, Dawood bin Ali bin Abdullah bin Abbas and Abu Hatim Raazi have narrated through numerous chains of narrators from Anas, Ibne Abbas, Umme Aiman and Ibne Bata; and Rabana has narrated through two channels. Khatib Abu Bakr has narrated it through seven channels. Ibne Uqdah Hafiz has written a separate book on this tradition. Among the companions thirty-five persons have narrated this tradition from Anas; ten have narrated it from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), in spite of the fact that most of them were inimical to Imam Ali (a.s.) and were keen to conceal his excellence. When the sources of this tradition are proved authentic, it is also an evidence of the Imamate of Ali (a.s.), because the love of Allah and the Prophet does not imply anything, except that that person is superior to all in excellence. It is also proved that the Almighty Allah is beyond change and it is not possible for Him to attribute someone with excellence without any reason. It is not possible for Him to take anyone as His favorite, if he does not possess merits and good
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deeds, because giving precedence to a defective one over a perfect being and making obedience of a sinner obligatory on others and following of an ignorant person by the learned is nothing, but illogical. The Almighty Allah has mentioned this point on a number of occasions in the Holy Quran, for example: 145B ُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ُ ﻢُ ﻜْ ﺒِ ﺒْ ﺤُﻲ ﻳِﻮﻧُ ﻌِ ﺎﺗﱠﺒ َ ﻓَ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ ﱡﻮن ﺒِ ﺤُ ﺗْ ﻢُ ﺘْ ﻨُ ﻛْ نِ إْﻞُ ﻗ 1027B“Say (O Muhammad): If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you.” (Surah Aale Imran 3:31) 2808BAnd Allah, the Mighty and the High has also said: 146B ِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ ﺪْ ﻨِ ﻋْ ﻢُ ﻜَ ﻣَ ﺮْ ﻛَﱠ أ نِ إ ْ ﻢُﺎﻛَ ﻘْ ﺗـَ أ 1028B“Surely the most honorable of you with Allah is the one among you most careful (of his duty).” (Surah Hujurat 49:13) 2809BAllah, the Mighty and Sublime, also says that those who fight in the way of Allah are better than those, who don’t. ا 147B َ ﻀﱠﻞ َ ﻓ َ ﻳﻦِ ﺪِﺎﻋَﻰ اﻟْﻘَ ﻠَ ﻋْ ﻢِ ﻬِ ﺴُ ﻔْ ﻧـَ أَ وْ ﻢِ ﻬِاﻟَ ﻮْ ﻣَ ﺄِ ﺑَﻳﻦِ ﺪِﺎﻫَﺠُ اﻟْﻤُ ﻟﻠﱠﻪ ً ﺔَ ﺟَ رَ د 1029B“Allah has made the strivers with their property and their persons to excel the holders back a (high) degree.” (Surah Nisa 4:95) 2810BHe also said: Those who have struggled for Allah before the conquest of Mecca are better than those, who accepted faith after it. Moreover, He says in Surah Zilzal: 148B ُ ﻩَ ﺮَا ﻳـً ﺮْ ﻴـَ ﺧٍ ﱠة رَ ذَ ﺎلَ ﻘْ ﺜـِ ﻣْﻞَ ﻤْ ﻌَ ﻳـْ ﻦَ ﻤَ ﴾٧﴿ ﻓ 1030B“So he who has done an atom’s weight of good shall see it.” (Surah Zilzal 99:7) 2811BHe said further:
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ﻮا 149B ُ ﻠِ ﻤَ ﻋَﻮا وُ ﻨَ آﻣ َﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ َ و ُ ﻴﺮِﺼَاﻟْﺒَ و ٰ ﻰَ ﻤْﻋَْي اﻷِ ﻮَ ﺘْ ﺴَﺎ ﻳَ ﻣَ و ُ ﻲءِ ﺴُ اﻟْﻤَ ۚ ﻻَ وِﺎتَﺤِاﻟﺼﱠﺎﻟ ◌ َ ونُ ﱠﺮ ﻛَ ﺬَ ﺘَ ﺎ ﺗـَ ﻣً ﻴﻼِ ﻠَ ﴾٥٨﴿ ﻗ 1031B“And the blind and the seeing are not alike, nor those who believe and do good and the evil-doer; little is it that you are mindful.” (Surah Ghafir 40:58) 2812BIt is clear that here the implication is about the blindness of the heart. Most verses of the Holy Quran imply this same point. Moreover, it is clearly proved that love of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) is not like the love of ordinary human beings. Thus, whoever is most beloved to the Prophet would be the most excellent of the people, but the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) is excepted from this rule according to the consensus and also because he himself has issued this statement. Proving of excellence leads to eligibility for Caliphate as was mentioned a number of times before. Adversaries and bigoted persons have raised two objections to this reasoning: 7891BFirst Objection
2813BPerhaps the implication of the favorite creature is in eating that fowl. But everyone, who is familiar with Arabic language and has even the least knowledge of contexts, knows that it is against the apparent connotation and far from the actual meaning of the word; and in the view of Arab scholars it is an established rule that omission of related points and not being restricted to any condition is the proof of generality. And in the statement, the word of eating is reply to the order, which has occurred and not that it is the condition of being favorite. 2814BIn many traditional reports the condition of eating is not mentioned. In spite of the fact: that being favorite of those who ate from it is or from the aspect of excellence and merit. Thus, our aim is proved in that case also. Or it is from the aspect of needfulness or eligibility and it is invalid, because it is obvious
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that among the companions there were many persons more needy and poor than Amirul Momineen (a.s.). Shaykh Mufeed has given a very convincing reply to this objection: If this meaning is applied, there is no excellence in it. Then why Anas tried so much to keep away Imam Ali (a.s.) and made himself the target of the fury of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.)? It was, only because he wanted this excellence to fall in the share of Ansar. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) also understood this from the statement of Anas. That is why he said: Everyone is loyal to his community. He also said: Is there anyone among Ansar better than Ali? Thus, if the implication had been what the adversaries claim, he should have said: Ali is having many merits, which you wanted for Ansar. Moreover, if this possibility had been there, Imam Ali (a.s.) would not have deemed it as proof for his excellence on the occasion of Shura and why they had also accepted it? They could have replied that it does not prove your excellence to make you eligible for Caliphate and Imamate. [End of the statement of Shaykh Mufeed (r.a.).] We moreover say that if this was not a proof of excellence, why Anas did not testify in order to side with the hypocrites and why he became eligible for the condemnation and curse of Imam Ali (a.s.) and became involved in leprosy? Second Objection
It is possible that Imam Ali (a.s.) was a favorite creature of God and most excellent of them at that point of time; but later some companions became excellent. The reply to this objection is same that this implication and generality is opposed to the clear meaning of the words; because the apparent meaning of the word is only that he is most favorite of all the creatures other than the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) in all condition and at all times; even superior to all the prophets and successors and there is neither any condition in the statement nor
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outside it. Most former replies are applicable on this juncture; especially the event of Shura. Most scholars have replied that it is tearing up of compound consensus, because the whole Ummah is undecided whether to give precedence to Imam Ali (a.s.) over all in all conditions and at all times or to give precedence to him in all conditions and all times. But the fact is that no one from the Ummah accepts this consensus. It is clear from some traditions of Shia that Jibraeel brought that roasted chicken from Paradise and its context was that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), in spite of his generosity and kindness, did not allow Anas or anyone else to share that dish, as it is not lawful for any fallible to eat the food of Paradise in this world and that is why the excellence of Imam Ali (a.s.) in this incident becomes the evidence of his infallibility and Imamate. Second Occasion
It is that excellence and merit, which occurred in the Battle of Khyber as the author of Jamiul Usul has narrated from Sahih Muslim on the authority of Abu Huraira, who said: I heard the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) say on the day of the Battle of Khyber: I will give this standard to one, who loves Allah and His Messenger and Allah and His Messenger love him. And Allah will grant victory at his hands. Umar used to remark: I never vied for leadership, except on that day and with this hope I went before the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) that perhaps he would grant this distinction to me. But the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) called for Ali (a.s.) and after giving him the standard, said: Go, and don’t look back till Allah, the Mighty and the High grants victory at your hands. After covering some distance, Imam Ali (a.s.) surveyed the situation and did not look behind. On the contrary, he asked the Holy
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Prophet (s.a.w.s.) aloud: On what issue should I fight the opponents? He replied: Fight with them till they admit to the oneness of God and my messengership. When they testify, they would secure their wealth from you rightfully and their account is with the Almighty Allah. Moreover, the author of Jamiul Usool has narrated from Sahih Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Salma bin Akwa that Imam Ali (a.s.) did not accompany the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) in the Battle of Khyber, because he was having sore eyes, but when the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) set out, Imam Ali (a.s.) said: How is it that possible that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) should go out to fight and I don’t accompany him? So he set out from Medina and joined the Prophet. On the eve of the conquest of Khyber the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Tomorrow, I would give the standard to a person or such a one will hold the standard, whom Allah and the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) love or he said: He loves Allah and His Messenger and the Almighty Allah would grant victory at his hands. Suddenly we saw His Eminence, Ali approach, and we were not expecting him. People said: See Ali (a.s.) is here. So the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) handed the standard to him and the Almighty Allah granted victory at his hands. Moreover, it is narrated in Jamiul Usul from Sahih Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Sahl bin Saad that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said on the day of the Battle of Khyber: Tomorrow, I will give the standard to one, on whose hands the Almighty Allah would grant victory; he loves Allah and His Messenger and Allah and His Messenger love him. All the people were in dilemma about who would be given the standard the following day. Next morning, companions came to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), each hoping that the standard would be given to him, but the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) asked: Where is Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.)? They replied: O Messenger of Allah, he is having sore eyes.
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The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) summoned Ali (a.s.), and applied his saliva to him and prayed. Imam Ali (a.s.) was cured immediately as if nothing had been wrong with his eyes. Then the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) gave the standard to him. Imam Ali (a.s.) said: I will fight them till they adopt the religion I follow. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Proceed at a slow gait and when you reach their fort, call them to Islam and guidance and inform them of the obligations that Islam lays on them from the rights of the Almighty Allah. By God, if Allah guides even one person through you, it is better for you than red haired camels. Red-haired camels were considered very valuable in Arabia according to the report of Saad bin Abi Waqqas, in which the excellence is mentioned, which was quoted in the discussion of Hadith Manzilah. Thalabi has narrated in the interpretation of the verse: ﺎ 150B ً ﻴﻤِ ﻘَ ﺘْ ﺴُﺎ ﻣًاﻃَ ﺮِ ﺻَ ﻚَ ﻳِ ﺪْ ﻬَ ﻳـَ ﴾٢﴿ و 1032B“And keep you on a right way,” (Surah Fath 48:2) 2832BThe Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) besieged the fort of Khyber till provisions ran out among the Muslim fighters. So he gave the standard to Umar and sent him with a group of companions to fight the people of Khyber. When he confronted them, Umar and his men fled from the battlefield. He blamed his men of cowardice while they accused him of being a coward. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was having a headache that day, so he did not come out. 2833BThen Abu Bakr took the standard in order to fight the enemies, but he also fled along with his men. 2834BThen Umar went to fight the second time and returned defeated. When this information reached the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), he said: 2835BBy Allah, tomorrow, I will give the standard to one, who loves Allah and His Messenger and Allah and His Messenger
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love him and he will conquer the fort through force. At that time Imam Ali (a.s.) was not present in the army. The following morning, Abu Bakr, Umar and some persons of Quraish craned their necks in the hope that perhaps they would get the standard; but the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) sent Salman bin Akwa and called Ali (a.s.) and he arrived in a short time astride a camel. He came to the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and knelt his camel down, but due to extreme discomfort, a red cloth was tied over his eyes. Salma says: I held the hand of Ali and brought him to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) asked: What’s the matter? He replied: I am having sore eyes. He said: Come here, and he applied his saliva and he was cured immediately. After that as long as long as he was alive, he never suffered from sore eyes. Then the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) gave him the standard and sent him to fight. Ibne Maghazali has narrated from Abu Huraira that after taking the standard Ali (a.s.), set out immediately. I followed him and without stopping anywhere we reached the fort of Khyber and he fixed his standard before it. A Rabbi came on the parapet wall and asked: Who are you? He replied: I am Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.). He said to his companions: In the name of the God who revealed Taurat to Musa, this man would defeat you all. According to the report of Thalabi, etc., His Eminence took the standard, when he was wearing a purple robe. When he came below the fort, Marhab came out as usual wearing a helmet of a hollowed rock. He intoned a war poem to cow down his opponent, but was replied by Imam Ali (a.s.) with some couplets of valor, who then stepped forward to exchange blows with him. Imam Ali (a.s.) delivered such a blow that the helmet, rock and head of the accursed man was split into two and the blade reached up to his teeth. When the Jews witnessed this scene, they fled into the fort and barricaded themselves inside. The fort’s gate comprised of a stone slab with a hole in its center. Imam Ali (a.s.) kept his miraculous hand in that aperture and
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jerked it in such way that the whole fort shook. Then he uprooted that gate and using it as a shield walked a hundred steps ahead. After that he threw that gate behind and it fell forty yards away. Forty men from companions tried to overturn it, but they failed. It was so heavy that forty men were needed to open and close it. Many extraordinary miraculous acts were displayed by Imam Ali (a.s.) in that battle. Shia and Sunni tradition scholars have narrated them through numerous channels. I have mentioned some of them in Hayatul Quloob; but here our aim is only to prove the love of Allah and His Messenger towards Imam Ali (a.s.). Moreover, the usurpers of Caliphate of His Eminence had taken to flight in that battle, but in spite of that they occupied the seat of Caliphate and vied for the distinction of leadership. All these things are clearly mentioned through numerous channels by Bukhari, Muslim and Tirmidhi; Ibne Maghazali has reported it through twelve channels. Ahmad bin Hanbal has narrated it through a number of authorities. Thalabi has also quoted it through various reporters. Muhammad bin Yahya Azdi, Muhammad bin Jarir Tabari and Waqidi; Muhammad bin Ishaq and Baihaqi in Dalailun Nubuwwah; Hafiz Abu Nuaim in Hilyatul Awliya and Athimi in Kitab Itiqad; Dailami in Firdosul Akhbaar have quoted the same event through numerous reporters from Imam Ali (a.s.), Umar, Abdullah bin Umar, Sahl bin Saad, Salma bin Akwa, Abu Saeed Khudri, Jabir Ansari and hundreds of companions. Most have narrated that first the standard was given to Abu Bakr and Umar and both took to flight. Some have mentioned Uthman as well. Upon the command of the Prophet, Hassan bin Thabit composed some couplets in praise of Imam Ali (a.s.), which are quite famous. Just as the real event of the Battle of Khyber is widely related, in the same way, these distinctions are also widely related (Mutawatir). However, it is possible to argue from it the
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eligibility for Caliphate of Imam Ali (a.s.) from two clear aspects in such way that no sane person can deny it. First Reason
It is clear to every wise individual that if it implied real love, in which they consider all Muslims as partners of Imam Ali (a.s.) in every way, the companions – in spite of cowardice and weakness, which was a specialty of most of them as their life was very precious to them – they would not have aspired for the standard, they would not have been so jealous of Imam Ali (a.s.), the poets would not have mentioned it in their couplets of praise and Imam Ali (a.s.) would not have mentioned it in his excellence. Thus, it clearly implies that Imam Ali (a.s.) was eligible for the love of Allah and His Messenger and these two are necessary requirements of infallibility, and infallibility is the necessary requirement of Imamate as mentioned previously. We can mention this reasoning in another way as well and say that either it implies love from all aspects or love in general; and love in general is there for every believer depending on his faith and making it special for one person is meaningless, but love from all aspects necessarily requires infallibility. On the contrary, a method even superior to infallibility, because to be imbued with a original quality necessitates that one should not like it from that aspect, and even if we disregard all those ranks, even then there is no doubt that this is a great excellence for Imam Ali (a.s.). Thus, preferring someone else over Imam Ali (a.s.) is in fact preference of the inferior and it is impossible from one, who is wise and knowing. Second Reason
After some contemplation, it will be clear to any intelligent being that when the standard was first given to Abu Bakr and
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then to Umar and both of them fled from the battlefield and after being disappointed by their flight, he should have said: Tomorrow, I will give the standard to that one, who is having these qualities and that victory would be achieved at his hands. Thus, it is necessary that such a person should be having those qualities exclusively; and those who took to flight should not have these qualities. If instead the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: I will give the standard to one, who is a Meccan and a Quraishite; this statement would have been in opposition to the rule of eloquence, because these two qualities were present in those who were previously given the standard. That is why it is proved that neither Abu Bakr and Umar loved Allah and His Messenger nor Allah and His Messenger loved them; and there is no doubt that this not only negates the position of Caliphate and Imamate, on the contrary, it negates faith. How is it possible for a believer not to love Allah and His Messenger; although the Almighty Allah says: 151B ِ ﱠﻪ ﻠِﺎ ﻟّ ﺒُ ﱡ ﺣ ﺪَ ﺷَﻮا أُ ﻨَ آﻣَﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ َ و 1033B“And those who believe are stronger in love for Allah.” (Surah Baqarah 2:165) 2851BThat is: Those who believe and whose love for Allah is much more than the love those idolaters have for idols. Moreover, this leads us to conclude that the Almighty Allah should not have accepted any of their obedience, because He loves those who fight Jihad in His way. He has also stated: 152B َ ﻳﻦِ ﱢﺮ ﻬَﻄَ ﺘُ ﺐﱡ اﻟْﻤ ِ ﺤُ ﻳَ وَﻴﻦِﱠاﺑ ﺐﱡ اﻟﺘـﱠﻮ ِ ﺤُ ﻳَ ﱠ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ نِ ﴾٢٢٢﴿ إ 1034B“Surely Allah loves those who turn much (to Him), and He loves those who purify themselves.” (Surah Baqarah 2:222) 2852BHence, their Jihad and repentance will not have been accepted through polytheism and they will not be purified of
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polytheism as it should be. Moreover, it is necessary that they were neither patient, nor pious, or relying, the doers of good, equitable, because the Almighty Allah has mentioned His love for such people in a number of verses. If they were imbued with any such quality, Allah would definitely have loved them. So they must be from the group, which Allah does not love. Like the dishonest, disbelievers, unjust, arrogant, squanderers and materialists etc.; those who exceed limits and spread mischief in the earth, the sinners and transgressors, etc. from whom the Almighty Allah has kept away His love. Now, one, who is as such, how he could be eligible for Imamate of Ummah and Caliphate of the Prophet? Thus, Caliphate would be exclusive for Amirul Momineen (a.s.) by collective consensus as was mentioned before. It is possible for us to collect these two reasonings into a single perfect reasoning and say that if complete love implies in all conditions and from all aspects; even then Imamate is proved in favor of Imam Ali (a.s.) as was realized previously. If absolute love is aimed, it proves the lowly position of the opponents of Imam Ali (a.s.) as we mentioned above. The Almighty Allah has said: 153B ُ ﻲ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِ ﺗْ ﺄَ ﻳَفْ ﻮَﺴَ ﻓِ ﻪِﻳﻨِ دْ ﻦَ ﻋْ ﻢُ ﻜْ ﻨِ ﱠ ﻣ ﺪَ ﺗْ ﺮَ ﻳـْ ﻦَﻮا ﻣُ ﻨَ آﻣَﻳﻦِ ﺎ اﻟﱠﺬ َ ﱡﻬ ﻳـَﺎ أَ ﻳ َ ﻳﻦِ ﺮِﺎﻓَﻰ اﻟْﻜَ ﻠَ ﻋٍ ﱠة ﺰِ ﻋَ أَﻴﻦِ ﻨِ ﻣْ ﺆُﻰ اﻟْﻤَ ﻠَ ﻋٍ ﱠﺔ ﻟِ ذَ أُ ﻪَ ﱡﻮﻧ ﺒِ ﺤُ ﻳَ وْ ﻢُ ﱡﻬ ﺒـِ ﺤُ ﻳٍ مْ ﻮَ ﻘِ ﺑ ٍ ﻢِ ﺋَ ﻻَ ﺔَ ﻣْ ﻮَ ﻟَﻮنُﺎﻓَﺨَ ﻳ َ ﻻَ وِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِ ﻴﻞِ ﺒَ ﻲ ﺳِ ﻓَونُ ﺪِﺎﻫَﺠُ ۚ ﻳ ◌ َ ﻚِ ﻟٰ َ ذ ُ ﺎءَﺸَ ﻳْ ﻦَ ﻣِﻴﻪِ ﺗْ ﺆُ ﻳـِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ُﻞْﻀَ ۚ ﻓ ◌ ٌ ﻴﻢِ ﻠَ ﻋٌ ﻊِ اﺳَ وُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ ﴾٥٤﴿ و 1035B“O, you who believe! whoever from among you turns back from his religion, then Allah will bring a people, He shall love them and they shall love Him, lowly before the believers, mighty against the unbelievers, they shall strive hard in Allah’s way and shall not fear the censure of any censurer; this is
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Allah’s grace, He gives it to whom He pleases, and Allah is Ample-giving, Knowing.” (Surah Maidah 5:54) It is clear through traditions mentioned previously that this group, whose qualities the Almighty Allah has mentioned in this verse, are Amirul Momineen (a.s.) and his companions, who fought Talha, Zubair, Muawiyah and Khawarij, because the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) has described Imam Ali (a.s.) in good terms and he is imbued with most of the good qualities mentioned and this verse; especially: “He shall love them and they shall love Him.” And except for Imam Ali (a.s.), these qualities had not come together in anyone else; and each of those qualities were present to such perfection that no one can deny. Through Ahle Sunnat sources, it is narrated from Ammar, Huzaifah and Ibne Abbas that this verse was revealed about Imam Ali (a.s.). This tradition also supports the statement, which the author of Jamiul Usul has quoted from Sunan Abu Dawood and Sahih Tirmidhi on the authority of Imam Ali (a.s.) that he said: During the Battle of Hudaibiyah, leaders of idolaters approached us and said: Some of our lads and slaves have fled to you, in order to escape service; so return them to us. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) became angry and said: Desist from disobedience of Allah or He would send such people to you, who would strike off your heads and Almighty Allah has tested their hearts for piety. Some companions asked: O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), who are they? The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) replied: Among them is one repairing my shoes. Now, since Imam Ali (a.s.) was responsible for all issues connected to the personal needs of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) during journeys, at that time, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) had given his shoes to Imam Ali (a.s.) for repairing. Abdullah bin Ahmad bin Hanbal has mentioned this tradition in Musnad through many channels; and it is mentioned in some reports as follows: O people of Quraish, give up this stance or I will send to you one, whose heart the Almighty Allah has tested for faith. He would slay you only for the sake of
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religion. They asked: Is it Abu Bakr? No he replied. They asked: Is it Umar? No he replied, it is one repairing my shoes in that room. According to another report it is narrated from Abu Saeed Khudri that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: There is someone among you, who will fight for the interpretation of Quran like I fought for its revelation. Abu Bakr asked: Is it me, O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.)? No, he replied. Umar asked: Is it me, O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.)? No, he replied, it is the one repairing my shoes. Third: Different Occasions
Those different traditions, which are recorded on this topic among the authentic books of Ahle Sunnat: In Jamiul Usul, it is narrated from Sahih Tirmidhi on the authority of Baraa bin Azib that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) sent two armies to Yemen; one commanded by Imam Ali (a.s.) and the other by Khalid bin Walid; and the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: If it comes to fighting Ali is the commander of the both the armies. Thus, Imam Ali (a.s.) conquered one fort and from the booty of that fort he kept aside a slave girl for himself. Khalid complained about Imam Ali (a.s.) to the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) in a letter. Baraa bin Azib carried that letter to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). When he read that communication, he became infuriated and said: What do you think of one, who loves Allah and His Messenger and Allah and His Messenger love him? I (Baraa) said: I seek refuge of Allah from the fury of the Almighty Allah and His Messenger; I have done nothing wrong, except that I carried this letter to you. This matter is mentioned in Sahih Tirmidhi also, but with the addition that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: The share of Ali in the fifth of the spoils is more than what he has taken. Ibne Abil Hadid has also mentioned this incident and said: Khalid bin Walid said to four other persons to complain about Ali to the
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Prophet; three of them followed his advice and the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) turned away from them in disgust. When Buraid Aslami, the fourth, submitted his complain, the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) was so infuriated that his complexion changed and he repeatedly said: Leave Ali to me; indeed Ali is from me and I am from Ali and he is the guardian of every believer after me. The share of Ali in the fifth of the spoils is more than what he has taken. After that Ibne Abil Hadid says: Ahmad has narrated this tradition through many channels in his Musnad; and most tradition scholars have also narrated this tradition. Moreover, it is narrated from Sahih Tirmidhi in Jamiul Usul that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Ali is from me and I am from Ali and none can carry my communication, except I or Ali. Anyone possessing the least wisdom would agree that this tradition clearly proves the Caliphate of Ali. It is narrated from Kitab Marifat of Ibrahim bin Saeed Thaqafi that Jabir Ansari used to say that when Amirul Momineen (a.s.) conquered the fort of Khyber, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: If there was no risk that people would say the same, which was said regarding Isa (a.s.), I would have indeed issued such statements regarding you that you won’t pass any people, except that they would pick dust of your feet and collect water from washing of your hands and seek cure from it. Only this much is sufficient that you are from me and I am from you; you are my heir and I am your heir. You are in relation to me like Harun was to Musa (a.s.), except that there is no prophet after me. You will fulfill my responsibilities and fight on my Sunnah; you will be the most proximate to me in hereafter and be my successor on Hauz Kauthar. You will be the first to meet me at Hauz Kauthar. You are the first of those who don the robe of Paradise with me. You are the first to enter Paradise with me. Your Shia will be with faces illuminated and bright and be with
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me on pulpits of light. I will intercede for them and they would be my neighbors in Paradise. One, who fights with you, has in fact fought with me and one, who is at peace with you, is at peace with me. Your secret is my secret and your apparent is my apparent. Your sons are my sons. You will fulfill my promises and the truth is with you and the truth is there in your tongue and the truth is in your heart and the truth is on your forehead. Faith is mingled with your flesh and blood like it is blended with my flesh and blood. Your enemy will not reach Hauz Kauthar and your friend will not be absent from Hauz Kauthar. They will reach Hauz Kauthar with you. On hearing this, Imam Ali (a.s.) performed a prostration of thanks and said: I praise that God, who rewarded me with faith and taught me the Quran and made me the beloved of the best of the creatures and the last of the prophets only as a mercy upon me and because of His love for me. Then the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: O Ali, if you had not been there, the believers would not have been recognized after you.
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Section Four: Special Position of Imam Ali (a.s.)
Exclusive brotherhood of Imam Ali (a.s.) with the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and being the confidante of his secrets and in all matters. This section is divided into a number of parts: Part One: Brotherhood with the Prophet
It is narrated from Sahih Tirmidhi in Jamiul Usul that when the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) established brotherhood between the companions, Imam Ali (a.s.) came to him weeping and said: O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), you established brotherhood among your companions, but did not make me anyone’s brother. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: You are my brother in the world and the hereafter. Abu Tufayl has narrated that at the time of his death when Umar formed the Shura committee comprising of Ali, Uthman, Talha, Zubair, Abdur Rahman and Saad bin Abi Waqqas; Imam Ali (a.s.) adjured them in the name of God and asked: Is there anyone among you other than me with whom the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) established brotherhood? All said: No one is there as such, except you. Ibne Abde Barr says: It is narrated through many channels that Imam Ali (a.s.) used to say: I am the servant of God and the brother of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and no one other than a liar can make this assertion. Establishment of brotherhood is a widely related incident. In his Musnad, Ibne Hanbal has narrated it through six chains of narrators from a group of companions. Ibne Maghazali has narrated it through eight chains of narrators. Ibne Sabbagh Maliki in Fusulul Muhimma has
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narrated it from Ibne Abbas. The conclusion of all these reports is that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) established brotherhood between persons having similar traits: like Abu Bakr and Umar; Uthman and Abdur Rahman bin Auf; Talha and Zubair and Salman and Abuzar; and similarly between other companions, but Imam Ali (a.s.) was not joined with anyone, so he was distressed. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: I saved you for myself. Then he held the hand of Ali and said: Ali is from me and I am from him. He is in relation to me as Harun was to Musa (a.s.). These reports clearly show that Imam Ali (a.s.) was the most superior of companions and he did not have any equal to be joined in brotherhood with anyone; hence he must be equal to the Prophet in Imamate and rulership. It is mentioned in Musnad Ahmad through many numerous channels from Jabir Ansari that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) used to say: I saw inscribed on the gate of Paradise: Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah and Ali is the brother of the Messenger of Allah and this was inscribed two thousand years before the creation of the heavens. Part Two: Bearer of secrets of Allah and the Messenger
Imam Ali (a.s.) was the bearer of the secrets of Allah and the Messenger. Ibne Shiruya has written in Firdos quoting from Ibne Abbas that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.) is the bearer of my secrets. It is narrated from Jabir in Sahih Tirmidhi, Musnad Abul Alaa, Manaqib Ibne Marduya and Fadhail Samani and in all books that on the day of the conquest of Taif, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) spoke in confidence with Imam Ali (a.s.) for a long time. Umar said to Abu Bakr: How long has the Prophet conferred with his cousin!
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According to the report of Tirmidhi; which the authors of Jamiul Usul and Mishkat have narrated regarding conferring of the Prophet with Imam Ali (a.s.), when he came to know that people were talking about it, he said: I did not confer with Ali; it was Allah who conferred with him. Ibne Athir has narrated this same report in Nihaya; and Ibne Abil Hadid has quoted from Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal in Sharh Nahjul Balagha. It is reported in Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Manaqib Ibne Marduya and all books of Shia and Sunni that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said in his last moment: Call my beloved (Habib) to me. According to another report, he said: Call my friend (Khalil) to me. So people summoned Abu Bakr; when the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) saw him, he turned away and said: Call my friend (Khalil) to me. People summoned Umar, but the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) turned away from him as well and said: Call my friend (Khalil) to me. Ayesha said: The Messenger wants Ali. Now, people called Ali (a.s.) and when he arrived, the Prophet took him under his cover and spoke to him privately till he departed for the divine abode. Part Three: Closing the doors of Companions
Sunni and Shia have extensively narrated that when the Muhajireen moved to Medina; they constructed their houses adjacent to the Masjid and made their doors facing the Masjid and some people used to sleep inside the mosque. So the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) asked Maaz bin Jabal to announce: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) commands you to close all the doors of your houses, except that of Ali. There was a lot of protest from the people. When the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) learnt of their statements, he recited a sermon, after which he said: I swear by Allah, neither have to closed these door nor allowed the door of Ali to remain open; on the contrary, Allah commanded me to that and I obeyed Him.
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Ahmad bin Hanbal has written about this matter in his Musnad; Abul Alaa in his Musnad, author of Khasais Alawiya, Samani in his Fadhail, Abu Nuaim in Hilya; and others have also narrated this tradition through thirty prominent companions of the Prophet. Ibne Abil Hadid says that Ahmad Hanbal narrated this in his Musnad through many chains. Ibne Hajar has also narrated from Ahmad. Ibne Athir in Nihaya has narrated that when it was announced that except for the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and progeny of the Prophet, all should leave the Masjid, we came out from there dragging our things. Till date the traces of the door of Ali (a.s.), which remained in the Masjid of the Prophet, is present. The author of Jamiul Usul has narrated from Sahih Tirmidhi that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said to Imam Ali (a.s.): It is not lawful for anyone to become ritually impure through sex (Junub), except me and you. No other excellence can be imagined greater than this. Part Four: Breaking of Idols
Sunni and Shia have extensively narrated that when the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) wanted to dislodge and break the idols of Quraish from the roof of the Kaaba, he hoisted Imam Ali (a.s.) on his shoulders to accomplish this. Thus, Ahmad in his Musnad and Abul Alaa Musuli have narrated from the author of Tarikh Baghdad and Zafrani in Fadhail; Khatib Khwarizmi in Arbaeen; Nazari in Khasais and in addition to them a large number of scholars have narrated from Jabir that he said: We entered Mecca with the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). The idolaters of Quraish had installed 360 idols around the Kaaba. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) ordered that all of them should be toppled. A huge idol was installed on the roof of the Kaaba and it was called Hubal. When the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.)
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noticed it, he said: Ali, it is necessary that either I climb on you or you climb on me to topple Hubal. Imam Ali (a.s.) said: You climb on me. Imam Ali (a.s.) says: When the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) stepped on my shoulders, I could not support him due to the weight of messengership and majesty of prophethood. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) smiled and stepped down. Then he asked me to climb on his shoulders. Ali (a.s.) says: When I climbed on the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), I became so elevated that if I wanted I could have touched the heavens. I pulled down and toppled Hubal then jumped down without receiving any harm. This distinction is the greatest of all, because till a person is not like the Prophet in loftiness and majesty, he cannot place his foot on the blessed shoulder of the Prophet. It is mentioned in the books of adversaries that when the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) intended to get up, he held the hand of Ali and when he sat down he placed his hand on Ali. Nazari has narrated in Khasais that when the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) sneezed, Imam Ali (a.s.) used to say: May Allah exalt your mention. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) used to respond: May Almighty Allah raises your step over your enemies. When the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was angry, no one other than Amirul Momineen (a.s.), could dare speak to him. Ayesha says: I saw the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) take Ali in his arms, kiss him and say twice: My father be sacrificed on you, O single martyr; and when Ali was not present, he called him the beloved of Allah and His Messenger. Ibne Hajar has also narrated this from Ayesha in the first volume of his book. Through a large number of traditions, it is narrated in Sihah books of Ahle Sunnat that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) used to say often: Ali is from me and I am from Ali; and none fulfills my promises except Ali. Ibne Abde Barr has narrated in Istiab that in the year after Hijra the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) married to Ali his daughter, who was the chief of the ladies of the world like Lady Maryam,
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daughter of Imran and the mother of Prophet Isa (a.s.) and told her: I have married you to one, who is the Sayyid and leader of all the creatures in the world and the hereafter. Indeed his Islam is having precedence to that of all companions and his knowledge is greater than that of all the people. Asma binte Umais says that when the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) entrusted these two great personalities to each other, His Eminence prayed much for them and did not make anyone else share his supplication. He prayed for Ali (a.s.) just as he invoked in favor of Fatima. Moreover, it is narrated from Muttalib bin Abdullah that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) addressed some people from Thaqif when they came to meet him and said: Are you prepared to accept Islam or shall I send to you one, who is from me? Or he said: One, who is like my life; thus, he will strike off your necks, take your sons as prisoners and confiscate your property as spoils? Umar says: I swear by Allah, I never aspired for leadership, except on that day and I was puffing up my chest that perhaps he would say: It is him, but he turned to Ali, held his hand and said: It is him. The author says: Since that fellow lacked faith and had no belief in Almighty Allah, he did not have any qualms in swearing falsely; because he took the same oath during the Battle of Khyber and other times. Thus, it is necessary that one of the statements was a greater lie; and since he was absolutely shameless, he did not care if people learnt that he was lying and that he was most greedy for Caliphate. If they say that he implied that he could not find its eligibility in himself, it is true; but in that case, he should not have aspired even on those occasions. In Jamiul Usul, it is narrated from Sahih Nasai, in Mishkat, it is narrated from Sahih Tirmidhi that Abu Bakr and Umar proposed for the hand of Fatima, but the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) did not accept under the pretext that she was too young, but when Ali (a.s.) proposed, he accepted it, and married her to Ali. There are many more traditions than we can compile in this treatise that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) always preferred Ali
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(a.s.). Even those intellectuals, who have the slightest inclination to justice, know that when some ruler gives preference to a particular person, and seeks help and cooperation from him in every mater and regards him as the confidante of his secrets and in every condition and in every gathering exaggerates in extolling his praise; he has in fact selected and prepared him for his Caliphate and this is the first proof of rulership and successorship instead of saying that he is my successor; especially when such acts are committed by one about whom it is known and proved that he is loved by the Almighty Allah; and that love is not as a result of worldly matters and human relations. Thus, these things must be the foremost proof of the Caliphate of Ali (a.s.).
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Section Five: Truth is always with Amirul Momineen (a.s.)
It is proved from traditions accepted by the Sunnis that truth is always with Amirul Momineen (a.s.) and he never separates from truth. In Manaqib Khwarizmi, it is narrated from Abu Laila that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: After me, a mischief would arise; at that time it is obligatory for you to take the side of Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.) as he is the discriminator of truth and falsehood. It is narrated from Ibne Umar that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: One, who has dissociated from Ali has dissociated from me and one, who has dissociated from me has dissociated from Allah. It is narrated from Abu Ayyub Ansari that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said to Ammar: If you see Ali heading in one direction and everyone else heading in another, you must follow Ali leaving everyone else, as Ali will not take you to misguidance or leave you unguided. It is narrated from Abuzar from Umme Salma that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Ali is with truth and the truth is with him. These two will not separate from each other till they meet me at Hauz Kauthar. A tradition on the same topic is narrated from Ayesha as well. Ibne Abil Hadid says: It is proved authentic for me that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Ali is with truth and truth is with him, wherever he turns. In reply to the reasoning that Allamah Hilli has presented in Kashful Haqq, Muhammad Shahristani says: No one doubts that truth is with Ali and Ali is with truth that it should need reasoning. Ibne Hajar Nasibi has narrated from Tibrani in Sawaiq and he narrates from Umme Salma that she said: I heard the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) say: Ali is with Quran and Quran is with Ali.
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These two will not separate till they reach to me at Hauz Kauthar. Ibne Marduya has also narrated through multiple channels from Umme Salma and Ayesha, a traditional report on the same point. The author of Fadhailus Sahaba has also narrated from Ayesha. In Firdosul Akhbaar, it is narrated from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) that he said: May Allah have mercy on Ali; O Allah, turn the truth wherever Ali turns. No one from the adversaries is capable of denying these traditions. When these points are proved the Imamate of Imam Ali (a.s.) is also proved from many aspects: First Aspect
This matter proves the infallibility of Amirul Momineen (a.s.) and we already know that infallibility is the proof of Imamate. Second Aspect
It proves the excellence of Imam Ali (a.s.) and giving precedence to the inferior over the superior is illogical. Third Aspect
It is proved from widely related traditions and famous sermons of Imam Ali (a.s.) narrated by Shia as well as Sunni scholars, that Imam Ali (a.s.) never approved the Caliphate of the Three Caliphs and he attributed oppression and injustice to them and complained of their atrocities. Thus, when these people are opposed to Imam Ali (a.s.), it is necessary that they would be enemies of truth, tyrants, oppressors and disbelievers. Though complaining of Imam Ali (a.s.) is not needful of proof, but we
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will prove it nevertheless from some traditions of the canonical books of Ahle Sunnat. The author of Jamiul Usul has narrated from Sahih Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi, Nasai, and Sunan Abu Dawood on the authority of Malik bin Aws that Imam Ali (a.s.) and Abbas came to Umar and demanded the inheritance of the Prophet. Umar said: When the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) passed away, Abu Bakr said: I am the successor of the Prophet. Thus, you (Abbas) came and demanded the inheritance of your nephew and he (Ali) demanded the share of his wife. Abu Bakr said: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) stated: We prophets, do not leave any inheritance and what we leave is Sadaqah. You called him a liar, sinner, deceiver and dishonest, although Allah knows; that he was truthful, righteous and a follower of truth. After Abu Bakr died, I said that I am the successor of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and Abu Bakr. You people called me also a liar, deceiver, dishonest and sinner, although Allah knows that I am truthful, righteous and a follower of truth. Thus, I took over the Caliphate. Now, you two have united to demand your inheritance. In this tradition, which is mentioned in the five Sihah books, according to the confession of their own Caliph, Imam Ali (a.s.) considered those two hypocrites as liars, sinners, deceivers and traitors. Then how he could have approved their Imamate and pledged allegiance to them? Moreover, Ahle Sunnat justify the Caliphate of Abu Bakr as consensus of the Ummah; but if Imam Ali (a.s.) and Abbas were not included, how is that consensus proved? As the author of Jamiul Usul has narrated from Sahih Muslim and Bukhari; that Ayesha used to say: Fatima, daughter of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and Abbas came to Abu Bakr and demanded their share of inheritance and the estate of Fadak and Khyber. Abu Bakr said: I heard the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) say: We prophets do not leave any inheritance.
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Whatever we leave is Sadaqah, so Aale Muhammad (a.s.) cannot take anything from it and I will not act against the Prophet. So, when the taxes of Medina arrived, Umar gave it to Ali and Abbas and Ali (a.s.) spent it. When the taxes of Fadak and Khyber arrived, Umar kept it aside and did not give it to them. It is mentioned in another report that Lady Fatima (s.a.) was disappointed and she went away from Abu Bakr and never spoke to him again till she passed away. Imam Ali (a.s.) buried her at night and did not inform Abu Bakr about her funeral prayers. Ayesha also used to say that as long as Fatima was alive, Ali was trusted and respected by the people; when Fatima passed away, people turned away from Ali and did not accord any concession to him; and Fatima lived for six months after the passing away of the Prophet. Thus, Zuhri asked the reporter: Did Ali not pay allegiance to Abu Bakr for six months? He replied: By Allah, neither Ali, nor any member of the Bani Hashim clan paid allegiance to Abu Bakr till Ali did. When Ali observed that people have turned away from him, he became inclined to make amends with Abu Bakr. He sent a message to Abu Bakr to come and meet him, but not to bring anyone else with him; implying Umar as he was aware of Umar’s harshness. Umar said to Abu Bakr: Don’t go alone. Abu Bakr said: By Allah, I will definitely go, what can they do? He came to Ali’s house where all members of the Bani Hashim clan had gathered. Imam Ali (a.s.) arose and recited a sermon, in which he mentioned his excellence and rights, till the stone-hearted Abu Bakr wept. When Imam Ali (a.s.) concluded, Abu Bakr arose and delivered a sermon and mentioned his illogical excuse about Fadak and after the Zuhr prayer Ali paid allegiance as needed. Now, any sane person, who contemplates on this tradition, would become aware that even according to their own admission, consensus was not complete on the Caliphate of Abu
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Bakr for a period of six months, neither freely nor under compulsion. And throughout this period, their authority on taxes and Islamic rulership was nothing, but tyranny and a mistake. If at last, the reconciliation did take place, it was after all options were exhausted and it was only due to fear, lack of supporters and excess of enemies. Such consensus and such allegiance can occur in favor of every tyrant and oppressive ruler. But we shall mention the conclusion of this discussion in the section about indictments, if Allah wills. Ahmad bin Athim Kufi, who is one of the most reliable historian and tradition scholars of Ahle Sunnat, says in his History: Muawiyah wrote a letter to Ali (a.s.) as follows: So to say: Jealousy has ten parts, nine of which are present in you and one part is shared by all the people, because after the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), the leadership of this Ummah did fall into anyone’s share, but that you were jealous and condemning to him and we became aware of this. As a result of your anger, unfavorable statements, loud sighs and restraining people from the allegiance of Caliphs, they dragged you like a refractory camel to pay allegiance, till you gave it under duress…and so on. Amirul Momineen (a.s.) replied as follows: I received your letter, in which you mentioned my jealousy to the Caliphs, my avoidance of pledging allegiance to them and my denial of their Caliphate. I do not offer any excuse of those things neither to you nor anyone else, because when the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) passed away, a dispute arose in his nation. Quraish said that there should be a ruler from among us and Ansar claimed that a ruler should be there from us. Quraish said: His Eminence, Muhammad is from among us, therefore, we are more deserving for Caliphate. So the Ansar surrendered Wilayat and rulership to Quraish due to their relationship to Prophet and we, who were the Ahle Bayt of Prophet, were more deserving of Caliphate than all others.
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When people paid allegiance to Abu Bakr, your father Abu Sufyan approached me and said: You are more deserving of this. I will help you against those, who oppose you in this matter; and if you want, I can fill the streets of Medina with infantry and cavalry to fight Abu Qahafa; but I did not accept this offer as it would have created discord among Muslims. Ibne Abil Hadid has narrated from Kulaini that when Imam Ali (a.s.) decided to march to Basra, he delivered a sermon after divine praise and invoking blessings on Prophet and said: When the Almighty Allah took His Messenger to the eternal abode, Quraish usurped the Caliphate from us and prevented us from the right, we were more deserving of, than everyone else. So, I realized that being patient on this atrocity was better than creating discord among Muslims and their bloodshed. People had recently embraced Islam and religion was in motion and had not achieved stability till that time. It would have gone disarray at the slightest incitement. So they took over the Caliphate and made elaborate arrangements to strengthen their position. At last they met their end. Moreover, it is narrated through many channels that Ali (a.s.) often used to say: O Allah, repay Quraish for preventing my rights and usurping my share; that is Caliphate. According to another report, he said: I seek help from You with regard to Quraish; indeed they disregarded my relationship and usurped my rights; and in order to dispute with me, they reached consensus on one, to whom I was superior. When Ali (a.s.) makes such complains about them, it is clear that he did not approve them and they also did not favor him. The author of Mishkat has narrated from their Sihah books that none loves Ali, except the believer and none is inimical to him, except the hypocrite. It is narrated from Abu Salma in Sahih Tirmidhi that we did not recognize the hypocrites, except through their hatred for Ali
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(a.s.). It is narrated in Istiab that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: One, who loves Ali, has loved me and one, who is inimical to Ali, is inimical to me. One, who has caused hurt to Ali, has caused hurt to me and one, who causes hurt to me, has caused hurt to Allah. Allah says: 154B ِ ةَ ﺮِ ﺧْ اﻵَﺎ وَ ﻴْ ﱡﻧـ ﻲ اﻟﺪِ ﻓُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ُ ﻢُ ﻬَ ﻨـَ ﻌَ ﻟُ ﻪَﻮﻟُ ﺳَ رَ وَ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َونُ ذْ ﺆُ ﻳـَﻳﻦِ ﱠ اﻟﱠﺬ نِ إ ﺎ ًﻴﻨِ ﻬُﺎ ﻣًاﺑَ ﺬَ ﻋْ ﻢُ ﻬَ ﱠ ﻟ ﺪَ ﻋَ أَ ﴾٥٧﴿ و 1036B“Surely (as for) those who speak evil things of Allah and His Apostle, Allah has cursed them in this world and the hereafter, and He has prepared for them a chastisement bringing disgrace.” (Surah Ahzab 33:57) 2932BOne, who is as such, cannot be deserving of Imamate and Caliphate.
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Section Six: Superiority of Imam Ali (a.s.) over all companions as confessed by Ahle Sunnat
In addition to all the traditions, Ibne Abil Hadid, a great Ahle Sunnat scholar, says that the superiority of Ali (a.s.) is an ancient belief, which most companions and companions of companions have accepted; like Ammar, Miqdad, Abuzar, Salman, Jabir bin Abdullah, Ubayy bin Kaab, Huzaifah, Buraidah, Abu Ayyub, Sahl bin Hunaif, Abul Shahim bin Haitan, Khuzaimah bin Thabit, Abu Tufayl, Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib and all Bani Abbas, Bani Hashim and Bani Abdul Muttalib. Zubair also believed in it previously, but afterwards recanted and a group of Bani Umayyah people also admitted to it; like Khalid bin Saeed bin Aas, Umar bin Abdul Aziz. Thalabi, who is a great commentator of Ahle Sunnat, has narrated that in the prominent companion, Ibne Masud’s version of Quran, this verse was as follows: “Surely Allah chose Adam and Nuh and the descendants of Ibrahim and the descendants of Muhammad and the descendants of Imran above the nations.” (Surah Aale Imran 3:33) Ibne Hajar Nasibi has narrated from Fakhre Razi in Sawaiqul Mohriqa that Ahle Bayt of the Prophet are similar to the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) in five aspects: 1- In salutation, as the Almighty Allah said: Peace on you, O Prophet, and said: Peaceon Aale Yasin. 2- In invoking blessings on them in Tashahud. 3- In purity, as He said: Taha, that is O pure one and He said: And to purify you with thorough purification.
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4- In unlawfulness of Sadaqah. 5- In love, as He said: Follow me if you love Allah and he said: ﻲ ا 155B ِ ﻓَ ﱠة دَ ﻮَ ﱠ اﻟْﻤ ﻻِا إً ﺮْ ﺟَ أِ ﻪْ ﻴَ ﻠَ ﻋْ ﻢُ ﻜُ ﻟَ ﺄْ ﺳَ أَ ﻻْﻞُ ٰ ﻗ ﻰَﺑْ ﺮُﻟْﻘ 1038B“Say: I do not ask of you any reward for it, but love for my near relatives.” (Surah Shura 42:23) 2942BIbne Abil Hadid says: The excellence of Ali is narrated through so many channels that to deny it, is blatant shamelessness. Then he said: What can I say regarding that great personality, whose excellence is confessed even by his enemies and whose foes failed to conceal his merits. 2943BObviously, Bani Umayyah became the rulers of the whole world and tried their utmost to conceal the luminosity of Ali (a.s.). They fabricated many traditions to vilify Ali (a.s.) and his near kindred. They imprecated him from the pulpits; imprisoned and eliminated his followers; fabricated elaborate traditions to restrain people from narrating traditions, which prove the excellence of Ali (a.s.); till they made it unlawful to utter his name. 2944BHowever, as much they endeavored as much his name became famous and lofty and his honor became exalted; like Musk, that no matter how much you conceal it, its fragrance spreads all around; or like the sun, which cannot be concealed by the palm of the hand. Or like the clear day, which though not seen by a single pair of eyes, is seen by many eyes. What can I say about the excellence of one, who is the owner of all perfection and in whom all perfections culminate? He was the initiator of all perfections and source of all merits. He had precedence over everyone else. After him, whoever is having any excellence, it is received only from him. 2945BIt is clear that the greatest is divine knowledge and recognition of God, but whoever has recognized Allah, he has done so only through him. Through his explanation, he has
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raised the standard of divine recognition in the field of guidance. The candle of theology was kindled by him on the path of God. His role in teaching the divine sciences illuminated the path for seekers of knowledge. Though the Mutazila are masters of expertise in logic and knowledge, but in this also they are students of Ali (a.s.). Ashaira are also among his followers, because their proponent Abul Hasan Ashari, was a student of Abu Ali Jubai, a Mutazila Shaykh and the teacher of Mutazila is Wasil Ibne Ata, a student of Abu Hashim Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Hanfiyyah who was the student of his father and he, in turn, was the student of Amirul Momineen (a.s.). The attribution of Imamiyah and Zaidiyyah to His Eminence is clear. Science of Quranic exegesis is one of the most important sciences of religion and that science is only derived from Ali (a.s.). Ibne Abbas, the foremost teacher of Quranic exegesis was in fact the student of Ali (a.s.). When Ibne Abbas was asked how his knowledge was in relation to that of his cousin, he replied: Like a drop of water in comparison to the ocean. In the same way, in the science of Gnosticism, which is a major science in all sects of Islam; invariably all series (Silsila) of Sufism end at Ali (a.s.). Shibli, Junaid, Sirri, Abu Yazid Bastami, Maruf Karkhi etc; all were proud to connect themselves without any break to Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.). Another important science is that of Arabic grammar; as everyone is aware, this field of knowledge was also initiated by Ali (a.s.). The foremost teacher of this science, Abul Aswad Duali got his expertise from none other than Imam Ali (a.s.), who had framed the rules of Arabic language and grammar. One of them being that the parts of speech are: nouns, verbs and articles. He also divided the words into common and proper nouns. He was the one, who framed the rules of diacritics. Active and passive nouns, adjectives and adverbs being the other parts of speech, which were duly specified by Imam Ali (a.s.).
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These rules should be regarded as miracles. And if human perfections and divine excellences are observed in Ali (a.s.), one realizes what his true status is and what was the source of his drive? The valor of Imam Ali (a.s.) was such that it makes the valor of all who came after him as nothing and he is remembered by all who came after him. His feats of bravery, in fields of battle are so well known that all his confrontations would remain famed till Judgment Day. He was such a stalwart that he never fled from the battlefield and he was never cowed down by any army and no stalwart confronted him and won. He never delivered a blow, which could have necessitated another blow. Whoever he slew, the people of his community felt proud that he was killed at the hands of Ali. As happened in the case of Amr bin Abde Wudd, when he was slain by Ali (a.s.) and the sister of Amr recited the following couplets in response: If someone else had been the slayer of Amr, I would have mourned him as long as I lived; but since his slayer is that unique stalwart, who is prominent in valor and bravery, there is no disgrace in being killed by him. His father was the ruler of Mecca. Whoever was able to confront Ali and survive, he used to boast about it as long as he lived. One day, Muawiyah woke up to find Abdullah Ibne Zubair standing at his feet. Abdullah said: O chief, if I wanted, I could have slain you. Muawiyah said: Do you claim to be valiant? He replied: Can you deny my valor, though I confronted Ali in the battle? Muawiyah said: If it were true, he would have slain you and your father with his left hand while his right hand fought others. According to universal consensus, Ali (a.s.) uprooted the gate of Khyber single-handed, which a number of people failed to move together. He moved a rock from over the well, which all the men of the army failed to do. The generosity of Imam Ali (a.s.) is so famous that we don’t need to reiterate that he fasted
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the days and spent the nights in hunger and gave his share to others. That is why Surah Hal Ataa was revealed, as well as the following verse: 156B ً ﺔَ ﻴِ ﻧَ ﻼَ ﻋَا وّ ﺮِ ﺳِﺎرَاﻟﻨﱠـﻬَ وِ ﻞْ ﺎﻟﻠﱠﻴ ِ ﺑْ ﻢُ ﻬَاﻟَ ﻮْ ﻣَ أَﻮنُ ﻘِ ﻔْ ﻨُ ﻳـَﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ 1039B“(As for) those: who spend their property by night and by day; secretly and openly.” (Surah Baqarah 2:274) 2957B…was revealed about him. 2958BIt is narrated that Imam Ali (a.s.) drew water to such an extent in the orchard of some Jew that his hands got injured and he gave in charity, whatever he earned from it and himself tied a stone to his belly to suppress the pangs of hunger. According to narrations, Imam Ali (a.s.) was the most generous of all the people and had scaled such a limit in generosity and charity that Allah liked and preferred it. He never said no to anyone, who asked him for something. 2959BSo much so that a hypocrite once turned away from him and went to Muawiyah, who was deadliest enemy of the Imam and who tried his utmost to make allegations and pick faults in him. That hypocrite said: I am coming from the greatest miser of the world. Muawiyah said: Woe on you; you call him a miser? If he had a house of gold and a house of silver, he first gives everything from gold till nothing remains. He is so generous that he gives in charity rooms full of wealth; then sweeps them and recites Prayer there. 2960BHe was so generous that he used to address worldly wealth: Deceive others not me; I have divorced you irrevocably. Inspite of the fact that the whole world was under his control; when he left this world, he did not leave anything in inheritance, except knowledge and kindness. 2961BThus, Imam Ali (a.s.) was the most knowledgeable and most forgiving of the people even to those who oppressed him and harbored evil intentions against him as is known from his conduct with his worst opponents, like Marwan bin Hakam,
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Abdullah bin Zubair and Saeed bin Aas, when he defeated them in the Battle of Jamal and they fell prisoners at his hands. He released all of them; neither remaining inimical to them nor taking any revenge. In spite of the fact that Abdullah Ibne Zubair used to condemn him before everyone and call him mean and foolish; but when he was brought as a prisoner, Ali (a.s.) released him saying: Go away, so that I don’t see you ever again; and he did nothing else. Whatever Ayesha did with Ali (a.s.) is known to all. However, when he emerged victorious over her, he dealt with her with utmost kindness and mercy. People of Basra confronted Ali (a.s.) and his progeny and called him names and cursed him, but when he was victorious, he gave them security and did not allow their property and children to be destroyed. How Imam Ali (a.s.) dealt with Muawiyah in the Battle of Siffeen is clear. First Muawiyah’s army captured access to water supply and denied it to the forces of the Imam, but when the Imam gained control over it, his companions suggested that they should deny water to the opponents, so that they perish of thirst and there is no need to fight them in battle. But Ali (a.s.) said: By Allah, I will not do what they have done and my sharp sword would make us needless of it. Then he told his men to give them access to water, but continue to struggle in the path of Allah. So his enemies and friends are perfectly aware that Imam Ali (a.s.) is the chief of those who fight the holy war; on the contrary, Jihad is exclusive to him and it does not merit anyone other than him. It’s no use prolonging this subject, because the Jihad of Ali (a.s.) is among the widely related issues of Islam. As for eloquence – His Eminence was the chief of rhetoricians and teacher of orators. Balghani has said regarding the discourse of the Imam that: It is lower than the discourse of God and higher than the discourse of all creatures. A man became aloof from Imam Ali (a.s.) and went to Muawiyah and said: I am coming from one, who is most helpless
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in discourse. Muawiyah said: Woe on you, you are calling him helpless; by Allah, no one other than him opened the way of eloquence for Quraish and the rules and regulations of oratory were not taught by anyone else. As for nice behavior and good humor; it is well known about Ali (a.s.) that the opponents, on the pretext of this quality, tried to pick faults with him. Amr bin Aas used are say that he smiles and cracks jokes too often. Amr based this on the excuse of Umar, which he presented for not giving Caliphate to Ali (a.s.). He claimed that he was a joker! Saasa bin Sauhan and other Shia say in description of Imam Ali (a.s.): When he was in our company, he behaved as if he was one of us; he came wherever we called him and lent ear to whatever we said; sat wherever we asked him to. In spite of this, we were so much overawed as if a sword hung over our head. One day Muawiyah said to Qays bin Saad: May Allah have mercy on Ali, he was very humorous and good natured. Qays said: Yes, he was as such and the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) was also like that with the companions, if you meant it to be praise. If however, you intended to condemn him, by Allah the awe of Imam Ali (a.s.), in spite of good nature and humor was more than anyone else’s; and it was the awe of piety and not like an awe exuded by you for the degraded people of Shaam. Ali’s awe can be seen even today in his friends and devotees; in the same way, malice and ill talk is still there in his opponents. As for piety and abstemiousness, Ali (a.s.) was the chief of the pious and all the pious are sincere to the Imam. He never ate to satiation and his food and dress was simpler than that of everyone else. He lived on pieces of dry bread and kept the bag containing his bread, sealed; lest his children may not add oil to it. Sometimes he patched his garments with a piece of leather and sometimes with a palm leaf. The Imam’s garments were usually of coarse material. If its sleeve was long, he cut it and then sewed it up again and its threads hung over his hands till it
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lasted. He rarely ate anything with bread; and if at all, it was only some vinegar or a grain of salt; and if upgraded further, it was vegetable or more often camel milk. He rarely ate meat, and he used to say: Don’t make your stomach the graveyard of animals. In spite of this, the Imam’s strength was more than that of anyone else. Except for Shaam, which was under Muawiyah’s control, taxes from all Muslim provinces came to him and he distributed them among the people. As for worship and devotions: Imam Ali (a.s.) was ahead of all others in prayer and fasting. People learnt to be regular in Midnight Prayer and other recommended ritual prayers and increased their certainty in religion through him. How is it possible to describe the devotional aspect of one, who was such that during the Battle of Siffeen, a mat was laid amidst the rows for him to continue his prayers? As the battle raged, arrows fell to his left and right, but he paid no heed, till he concluded his devotions. The Imam’s forehead resembled the camel’s knee due to his continuous prostrations in prayers. If one takes note of his sincerity and humility to Almighty Allah and his humiliation before the majesty of Almighty God as seen in his supplications, one would realize what sincerity the Imam possessed and from which heart and tongue those words issued. Imam Zainul Abideen (a.s.), who had attained a very lofty position in worship, was asked by someone what the status of his worship was as compared to that of his grandfather. He replied: Same as the worship of my grandfather with regard to the worship of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). As for recitation of Quran: Ali (a.s.) was the point of reference for everyone in this matter and all have consensus that during the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), no one knew about Quran more than him and no one had committed the whole Quran to memory. The first to compile and write the Quran was Amirul Momineen (a.s.). If one refers to books of
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Quranic recitation one realizes that all teachers of Qiraat are the students of Imam Ali (a.s.) and recitation of all ends with him and all seek refuge in him. Determination
Ali’s view was the best and his planning most proper. Every Caliph and ruler referred to him in all problems. Ali (a.s.) saved Umar from destruction and calamity befell Uthman for opposing the practice of the Prophet. If he had accepted the advice of Imam Ali (a.s.), he would have saved himself from death. Detractors of the Imam say that Ali was not having any insight and diplomacy; it is so, because he was absolutely loyal to the Shariah and did not take any step that was opposed to religion. He himself says that if I had not been loyal to piety, I would have been the most cunning person in the world. While the condition of other Caliphs was such that they acted according to what was best in their interests, whether it was in accordance to the Shariah or not and it is clear that one, who follows perfectly the laws of Shariah, his world would be disciplined as compared to one, who does not care for religion. Politics and Rulership
The politics of the Imam was so faithful to the command of Allah that he did not give any concession to any of his relatives; then how was it possible for him to give concession to others? It is clear from the way Ali (a.s.) conducted with his brother, Aqil. The qualities, which we described, are human qualities; thus, it becomes clear that Amirul Momineen (a.s.) was foremost in those qualities and the Imam of the whole world. How can we describe that lofty person, to whom his enemies are inclined, inspite of denying prophethood and inspite of communal prejudice to him? Rulers of infidel countries engrave his picture
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in their worship places. Some Turkish kings and Buwayhid rulers engraved his picture on their swords for good luck. What can I say about that lofty personality with whom everyone wants to be associated? So much so that the bravest of the people consider him to be their leader and associate themselves with him; that during the Battle of Uhad, people heard angels call out from the sky: There is no brave youth, except Ali and there is no worthy sword, except Zulfiqar. What shall I say about that lofty man, whose father, Abu Talib was the chief of Batha, Shaykh of Quraish and ruler of Mecca? It is said that there were few, who are so great in spite of being in such poverty and straitened circumstances. Since his boyhood till his youth, he was responsible for the personal security of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and he guarded the Prophet from idolaters and infidels. As long as he was alive, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was not compelled to leave his hometown in fear, but after he passed away, the Almighty Allah commanded the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) to migrate from Mecca as there was no helper and protector for him there anymore. Thus, the respected father of Amirul Momineen (a.s.) was having such majesty and glory and his cousin is the last of the prophets and chief of divine messengers; his brother is Ja’far, who flies in the company of angels; his wife is the chief of the ladies of the world. His two sons are the chief of the youths of Paradise. His ancestors are same as that of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). His mothers are the mothers of the best of creatures. Their flesh and blood is joined to the flesh and blood of the Imam and their light was joined to the spiritual effulgence of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) since before the creation of Adam, till the loins of Abdul Muttalib. In his loins, the effulgence split into Abdullah and Abu Talib. Through one was created the mercy for the worlds and through the other the master of the universe; through one was created the warner and through the other, guide. What shall I say about one, who achieved precedence over all and who accepted
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faith when all were in idolatry? No one has any precedence over him in monotheism. Imam Ali (a.s.) waved the standard of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) in the world. Most tradition scholars agree that the first to accept the call of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was Amirul Momineen (a.s.) and he brought faith in him and never went against it. None had doubted this, except two persons or one and Amirul Momineen (a.s.) himself used to say: I am the Great Truthful one (Siddiq Akbar) and I am the First Discriminator (Faruq Awwal). I accepted faith before all and prayed the ritual prayer first of all. One, who ponders on the tradition, would consider all the above points accurate. Whatever we mentioned so far is only a fraction of the sum total of the excellence of Ali (a.s.) and were we to explain his excellence in detail, we would in addition to this, book require another bulky volume. [End Ibne Abil Hadid’s statement]. Though, our scholars have written a thousand times more, we added his statement only to serve as proof for the adversaries. The most obvious excellence of Imam Ali (a.s.) is that even his enemies confess that he was the best; but since inspite of this, they give precedence to others in Caliphate, we say that no ignorance is greater than this. More astonishing is that even though he admits that Imam Ali (a.s.) was more worthy for Caliphate, he goes and to say that he never objected to the Caliphate of Abu Bakr and Umar; that he left people in deviation and ignorance and himself retired into seclusion, though they themselves have mentioned the complaints of Amirul Momineen (a.s.) against those hypocrites and that he repeatedly said: “They usurped my rights; they oppressed me and severed my relationship.” If Ali (a.s.) had willingly left the Caliphate for them and their Caliphate was valid, why did such a lofty personality highlight the allegations and innovations of his own imams?
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Moreover, the Caliphate of God and the major Imamate are divine posts and not worldly positions or temporal property, from which, one can become aloof and leave it for one not deserving of it. Thus, it is clear for every rational being that when a lofty personality, imbued with these perfections and excellence, is present in the Ummah, another person, lacking these qualities cannot take over the Caliphate. If Allah and Prophet appoint him as Caliph, it will be an extremely absurd act, as they cannot entrust Caliphate to such fellows and make a worthy person their subject so that his obedience should be necessary for him. If their appointment was by people, it is clear that this was based on the allegiance of ignorance and due to prejudice and enmity, they became aloof from the rightful Caliph and did not support their Imam in taking over his rights; that is why hypocrites and oppressors dominated them. Like the Bani Israel, who labeled Harun as weak and adopted the worship of the calf. The Almighty Allah says: 157B َ ﻮنُ ﺒِ ﻠَ ﻘْ ﻨـَ ﻳـٍ ﺐَ ﻠَ ﻘْ ﻨـُ يﱠ ﻣ َﻮا أُ ﻤَ ﻠَ ﻇَﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ ُ ﻢَ ﻠْ ﻌَ ﻴـَ ﴾٢٢٧﴿ ﺳ 1040B“And they who act unjustly shall know to what final place of turning they shall turn back.” (Surah Shoara 26:227)
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Section Seven: Reports of Ahle Sunnat canonical books declaring the Imamate of Imam Ali (a.s.)
There are quite a few traditional reports, which the adversaries have included in their canonical books, which are clear declarations of Imamate, however, they either overlook them or try to justify them. Since the study of all those reports is beyond the scope of this treatise, we shall only mention only a few of them. Thalabi, the famous Ahle Sunnat commentator has narrated from Abil Humra, servant of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) that His Eminence used to say: On the night of Meraj, I saw written on the edge of Arsh: There is no god, except Allah; Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; I supported and helped him through Ali. Moreover, it is narrated from Jabir that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said to Ali (a.s.): All people are from different trees and you and I are from a single tree. The author of Mishkat has narrated from Musnad Hanbal that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said to Ali (a.s.): You have a similarity with Prophet Isa (a.s.); Jews were so inimical to him that they made allegations against his mother and Christians loved him so much that they proved a rank for him, which he himself was not pleased with; that is they called him God or son of God. Amirul Momineen (a.s.) also said: Two groups of people will be destroyed regarding me: Friends, who resort to excess in devotion to me and the enemies, who makes allegations against me. Moreover, it is narrated from Musnad, on the authority of Umme Salma that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: One, who abuses Ali, has abused me.
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Ibne Abil Hadid has written in Sharh Nahjul Balagha that if Ali (a.s.) wants to boast of his excellence and enumerates his merits, in spite of the eloquence, which Almighty Allah has given exclusively to him and even if all Arab rhetoricians help him, even then they would not be able to reach to the tenth of what the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) has said regarding him. I do not imply those well known traditional reports, which the Imamiyah employ to prove his Imamate. Like for example the tradition of Ghadeer, Manzilah, event of Surah Baraat, incident of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) conferring in secret with Imam Ali (a.s.); the story of Khyber; the report of Dawat Zul Ashira, when the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) gathered his relatives and said the one first to believe in me would be my successor and Caliph; and Ali (a.s.) was the first to declare belief in him. On the contrary, my implication is about the special reports, which imams and leaders of prophetic traditions have narrated in praise of Ali (a.s.) and they do not narrate even a thousandth part in favor of others. I narrate some traditions narrated by scholars of traditions not accused of Shiaism. On the contrary, most of them consider some companion to be superior to Ali (a.s.). That is why the tradition they narrate results in satisfaction, which is not possible from anyone else. After that Ibne Abil Hadid has narrated twenty-four traditions, from which we will quote a few in this discussion. Tradition One
Hafiz Abu Nuaim has narrated in Hilyatul Awliya, and Ahmad bin Hanbal in Musnad that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said to Ali: O Ali, without any doubt, the Almighty Allah has embellished you with an honor He has not bestowed on anyone; which may make them preferred by Allah and which is the embellishment of the pious and righteous: it is piety and
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abstemiousness; the Almighty Allah has reserved it for you such that you do not reduce anything from the world and the world does not reduce anything from you; and He has bestowed you with love for poor; thus, you are satisfied that they be your followers and they are pleased with your leadership. At the end of this report, Ahmad Hanbal adds: Thus, glad tidings for one, who is devoted to you and who testifies you and woe on the one, who is inimical to you and who falsifies you. Tradition Two
It is narrated from Musnad Ahmad that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said to the people from Thaqif: Do you accept Islam or should I send to you a person, who is from me? He also mentioned the aspiration of Umar to be that person as mentioned previously. After that he said: Ahmad narrates in Kitab Fadhail Ali that I will send to you one, who is like my self. Abuzar said: At that time, I was in my chamber. I saw Umar approach and place his hand on my back. I felt the coldness of his hand. He asked: Who has the Prophet meant by this? I said: He does not imply you; he implies one, who is repairing his shoes. That is Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.). Tradition Three
Hafiz Abu Nuaim has narrated from Abu Huraira in Hilyatul Awliya that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Doubtlessly, the Almighty Allah has made an oath to me regarding Ali. I said: O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), please mention it to me. He said: Without any doubt, Ali is the sign of the way of guidance, the Imam of My saints and there is effulgence for one, who obeys Me and he is that word, which I have made incumbent on the pious. It is a hint to the following verse:
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158B ٰ ىَ ﻮْ اﻟﺘـﱠﻘ َ ﺔَ ﻤِ ﻠَ ﻛْ ﻢُ ﻬَ ﻣَ ﻟْﺰَ أَ و 1041B“And made them keep the word of guarding (against evil).” (Surah Fath 48:26) 3009BOne, who is in favor of him, without any doubt, he has been devoted to Me. One, who has obeyed him, has in fact obeyed Me. So give this glad tiding to Ali. I said: My Lord, I have conveyed the glad tiding to him and he said: I am the servant of God and am subject to His power; if He punishes me, it is due to my sins and He would not be unjust to me. If He fulfills the promise He has made to me, then He is more worthy of doing that. Then the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: I prayed for Ali and said: My Lord, bestow polish to his heart and make it an excuse of having faith in You, the Almighty Allah said: I have done that. However, I have made him exclusive with such calamities and trials, which I have not given to anyone else. 3010BI said: My Lord, he is my brother and companion. He said: It has passed through My knowledge that he would be such that through him I would test the people. 3011BMoreover, Hafiz has narrated through authentic chains of narrators from Anas that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Without any doubt, the Almighty Allah made an oath to me regarding Ali that he is the standard of guidance and faith and he is the Imam and chief of my friends and an effulgence of all, who obey me. On Judgment Day Ali, he is my confidante and standard bearer. The key to the treasures of the favors of my Lord would be with Ali. 7909BTradition Four
3012BAhmad bin Hanbal has said in Musnad and Ahmad Baihaqi in his Sahih has narrated from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) that one, who wants to see Nuh (a.s.) in his determination, Ibrahim in forbearance, Musa (a.s.) in his intelligence and Isa (a.s.) in his worship, should glance at Ali. Then he says on behalf of the
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Shia: The apparent connotation of the tradition proves that Ali is a partner of those prophets in these qualities and there is no doubt that those prophets are superior to Abu Bakr and all the companions; and the equal of the superior is also superior Thus, it is a must that Ali (a.s.) should also be superior to all companions. Tradition Five
Abu Nuaim has narrated in Hilyatul Awliya and Ahmad bin Hanbal in Musnad, has narrated from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) that one, who likes to live like me and die like me; and that he holds the branch of red rubies; which the Almighty Allah has created in such a way that He said: Be and it was; thus, he should be attached to the Wilayat Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.). Tradition Six
It is narrated from Musnad Ahmad that on the day of Arafah, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) came out at Asr and said: Without any doubt, the Almighty Allah has generally boasted about you with the angels and forgave the sins of all and especially prided over Ali and forgave his sins. I make one statement and I do not favor my relatives unduly; without any doubt, the successful and completely successful and the deserving of success is one, who is devoted to Ali during his lifetime and after his passing away. Tradition Seven
Ahmad Hanbal has narrated in Kitab Fadhail and Musnad that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) used to say: The first to be summoned on Judgment Day is me. I will stand to the right under the shade of the throne and a robe will be placed on me. After that all the prophets would be summoned one after another and made to stand to the right of the Arsh and dressed in robes.
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Then Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.) would be summoned due to the proximity he has to me and due to the rank he has in my view. They would hand over my standard, Liwaul Hamd to Ali (a.s.) and Adam and all those after him, would be under that standard. After that he addressed Ali: So you will come with the standard and stand between me and Ibrahim Khalil. They will dress you up in a robe as well and the caller from Arsh would announce: How righteous and pious is your father, Ibrahim (a.s.); and what a best and righteous brother is your brother, Ali (a.s.). O Ali, be glad that you are called when I am called, enrobed when I am enrobed and bestowed when I am bestowed. Tradition Eight
Hafiz has narrated in Hilyatul Awliya from Anas bin Malik that one day the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) asked for water to make ablution. He arose and prayed two units of prayer and then said: The first to enter this door is the Imam of the pious, chief of the Muslims, ruler of believers and the seal of successors; one, who will lead to Paradise those, whose faces, hands and feet are illuminated. Anas says: I said: O Allah, be it someone from Ansar, but I concealed this prayer. Ali (a.s.) came and the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) asked: Who has come? I replied: It is Ali. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) arose happily and embraced him and wiped sweat from his face. Ali (a.s.) said: I observe that today you are doing something you never did before? He replied: Why should I not? Whereas you will convey my message to people and make them hear my call. After me you will explain that, in which they differ. Tradition Nine
Moreover, Hafiz Abu Nuaim has narrated in Hilyatul Awliya from Ayesha that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Call
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for me the chief of the Arabs. I asked: Are you not the chief of the Arabs? He said: I am the chief of all humanity and Ali is the chief of the Arabs. Ali arrived at that point. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) summoned the Ansar and said: O people of Ansar, do you want that I should guide you to something, which if you remain attached to, you will never go astray? All said: Yes, O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). He said: It is this Ali. Be devoted to him for the sake of my friendship and accord honor to him due to my rank. Without any doubt, it was Jibraeel, who instructed me to deliver this message. Tradition Ten
Hafiz Abu Nuaim has narrated in Hilyatul Awliya that one day, when Ali (a.s.) arrived, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) remarked: Welcome to the chief of believers and Imam of pious. Companions asked Ali: How do you thank for this bounty? He replied: I thank for all bounties, which Almighty Allah has bestowed and I ask Him to give me Taufeeq to thank for what He has bestowed and to enhance the reward He has given me. Tradition Eleven
Hafiz Abu Nuaim has narrated in Hilyatul Awliya, that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: One, who likes to live like me and die like me and to be settled in the Garden of Eden, which My Lord has planted; it is necessary to be devoted to Ali (a.s.) after me and to be friendly to his friends and after me he should follow the Imams; as without any doubt, this is my progeny and they are created from my dust; and they are given my knowledge and understanding. Thus, woe on those who falsify him after me and who severs my relationship with him. May Allah not allow my intercession for such people.
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Tradition Twelve
It is narrated from Musnad Ahmad, Kitab Fadhail and author of Firdosul Akhbaar that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: I and Ali were effulgence with the Almighty Allah fourteen thousand years before the creation of Adam. When the Almighty Allah created Adam, he split that light into two: I was one part and Ali, another. It is further added in Firdos: We continued to be transferred through the loins till we reached the loins of Abdul Muttalib: Thus, prophethood was given to me and successorship to Ali. Tradition Thirteen
Ahmad has narrated in Musnad that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said to Ali: To glance at you is a worship act. You are the chief and leader; one, who loves you, has loved me; and my lover is the lover of Allah; your enemy is my enemy and my enemy is the enemy of Allah; woe on one, who is inimical to you. Tradition Fourteen
Moreover, Ahmad has narrated in Kitabul Fadhail that on the eve of Battle of Badr, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) asked: Who would bring us water? Everyone refused, but Ali picked up a skin and said that he will. It was a very dark night. He came to a very deep well and climbed into it. The Almighty Allah ordered Jibraeel, Israfeel and Mikaeel to be prepared to help and protect Muhammad and his brother. They came down from the heavens with such fervor that whoever heard their sound became terrified. When they reached that well, they saluted Amirul Momineen (a.s.) due to his awe and honor. Moreover, Ahmad his narrated this tradition from another channel as well from Anas and added at the end: The Holy
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Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: On Judgment Day, a camel of Paradise would be brought for you and you will mount it; your thigh would be touching my thigh till you and I enter Paradise. Tradition Fifteen
Ahmad has narrated in Kitabul Fadhail that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) recited a sermon: O people, I make bequest to you regarding the love of my self, my brother and my cousin, Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.). None loves him, but a believer and none are inimical to him, except a hypocrite. One, who has loved him, without any doubt, he has loved me. One is inimical to him, without any doubt he is inimical to me; and one, who is inimical to me, would be punished with Hellfire by the Almighty Allah. Tradition Sixteen
It is narrated from Ahmad bin Hanbal in Kitabul Fadhail that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: The Almighty Allah has bestowed five things to Ali, which are more precious to me than the world and all it has: First Thing
Ali is in my place of reclining till the Almighty Allah completes the accounting of people. Second Thing
The Standard of Praise (Liwaul Hamd) would be held by him and Adam and his progeny would be under it.
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Third Thing
He would stand at Hauz Kauthar with me and give water to those he recognizes as his followers. Fourth Thing
He would keep my privies hidden and consign me to my tomb. Fifth Thing
I don’t fear he would ever return to infidelity after belief and be a fornicator after being chaste. Tradition Seventeen
It is narrated from Abu Nuaim’s Hilyatul Awliya that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: O Ali, I have precedence over you for prophethood, because there is no prophet after me; you will dispute with the people after me: and you have priority over them in seven aspects; and no one from Quraish can dispute you in that. You are the first to have brought faith in the Almighty Allah; you will fulfill the covenant of Allah the most; you will stage the most uprisings for Almighty Allah; you are the most equitable; you are the most just among the subjects; you are the most wise and expert in judging cases. Your excellence is greatest in the view of Almighty Allah. Tradition Eighteen
It is narrated in Musnad Ahmad that Lady Fatima (s.a.) said to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.): You married me to a very poor man. His Eminence said: I married you to one, who was first to embrace Islam, whose forbearance was most and whose
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knowledge is more than that of anyone else. Do you not know that the Almighty Allah looked the folks of at the earth and chose your husband from them? Tradition Nineteen
Ibne Abil Hadid has narrated from Tafsir Thalabi that on his return from Battle of Hunain, when Surah Nasr was revealed, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) excessively intoned: Glory be to God and I seek the forgiveness of Allah; then he said: O Ali, what Allah had promised to me occurred; Mecca was conquered and people entered the religion of Allah in hordes. Without any doubt, no one is worthier than you to succeed me; and the priority, which you have on all and as a result of the relationship, which you have to me; you are my son-in-law and the best of the women of the world is married to you. Before that the favors of Abu Talib and his rights are proved for me as mentioned in Quran. I am very much concerned to repay his favors through his son. After narrating the traditions, Ibne Abil Hadid says: I have mentioned those traditions here as most groups deviated from His Eminence attribute arrogance to him when they see him reiterating the favors that Almighty Allah has bestowed on him. Some companions also made such claims. When people suggested to Umar: Hand over the command of the army to Ali. He said: He is too proud to accept this position from me. Zaid bin Thabit also used to say: We did not see anyone prouder than Ali and Usamah. That is why we have quoted these traditions that people should become aware that one, who was having such rank in the view of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and regarding whom the Prophet has issued such statements, even if he goes up to the sky and boasts with the angels, he is worthy of it and he should not be criticized for it.
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In spite of this, Amirul Momineen (a.s.) never expressed arrogance in his words and behavior and his grace, nobility, manners and humility was much more than others; so much so that his adversaries criticized him for being too humorous. Now and then when such statements were issued from the Imam, they were due to the fervor raging in his breast and the deep sigh he took was due to unprecedented circumstances or to thank for divine bounties bestowed on him. It was a warning for those ignorant ones, who did not accept his excellence. Moreover, enjoining good and forbidding evil was obligatory on the Imam; that he should express some of his merits so that people may not have invalid beliefs regarding him and do not give precedence to others. The Almighty Allah has prohibited this: 159B َ ﻳ َ ﻻْ ﱠﻦ ﻣَ أَ ﻊَ ﱠﺒ ﺘُ ﻳـْ نَ ﱡ أ ﻖَ ﺣَ ﱢ أ ﻖَﻰ اﻟْﺤَ ﻟِ ي إِ ﺪْ ﻬَ ﻳـْ ﻦَ ﻤَ ﻓَ أ ْ نَ ﱠ أ ﻻِ ﱢي إ ﺪِ ﻬ ٰ ىَ ﺪْ ﻬُ ۖ ﻳـ ◌ َ ﻮنُ ﻤُ ﻜْﺤَ ﺗَﻒْ ﻴَ ﻛْ ﻢُ ﻜَﺎ ﻟَ ﻤَ ﴾٣٥﴿ ﻓ 1042B“Is He then, Who guides to the truth more worthy to be followed, or he who himself does not go aright unless he is guided? What then is the matter with you; how do you judge?” (Surah Yunus 10:35) 3040BSo far was the translation of Ibne Abil Hadid’s discourse. 3041BThe author says: The Almighty Allah had cast a veil on the hearing, sight and hearts of the adversaries and He makes the word of truth to issue from their tongue, so that the proof of the Shia is exhausted on them. 3042BTherefore, it is amazing that this fellow (Ibne Abil Hadid), in spite of narrating those excellences, testifying to their veracity, admitting that not even a thousandth of these merits are narrated about others, confessing to the merits of His Eminence from all aspects and accepting his victimization, he considers it obligatory on His Eminence to inform others of his excellence and to declare their defects.
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He reasons from this verse, which clearly proves that when the more learned is present, the Imamate of less learned is not lawful; however, in spite of this, he considers them (the first three caliphs) as imams and rulers over Ali (a.s.) for twenty-five years. 160B ٌ ﺎبَﺠُ ﻋٌ ءْ ﻲَﺸَا ﻟَ ﺬٰ َ ﱠ ﻫ نِ ﴾٥﴿ إ 1043B“A strange thing is this, to be sure!” (Surah Saad 38:5) 3044BWe should also know that the adversaries cannot deny or express doubt in the veracity of traditions, which I have quoted in this and the previous sections, because traditions narrated from their Sihah books are accepted by all and their authenticity cannot be denied. 3045BTraditions quoted from other books of Ahle Sunnat are also penned by the most well known of their scholars. Musnad Ahmad Hanbal, whose author is the one of their four Imams and founder of one of their schools of jurisprudence; then are the books of Hafiz Abu Nuaim, which all have regarded as authentic. 3046BThen there is Thalabi, who is their famous commentator through whom they narrate in all their commentaries. The remaining books, from which we have quoted, all are their famous books; on the contrary, the reliability of most of their authors is more than that of the authors of their Sihah books. 3047BHowever, since those six persons were most prejudiced, they regard their books as more authentic. The traditions, through which we reason, are universally accepted and all Shia and Sunni scholar have narrated them. Traditions, which they bring to counter us are only some fabricated sayings having absolutely no trace in our books; and are clearly fakes. 3048BOne, who is having even the least equitability, knows that most traditions, which we have mentioned here, and which their prominent scholars have declared to be authentic, clearly prove the correctness of Imamate, because Imamate in parlance of
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tradition and Quran evidently implies greater rulership and one, who is the self of the Prophet, he cannot be the subject of anyone else. The nineteenth tradition in many ways clearly proves Imamate and usurpation of Caliphate and the elders, who are imbued with the well known qualities of prophets and all remain under his standard and his rank should be between the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and Prophet Ibrahim (a.s.) he cannot be subject to every wicked and accursed one, whose allegiance only some hypocrites had pledged. The tradition of Wudhu is also such that most terms and words used in it prove the Imamate of Ali (a.s.). Especially the terms of Imam of the pious, chief of the Muslims, ruler of the believers and seal of the vicegerents; because it is clear that successorship denotes representation of Prophet and rulership and guidance of the Ummah, as successorship of all prophets was having this same implication. Moreover, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) did not leave any son, whom he should have appointed a legatee and he left no property, regarding which he should have made a bequest. Especially according to Ahle Sunnat channels, which say that His Eminence did not leave any inheritance. Traditions of successorship of Imam Ali (a.s.) are widely related (too many). Ibne Abil Hadid has quoted a large number of couplets of most companions, which speak of successorship. Moreover, the last tradition clearly proves the Imamate of Imam Ali (a.s.), because fulfilling the functions of prophethood on behalf of the Prophet and conveying his message to the people means that regarding whatever they hear from him, they should be certain that it is truly the statement of the Prophet as if directly listening from him. Moreover, since Ali is in fact the self and soul of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), therefore, his voice is in fact the voice of the Prophet. Furthermore at the time of dispute in the Ummah the stating of truth is the function of the Imam.
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In the ninth tradition, being the chief and leader of the Arabs and his love being cause of eternal guidance is loftier than the rank of Imamate. The tenth tradition also clearly proves Imamate from the same aspects mentioned above. The eleventh tradition clearly proves the Imamate of Imam Ali (a.s.) and his noble descendants. The twelfth tradition, from the aspect of successorship and being imbued with exclusive merits is a proof of Imamate. The eighteenth tradition proves that Amirul Momineen (a.s.) is most superior to the creatures other than the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), and this is the perfect proof of Imamate as mentioned before. The last and the nineteenth tradition proves that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) appointed him for Caliphate and it is clear that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) never did anything without the command of Allah and Almighty Allah never refused any request of His Messenger. Thus, until the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) had not heard this matter from the Almighty Allah repeatedly, he would not have announced it publicly. The remaining traditions prove the prominence of Ali (a.s.) and giving precedence to the inferior over the superior is invalid rationally. If a prejudiced person disputes regarding each of these traditions, there is no doubt that all traditions together convey irrefutable proof of the right of Imamate of Ali (a.s.). One blinded by prejudice, would not accept any fact in the world. 161B ٍ ﻮرُ ﻧْ ﻦِ ﻣُ ﻪَﺎ ﻟَ ﻤَا ﻓًﻮرُ ﻧُ ﻪَ ﻟُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِ ﻞَ ﻌْﺠَ ﻳْ ﻢَ ﻟْ ﻦَ ﻣَ ﴾٤٠﴿ و 1044B“And to whomsoever Allah does not give light, he has no light.” (Surah Nur 24:40)
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Section Eight: Indictments of those who usurped the right of Imam Ali (a.s.)
An account of the indictments of those who usurped the rights of Imam Ali (a.s.) and explanation that they were not worthy of Imamate. Thus, truth was exclusive to Amirul Momineen (a.s.), because according to consensus of those who were present, truth was between them and Imam Ali (a.s.) and when the Caliphate of that is proved invalid, the Caliphate of Imam Ali (a.s.) is proved true and there are a few issues regarding this:
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Part One: Indictments of Abu Bakr
There are numerous indictments for him; however, in this book we shall mention only a few of them. First Indictment: No important Duty delegated to him
The first is that all important responsibilities that fell on the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), he delegated them to senior companions; but he never delegated any task to Abu Bakr, except the duty of reciting Surah Baraat to the Meccans. When Abu Bakr set out to deliver the verses, Jibraeel descended and said to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.): The Almighty Allah says: None can deliver your message, except you yourself or one, who is from you. So, Amirul Momineen (a.s.) pursued Abu Bakr and after taking the verses from him, sent him back to Medina. Imam Ali (a.s.) then recited those verses to Meccans during the Hajj season. Now, it is clear that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) never did anything without divine revelation; thus, the command to first give the verses to Abu Bakr and then to take them back had no wisdom, except to highlight that Abu Bakr is not worthy of Caliphate and rulership. What some prejudiced persons have narrated that Abu Bakr was not dismissed from the rulership of society and he accompanied Ali (a.s.) to Mecca, is not mentioned in most of their reliable traditional reports; but the contrary is mentioned, although it is no consequence. And what some have said that when an elder of a tribe took an oath, it was necessary that the elders of that same tribe should break that oath, is also a spurious statement, not present in their reliable books. Ibne Abil Hadid has also admitted that it is not well known among Arabs; on the contrary, it is an interpretation invented by those who are prejudiced in favor of Abu Bakr; and if this
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custom had been prevalent, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) would have definitely been aware of it and he would not have sent Abu Bakr in the first place and if it was unknown to the Prophet, it should have been known to Abu Bakr, Umar and others conversant with customs of Jahiliyya and it was necessary for them to inform the Prophet that sending of Abu Bakr was against principle. If it was true, when Abu Bakr returned terrified and disappointed, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) should have explained it to him; but it is not mentioned in any traditional reports that he offered any excuse for it. On the contrary, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) only said by way of explanation: Jibraeel came and said: None can convey your message, except one, who is from you More astonishing is delegation of Abu Bakr to lead prayers, which it is not proved that it was according to the command of the Prophet; but the contrary is proved and in view of Ahle Sunnat themselves, every sinner and tyrant can lead the prayers; yet they consider it to be a proof of the Caliphate of Abu Bakr whereas they don’t regard the dismissal of Abu Bakr and appointment of Ali (a.s.) in his stead as a matter of excellence for Amirul Momineen (a.s.). Second Indictment: Failure to join the army of Usamah
The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) appointed Usamah bin Zaid as commander-in-chief of the armed forces and ordered some companions including Abu Bakr and Umar to submit to his commands instructing them to march to Rome. His Eminence invoked curse on those, who failed to join the army of Usamah. However, Abu Bakr and Umar did not enlist and they became eligible for curse, because it is clearly proved from contexts that the aim of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) in sending off Usamah’s army immediately was to ensure that Medina is free of
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hypocrites and opponents, so that Caliphate is taken over by his successor. These issues are narrated through different channels and are present in books of history, biography and their reliable texts. As Ibne Abil Hadid has quoted from the book of Ahmad bin Abdul Aziz that Abdullah bin Abdur Rahman used to say that during his terminal illness, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) appointed Usamah as the commander of an army, which comprised of most Muhajireen and Ansar including Abu Bakr, Umar, Ubaidah bin Jarrah, Abdur Rahman bin Auf, Talha and Zubair. Usamah was ordered to march forward and attack Mutah, where his father was martyred. He was told to fight a battle in the valley of Palestine. However, Usamah and his army delayed and the Prophet’s health sometimes took a serious turn and sometimes improved, but he stressed that they should march without any delay. Usamah said: May my parents be sacrificed on you, do you permit me to stay in Medina for some days till Almighty Allah bestows cure to you? The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Leave Medina immediately and depart with the favor of Allah. Usamah said: O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), if I go leaving you in his condition, my heart would remain aggrieved about you. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: March forward with help and peace. Usamah said: I detest leaving you in this condition and then inquiring about it from others. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: March forward and obey me. Then the illness of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) intensified. Usamah arose to head out from Medina. When the Prophet regained consciousness, he asked about Usamah’s army and he was told that he was preparing for march. He again said: Send the army of Usamah immediately, and may Allah curse those, who do not join the army of Usamah. The Prophet repeated this again and again. Thus, Usamah raised the standard and marched forward and the companions preceded him till they camped at Jarf on the
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outskirts of Medina. Among the forces were Abu Bakr, Umar and most leaders of Muhajireen and Ansar. At that time Umme Ayman sent someone to call Usamah back to Medina as the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) was on the verge of death. When Usamah got this information he took up the standard and entered Medina. He planted the standard at the door of the Prophet and the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) had departed for his heavenly abode at that very moment. As long as Abu Bakr and Umar lived, they addressed Usamah as chief. Waqidi, Balazari, Muhammad Ishaq, Zuhri, Hilal bin Aamir and most Ahle Sunnat historians and tradition scholar have admitted that Abu Bakr and Umar were enrolled in the forces of Usamah and they say that when Abu Bakr conveyed the news of his Caliphate to Usamah, he said: I and this army with me, have not appointed you as the ruler, on the contrary, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) appointed me as commander over you and did not dismiss me till he passed away. You and your companion (Umar) turned away without my permission. Nothing was concealed from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and he recognized me and you very well. He appointed me as your commander and did not make you ruler over me. Abu Bakr wanted to relinquish the Caliphate, but Umar did not allow that. Usamah then came back and standing at the entrance of the Masjid appealed: I am astonished at one, on whom the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) appointed me as chief; he has dismissed me and is claiming to be my chief. Muhammad Shahristani, in his book of Milal wan Nihal, under the explanation of differences, which cropped up among the companions, has said as follows: Another point of contention was that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) announced: Join the army of Usamah, may Allah curse one, who fails to join the army of Usamah. Some said: It is incumbent on us to obey the command of the Prophet and Usamah has gone out of Medina under the command of the Prophet and some said: The illness of the Prophet has taken a turn for the worse and we cannot bear to
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leave him in this condition; so we shall wait and see how the Prophet’s illness turns. I have collected a large number of traditions regarding every aspect of this matter from books of adversaries in my book of Biharul Anwar. This incident proves the invalidity of the Caliphate of those three usurpers from three aspects: First aspect: The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) appointed a commander over them and did not dismiss him. They were under his command till the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) passed away. Thus, when they were subject to the command of Usamah and according to consensus, he was not the Caliph; on the contrary, he was bound to obey the Caliph; therefore, it is necessary that these persons also should not be Caliphs; on the contrary, it was incumbent to submit to the commands of the Caliph. Second aspect: They failed to join the army of Usamah and according to the statement of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), those who do not join the army of Usamah would be worthy of curse, so how can such a person become Caliph? Third aspect: They did not obey the command of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.); and one, who does this, is not a believer according to the following verse: 162B ْ ﻦِ ﻣْ ﻢُ ﻬْ ﻨـِ ﻣٌﻳﻖِ ﺮَ ﻓٰ ﱠﻰ ﻟَ ﻮَ ﺘـَ ﱠ ﻳـ ﻢُﺎ ﺛَ ﻨْ ﻌَﻃَ أَ وِﻮلُﺎﻟﺮﱠﺳ ِ ﺑَ وِ ﺎﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِﻨﱠﺎ ﺑَ آﻣَﻮنُﻮﻟُ ﻘَ ﻳـَ و َ ﻚِ ﻟٰ َ ذِﺪْﻌَ ۚ ﺑـ ◌ َ ﻴﻦِ ﻨِ ﻣْ ﺆُﺎﻟْﻤِ ﺑَ ﻚِ ﺌٰ َ وﻟُﺎ أَ ﻣَ ﴾٤٧﴿ و 1045B“And they say: We believe in Allah and in the apostle and we obey; then a party of them turns back after this, and these are not believers.” (Surah Nur 24:47)
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Third Indictment: Atrocities on Ahle Bayt (a.s.)
An account of atrocities; which he, Umar and other hypocrites wrought on Ahle Bayt of purity and chastity in usurping Caliphate from them. We shall first mention in brief, the reports of Shia narrated through Ahle Bayt (a.s.) and righteous companions. After that we will present well known reports regarding each issue of that incident present in the books of adversaries, so that it becomes clear that the Caliphate, for which they have argued consensus and allegiance is in fact proof of their infidelity and not their excellence. In Ihtijaaj, Shaykh Tabarsi has through authentic traditional reports, widely related in Shia books, narrated that when the illness of the Prophet intensified, he summoned the Ansar and leaning on Imam Ali (a.s.) and Abbas came out of his house and then leaning on a pillar of the Masjid delivered a sermon and advised the people regarding his Ahle Bayt. He said: No Prophet left without leaving a successor in the community and I leave among you two important things: the Book of Allah and my Ahle Bayt. Allah would destroy one, who trespasses on them. Then he made a bequest in favor of the Ansar that they should be given concessions. Then he summoned Usamah and laid great emphasis that he should leave Medina immediately as was mentioned above. Then the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) returned to his chamber and Usamah took his army out of Medina and camped at a distance of one Farsakh from Medina. The first to oppose joining the army of Usamah were Abu Bakr, Umar and Abu Ubaidah bin Jarrah. So, people joined the army. After that the illness of the Prophet intensified and Saad bin Ubaada also fell ill. When it was the forenoon of Monday the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) moved to the abode of the hereafter and two days had passed since the setting out of the army. When this terrible news reached the army, most people returned to Medina and a great
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tumult occurred. Abu Bakr came to the entrance of the Masjid mounted on a camel and called out: O people, why are you so distressed? If Muhammad has passed away, the Lord of Muhammad has not passed away. Then he recited this verse: 163B ﱡ اﻟﺮِ ﻪِ ﻠْ ﺒَ ﻗـْ ﻦِ ﻣْﺖَ ﻠَ ﺧْ ﺪَ ﻗٌﻮلُ ﺳَ ﱠ ر ﻻِ إٌ ﱠﺪ ﻤَﺤُﺎ ﻣَ ﻣَ ۚ ُ ﻞُ و ﺳ ◌ َ ﺎتَ ﻣْ نِ ﺈَ ﻓَ أ ْ ﻢُ ﻜِﺎﺑَ ﻘْﻋَ أٰ ﻰَ ﻠَ ﻋْ ﻢُ ﺘْ ﺒَ ﻠَ ﻘْ اﻧـَﻞِ ﺘُ ﻗْ وَ ۚ أ ◌ ِ ﻪْ ﻴَ ﺒـِ ﻘَ ﻋٰ ﻰَ ﻠَ ﻋْﺐِ ﻠَ ﻘْ ﻨـَ ﻳـْ ﻦَ ﻣَ و ﺎً ﺌْ ﻴَ ﺷَ ﱠ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺮُﻀَ ﻳْ ﻦَ ﻠَ ﻓـ 1046B“And Muhammad is no more than an apostle; the apostles have already passed away before him; if then he dies or is killed will you turn back upon your heels? And whoever turns back upon his heels, he will by no means do harm to Allah in the least.” (Surah Aale Imran 3:144) 3088BAnsar gathered around Saad bin Ubadah and took him to Saqifah Bani Saada in order to pledge allegiance to him. When Umar received this information, he told Abu Bakr of it and both hastened to Saqifah taking along their ally Abu Ubaidah. A large of number of Ansar had gathered in Saqifah and Saad was lying there, as he was extremely ill. Argument ensued between them and those people, till Abu Bakr said to Ansar: I give you the option to pay allegiance to anyone of them (Abu Ubaidah and Umar) as I have preferred them for Caliph. 3089BUmar and Abu Ubaidah said: It is not proper for us to get precedence over you as you embraced Islam before us and you were the companion in the cave. Therefore, you are more worthy of Caliphate. Ansar used to say: We fear lest a person gets Caliphate, who is neither from us nor you. So we appoint a ruler from us and you may appoint a ruler from yourself. 3090BAbu Bakr mentioned the excellence of both, the Muhajireen and Ansar and then said: Let the Muhajireen be the rulers and you be ministers. Habbab bin Mundhir Ansari said: People of Ansar, be patient as the Muhajireen are in your house and under
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your protection and no one dares to oppose you. If they don’t approve your rulership, let there be a ruler from us and a ruler from them. Umar said: This is not possible! Arabs will never accept you as rulers, whereas the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) is not from you. On the contrary, they would approve the Caliphate of that group, to which the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) belonged and who can dispute with us regarding this, while we are the tribe and clan of the Prophet? Only that one would dispute with us, who intends to put himself into peril and to create a mischief. Then Habbab made similar statement and said: They have submitted to your commands through your sword and I will strike my sword against one, who denies my statement. Abu Ubaidah arose and spoke much. Bashir bin Saad, a leader of Ansar from Aws tribe, due to jealousy became inclined to Quraish, because the Ansar wanted Caliphate for Saad bin Ubadah who was from Khazraj, so Bashir instigated the people to accept the allegiance of Muhajireen, that is why dispute arose among the Ansar and the Muhajireen emerged victorious. Abu Bakr said: These two elders of Quraish (Umar and Abu Ubaidah) are present before you; you may choose anyone of them. Umar and Abu Ubaidah according to the pact, which they had entered into, said: We cannot accept Caliphate in your presence; extend your hand so that we may pledge allegiance to you. Bashir said: I am also with you. When the Aws tribe heard the statement of Bashir they also started paying allegiance to Abu Bakr and crowded so much that Saad bin Ubadah was almost trampled to death. Saad said: You have killed me. Umar said: Kill Saad, may Allah kill him. Qays, son of Saad attacked Umar and catching hold of his beard said: O son of Zahhak, are you not the same who is terrified and anxious in battles and is a raging lion in times of peace? If you harm even a strand of my father’s hair, I will not allow single tooth to remain in your mouth. Abu Bakr said: O Umar, be gentle and patient, because it is the most beneficial option. Saad said: O son of Zahhak, if by
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Allah, I had been competent enough to get up, you would have heard my call expelling you from Medina and you would have joined those among whom you were degraded. You have dared against me at this moment. People of Khazraj, take me out of this place of mischief. People carried him to his house. Abu Bakr sent a message to him: People have paid allegiance to me; you also come and pledge allegiance to me. He said: No, by Allah, I will not pay allegiance till I don’t empty my quiver against you and I don’t color the point of my spear with your blood. As long as there is strength in hand, I will wield the sword on you, along with those who follow me from my community and family. By Allah, if all jinns and men gather, I will not pay allegiance to you two disobedient ones, till I meet my Lord. So they conveyed his reply to Abu Bakr and Umar. Umar said: We must extract allegiance from him. Bashir Ibne Saad said: He has refused to pay allegiance and he will never pay it even if he is killed. And he will not be killed till Aws and Khazraj are killed. Leave him to his devices and his lack of allegiance is not harmful to you. So they accepted this and left Saad alone. He did not pray behind them and did not obey their commands. If he had been able to mobilize supporters, he would have definitely fought them and this continued till Abu Bakr died and Umar became the Caliph. Since he was not safe from the mischief of Umar, he moved to Shaam and died there without pledging allegiance to anyone. The cause of his death was that he was shot with arrows during night and it was claimed that Jinns have killed Saad. Some say that Umar bribed Muhammad bin Salma Ansari and he eliminated Saad. It is narrated from Amirul Momineen (a.s.) that Mughira bin Shoba killed him. Thus, Ansar and others present in Medina paid allegiance to Abu Bakr. At that time Imam Ali (a.s.) was busy in the funeral rituals of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.).
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Qays bin Hilali says: I heard from Salman that when the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) departed to his heavenly abode and people did what they did. Abu Bakr, Umar and Abu Ubaidah bin Jarrah disputed with Ansar through the argument, which Imam Ali (a.s.) should have used and it was that: O people of Ansar, Quraish is more deserving for Caliphate, since the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) is from Quraish and Muhajireen are better than you, because Allah has mentioned them in Quran before Ansar and given precedence to them and the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) has said that the Imams are from Quraish. Salman says that I went to Imam Ali (a.s.). He was busy with the funeral bath of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), because His Eminence has willed that no one, other than Ali should give the funeral bath to him. Ali (a.s.) had asked: O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), who will assist me in giving funeral bath to you? He replied: Jibraeel. So whichever part Ali (a.s.) wanted to wash, Jibraeel turned the body and exposed that part. After funeral and anointing, he summoned me, Abuzar, Miqdad, Fatima, Hasan and Husain. We prayed the funeral prayer of the Prophet behind Amirul Momineen (a.s.). Ayesha was also present in that room, but Jibraeel put a veil over her eyes and she did not see us pray on the Prophet. After that all companions were allowed to come in groups of ten and stand around the Messenger and Imam Ali (a.s.) was reciting this verse: 164B ﱢ ﻲِﻰ اﻟﻨﱠﺒَ ﻠَ ﻋَ ﱡﻮن ﻠَﺼُ ﻳُ ﻪَ ﺘَ ﻜِ ﺋَ ﻼَ ﻣَ وَ ﱠ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ نِ ۚ إ ﻮا ◌ ُ ﻨَ آﻣَﻳﻦِ ﺎ اﻟﱠﺬ َ ﱡﻬ ﻳـَﺎ أَ ﻳ ﺎ ًﻴﻤِ ﻠْﺴَﻮا ﺗُ ﱢﻤ ﻠَ ﺳَ وِ ﻪْ ﻴَ ﻠَ ﱡﻮا ﻋ ﴾٥٦﴿ ﻠَﺻ 1047B“Surely Allah and His angels bless the Prophet; O you who believe! call for (Divine) blessings on him and salute him with a (becoming) salutation.” (Surah Ahzab 33:56) 3102BSo they used to recite the Salawat and then leave the room, till all Muhajireen and Ansar completed this procedure. However, the true prayer was only what was recited first of all. If they had been informed about it, they would have definitely
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wanted that Abu Bakr to lead the prayers. Salman then says: I informed Imam Ali (a.s.) about what the hypocrites had colluded on, while Ali (a.s.) was busy with the funeral rituals. I said: Abu Bakr is seated on the pulpit and people are dying to pledge allegiance to him. Imam (a.s.) said: O Salman, do you know; when he mounted the pulpit, who was the first to pledge allegiance to him? I (Salman) said: No, but the first to give allegiance in Saqifah was Bashir bin Saad, after that Abu Ubaidah Jarrah and then Umar and then Saalim, the freed slave of Huzaifah and then Maaz bin Jabal pledged. The Imam said: I don’t mean that; what I mean is the one, who pledge allegiance to him when he was mounted on the pulpit. Salman said: I don’t know, but I saw an old man, leaning on his staff and there was a mark of prostration on his forehead. It seemed as if he was an ardent worshipper. He was the first to approach Abu Bakr when he mounted the throne and he wept and said: Thanks to Allah; I did not leave the world without seeing you in this position. Extend your hand. Abu Bakr extended his hand. He paid allegiance to him and said: This day is like the day of Adam. Then he turned and left the Masjid. Imam (a.s.) asked: O Salman, did you recognize who he was? I said: No, but I found his statements very repugnant and it seemed as if he was rejoicing the passing away of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). Ali (a.s.) said: He was Shaitan (l.a.); the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) had informed me that the accursed Iblis and leaders of his companions conferred on the day of Ghadeer, when the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) appointed me on Caliphate according to the command of Allah and informed them that I was more superior for them than their own selves and also asked them to pass this information to those who were not present there. They said: This is a mercified and infallible nation and you and we would not be able to gain control over it, because after their Prophet, these people have become aware of their refuge and Imam. So Shaitan turned away from them disappointed.
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Imam Ali (a.s.) said: After that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: When I pass away people would pledge allegiance to Abu Bakr in the awning of Bani Saidah. Then they will come to the Masjid and one, who pledges allegiance to him on my pulpit first of all, would be Shaitan in form of an old pious worshipper and he would utter these words and then after coming out of the Masjid, would gather all the Satans and his followers. All of them would prostrate to him and say: O our chief, are you the one, who got Adam expelled from Paradise. The accursed Shaitan would reply: Which nation has not become deviated after its prophet? You were saying that I have no control over them. Now, you have seen, how I instigated them to oppose their Prophet and this is the meaning of the following verse: ﺎ 165B ً ﻳﻘِ ﺮَ ﱠ ﻓ ﻻِ إُﻮﻩُ ﻌَ ﺎﺗـﱠﺒـ َ ﻓُﻨﱠﻪَ ﻇُﻴﺲِ ﻠْ ﺑِ إْ ﻢِ ﻬْ ﻴَ ﻠَ ﻋَ ﱠق ﺪَ ﺻْ ﺪَ ﻘَ ﻟَ و َ ﻴﻦِ ﻨِ ﻣْ ﺆُ اﻟْﻤَ ﻦِ ﻣ ٢٠﴿﴾ 1048B“And certainly the Shaitan found true his conjecture concerning them, so they follow him, except a party of the believers.” (Surah Saba 34:20) 3107BSalman says that in the evening, Imam Ali (a.s.) mounted Lady Fatima (s.a.) on a mule and taking the hands of Hasan and Husain went to each house of the folks of Badr from all the Muhajireen and Ansar and reminded them of his right of Imamate and Caliphate and sought their help, but none accepted, except for forty-four persons; according to another report; only twenty-four persons. 3108BImam Ali (a.s.) said: If you truthful, you shave your head and meet me in the morning with arms and pay allegiance to me on the condition that you would help be till your last breath. In the morning none came, except Salman, Abuzar, Miqdad and Ammar. According to another report instead of Ammar, the name of Zubair is mentioned. Imam (a.s.) repeated this procedure for three nights, but none came, except those four.
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When the Imam became certain that they were making excuses and they would not support him, he retired to his residence and began to compile the Quran and did not come out till he had accomplished his task. Till that time Quran was scattered on pieces of skin, wood, paper and bones. Abu Bakr sent a message to Imam Ali (a.s.) to come and pay allegiance to him. The Imam said: I have made an oath that I will not leave the house, except for prayers till I do not compile the whole Quran. So they waited for some days and Imam Ali (a.s.) gathered the Quran, wrapped it up in a cloth, sealed it and brought it to the Masjid when Abu Bakr was seated there with his companions, and he (Ali) called out: O people, when the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) passed away, I was busy with his final rites; after that I compiled the Quran in this way. No verse was revealed, except that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) read it out to me and explained its interpretation. On Judgment Day, you cannot claim that you were ignorant of it; that I did not ask for your help, remind you of my rights and guide you to the book of Allah. Umar said: As much Quran we have is sufficient for us and we don’t need yours. His Eminence said: You will not see this Quran till the Mahdi from my descendants shows it. After that he returned home. Umar said to Abu Bakr: Call Ali to pay allegiance to you and as long as he does not do that we are not safe. So Abu Bakr sent the message: Come to the Caliph of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). Imam Ali (a.s.) said: Glory be to Allah, how soon have you attributed falsehood to the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). Abu Bakr and those around him all know that the Messenger and Allah did not appoint anyone as Caliph, except me. Then he sent the message for the second time: Come to Abu Bakr, the chief of believers. His Eminence was astounded and he said: Glory be to Allah, only a short while passed since the departure of Prophet and Abu Bakr himself knows that no one is deserving of this title, except me and he was the seventh of those whom the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) had ordered to address
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me with the title of Amirul Momineen; so he and his companion asked: Has the Almighty Allah commanded this? He replied: Indeed it is truly from Allah and His messenger; and he is the chief of believers and leader of Muslims, the owner of knowledge, the foremost of those having illuminated countenance. On Judgment Day, the Almighty Allah would place him on the Siraat Bridge so that he may send his friends to Paradise and his enemies to Hell. When people conveyed this to Abu Bakr, those hypocrites fell silent that day. So Imam Ali (a.s.) on that night took Lady Fatima (s.a.), Hasan and Husain (a.s.) to the houses of the companions to exhaust the proof and asked them for help and support, but except for those four, no one responded. After that Umar said to Abu Bakr: Why don’t you send someone to summon Ali and those few to pay allegiance to you as all have paid allegiance to you except them? Abu Bakr asked: Whom should I send? Umar replied: I will send Qunfudh; he is extremely harsh, wicked and shameless and is from Bani Saidah tribe. So they sent him with some men. When they came to Fatima’s house, Imam Ali (a.s.) did not permit them to enter. So Qunfudh and his men returned and said that they did not allow us entry. Umar said: Enter the house without permission. When they went, Lady Fatima (s.a.) adjured them not to enter without her permission. Qunfudh remained there and his men returned with this update. Umar became infuriated and he said: What do we have to do with the statement of women? Then he ordered his men to take firewood and accompany him; and he himself also carried firewood and piled it at the door of Ahle Bayt (a.s.). Amirul Momineen (a.s.), Fatima, Hasan, Husain and all members of Ahle Bayt were inside. Umar called out: O Ali, come out and pledge allegiance to the Caliph of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), otherwise I will torch your place.
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Fatima (s.a.) asked: Umar, what do you want from us? He replied: Open the door or I will burn down your place. Fatima said: Umar, do you not fear Allah? Do you want to enter my house forcibly? Umar did not turn back; he called for fire and set fire to the door. Fatima wailed: O father, O Messenger of Allah! Umar hit the point of his sword at the side of Fatima and lashed at her hand. Fatima addressed her respected father: Abu Bakr and Umar have committed a great aggression against your Ahle Bayt. Amirul Momineen (a.s.) was enraged; he rushed at Umar, caught his collar and felled him down in such a way that his nose was fractured. Then he caught his neck and wanted to kill him, but he remembered the bequest of the Prophet that he was to adopt patience and not to fight them; so he released him and said: O son of Zahaka, by that God, who exalted the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) with prophethood, if this matter had not been destined by Allah and the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) had not taken oath about it from me, you know that you could not have entered my house without my permission. So Umar called the army for his help and they barged into the house of Amirul Momineen (a.s.) and he raised his sword. When Qunfudh saw that the lion of God had picked up his sword, he feared that he would not leave any of them alive; he came running to Abu Bakr and reported the matter. Abu Bakr said: If Ali does not come out, you all enter the house and apprehend him and if he resists, burn down his place. So the shameless Qunfudh and his men entered the house and surrounding him from all sides snatched his sword, put a rope around his neck and dragged him out. According to the report of Ibne Abbas, Khalid attacked him with his sword. Imam Ali (a.s.) snatched his sword and tried to hit him with it, but he adjured the Imam and he threw down the sword. Umar sent a message to Qunfudh that if Fatima prevents you from taking Ali out, don’t pay any heed; attack her and keep her away. When Amirul Momineen (a.s.) was dragged up to the door of the house, Lady Fatima (s.a.) came to prevent them from
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taking Ali out. The tyrant Qunfudh pulled the door so hard and hit the side of Fatima in such a way that her rib was fractured and she miscarried the child she was carrying at that time, whom the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) had named as Mohsin. Yet Lady Fatima (s.a.) continued to resist till Qunfudh lashed at her arm and it was also injured. It was as a result of those blows that Lady Fatima (s.a.) died. At the time she passed away, a bruise from that beating was still there on her. They brought out Amirul Momineen (a.s.) in that manner to Abu Bakr. Umar stood with a naked sword and Khalid bin Walid, Abu Ubaidah, Saalim, Maaz bin Jabal, Mughira bin Shoba, Usaid bin Khazir, Bashir bin Saad and all hypocrites stood at the door of Abu Bakr fully armed and equipped. Sulaym bin Qays says: I asked Salman: Did they enter Fatima’s house without permission? He replied: Yes, by Allah and the head of Fatima was not even veiled. She was wailing: O father, O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), you departed from us yesterday and today Abu Bakr and Umar are behaving in this manner with your Ahle Bayt. I saw Abu Bakr and all around him weep, except Umar, Khalid and Mughira. Umar was saying: We have nothing to do with the opinion of women. When they brought Ali to Abu Bakr, he said: By God, if I was having my sword with me, you will not have been able to overcome me; by Allah I don’t condemn you for fighting me. If those forty persons, who had pledged allegiance to me had not broken it; I would have annihilated all of you; but may Allah curse those who pledged allegiance to me and then broke it. When Abu Bakr saw this, he requested them to leave Ali alone. Imam Ali (a.s.) said: O Abu Bakr, how soon you have started opposing the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and harassing his Ahle Bayt? On what basis do you summon people for your allegiance? Did you not yesterday pay allegiance to me on the command of Allah and His Messenger? Umar said: Forget all this; we will not leave you till you don’t give allegiance. He said: What will you do if I refuse? He replied: We will kill you
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in degradation. Ali (a.s.) said: Then you would have killed the servant of Allah and brother of His Messenger. According to the report of Ibne Abbas, Umar said: Servant of Allah, yes, but we don’t accept your being the brother of the Messenger. Imam Ali (a.s.) asked: Do you deny that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) deemed me as his brother? He replied: Yes. Imam Ali (a.s.) glanced at the companions and said: O group of Muhajireen and Ansar, I adjure you, did you not hear the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) say on the day of Ghadeer what he said regarding me? And what he said in Battle of Tabuk? After that he publicly explained all that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) had said in his favor and all companions admitted having heard all that from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). Abu Bakr feared lest people should extend their support to Ali, so he took the initiative and said: Whatever you said is true and we heard it and we remember it; but we heard the Prophet say: Allah has exalted us, Ahle Bayt and chosen the hereafter for us over the world and has not gathered prophethood and Caliphate among us. Is there anyone, who testifies for us in this matter? Umar said: The Caliph of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) has said the truth and I also heard it. Then Abu Ubaidah, Saalim, the freed slave of Huzaifah and Maaz bin Jabal also swore. Imam Ali (a.s.) said: You five had entered into a pact and kept its document in the Kaaba to the effect that if the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) passes away or is killed you will not allow his Caliphate to his Ahle Bayt (a.s.) and this tradition was also fabricated by you that day. “How do you know we had signed that pact?” asked Abu Bakr. Imam Ali (a.s.) said: O Zubair, Salman, Abuzar and Miqdad, I ask you in the name of Allah and Islam, did you not hear the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) naming these five and saying that they have joined that pact and drawn that document? All of them said: Yes, we have heard thus; then Ali (a.s.) asked the Prophet: O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), what should I do if
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they act like this? He replied: If you find supporters, fight them, and if you cannot, keep yourself secure and do not allow yourself to be killed. Amirul Momineen (a.s.) said: If those forty men, who had pledged allegiance to me had been loyal to that pledge, I would have definitely fought Jihad with them only for the sake of Allah. By Allah, this Caliphate, which Abu Bakr and Umar have usurped from me, will not fall into the share of any of their descendants till Judgment Day and the falsehood you have attributed to the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) is proved false by the following verse of Quran: 166B ِ ﻪِ ﻠْﻀَ ﻓْ ﻦِ ﻣُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ُ ﻢُﺎﻫَﺎ آﺗَ ﻣٰ ﻰَ ﻠَ ﻋَ اﻟﻨﱠﺎسَونُ ﺪُﺴْﺤَ ﻳْ مَ ۖ أ ◌ ْ ﺪَ ﻘَ ﻓـ َ ﺔَ ﻤْ ﻜِاﻟْﺤَ وَﺎبَ ﺘِ اﻟْﻜَﻴﻢِاﻫَ ﺮْ ﺑـِ إَﺎ آلَ ﻨْ ﻴـ ﺎ َآﺗـ ً ﻴﻤِ ﻈَﺎ ﻋً ﻜْ ﻠُ ﻣْ ﻢُﺎﻫَ ﻨْ ﻴـَآﺗـَ و 1049B“Or do they envy the people for what Allah has given them of His grace? But indeed We have given to Ibrahim’s children the Book and the wisdom, and We have given them a grand kingdom.” (Surah Nisa 4:54) 3131BImam (a.s.) said: Thus, ‘the Book’ is prophethood, ‘wisdom’ is Sunnat and the ‘grand kingdom’ is Caliphate and we are the children of Ibrahim. Miqdad arose and asked: O Ali, what do you command? By Allah, I shall fight if you say and restrain my hand if you order. 3132BHis Eminence said: Miqdad, restrain your hand; recall the covenant of the Prophet and that bequest, which he made to you. Salman says: I arose and said: By the one in whose hand my life is. if I know that I will be able to ward off some peril and endear my faith, I would definitely wield my sword so that truth triumphs. You are dragging in such a humiliating manner one, who is the brother of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), his successor, his Caliph and the father of his sons! Be sure if divine chastisement and may you remain despaired of the favor of God.
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Then Abuzar arose and said: O those who have become deviated after their Prophet and are degrading themselves due to divine chastisement; the Almighty Allah says: ﻰ 167B َ ﻠَ ﻋَانَ ﺮْ ﻤِ ﻋَآلَ وَﻴﻢِاﻫَ ﺮْ ﺑـِ إَآلَﺎ وًﻮﺣُ ﻧَ وَ مَ آدٰ ﻰَ ﻔَﻄْ اﺻَ ﱠ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ نِ إ َ ﻴﻦِ ﴾٣٣﴿ ﻤَﺎﻟَاﻟْﻌ 1050B“Surely, Allah chose Adam and Nuh and the descendants of Ibrahim and the descendants of Imran above the nations.” (Surah Aale Imran 3:33) 168B ٍ ﺾْ ﻌَ ﺑـْ ﻦِﺎ ﻣَ ﻬُﻀْ ﻌَ ﺑـً ﱠﺔ ﱢﻳ رُ ۗ ذ ◌ ٌ ﻴﻢِ ﻠَ ﻋٌﻴﻊِ ﻤَ ﺳُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ ﴾٣٤﴿ و 1051B“Offspring, one of the other; and Allah is Hearing, Knowing.” (Surah Aale Imran 3:34) 3134BAale Muhammad (a.s.) have the morals of Nuh, Aale Ibrahim are the chosen progeny of Ismail, progeny of the Prophet of the last age. They are Ahle Bayt of prophethood, place of messengership, place of frequenting of angels and these personalities are like the heavens; lofty like mercy of Allah and like mountains, cause of steadfastness of the earth. They are sacred like the Kaaba and Qibla of the folks of the universe; like spring of the drink server a source of knowledge of truth and like the brilliant stars, which guide the creatures. They are the blessed tree, with whose effulgence the Almighty Allah has joined His effulgence. 3135BProphet Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) is the seal of the prophets and chief and leader of human beings and His Eminence, Ali (a.s.) is the successor and chief of successors, Imam of the pious, chief of illuminated faced ones; he is the great truthful one and the great discriminator. He is the successor of Muhammad, inheritor of his knowledge and superior for believers more than their selves as the Almighty Allah has said:
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169B ْ ﻢِ ﻬِ ﺴُ ﻔْ ﻧـَ أْ ﻦِ ﻣَﻴﻦِ ﻨِ ﻣْ ﺆُﺎﻟْﻤِ ﺑ ٰ ﻰَ ﻟْ وَ ﱡ أ ۖ ﻲِاﻟﻨﱠﺒ ◌ ْ ﻢُ ﻬُﺎﺗـَ ﱠﻬ ﻣُ أُ ﻪُاﺟَ وْ زَ أَ ۗ و ◌ ِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِﺎبَ ﺘِﻲ ﻛِ ﻓٍﺾْ ﻌَ ﺒـِ ﺑٰ ﻰَ ﻟْ وَ أْ ﻢُ ﻬُﻀْ ﻌَ ﺑـِ ﺎمَ ﺣْ رَْ ﻮ اﻷُوﻟُ أَ و 1052B“The Prophet has a greater claim on the faithful than they have on themselves, and his wives are (as) their mothers; and the possessors of relationship have the better claim in the ordinance of Allah.” (Surah Ahzab 33:6) 3136BAbuzar said: Give precedence to one, the Almighty Allah has preferred and relegate one, whom Allah has relegated. Give the Wilayat and successorship to one, whom Allah has bestowed it. 3137BUmar stood up and said to Abu Bakr. Why are you sitting on this pulpit in vain? Ali wants to fight you and he sits below your pulpit, but he does not rise up to pay allegiance; you descend from the pulpit or order us to slay him. Imam Hasan (a.s.) and Imam Husain (a.s.) were standing behind their respected father; when they heard about killing, they started wailing: O grandfather, O Messenger of Allah! 3138BAmirul Momineen (a.s.) hugged the two and said: Don’t cry, by Allah they cannot eliminate your father; they are too lowly to make such an intention. Umme Aiman, the nurse who had reared the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) arrived and said: O Abu Bakr, how soon have you displayed your jealousy and hypocrisy. 3139BUmar said: What do we have to do with women? And he ordered them to expel her from the Masjid. Buraid Aslami arose and said: You are behaving like this with the brother of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and the father of his sons? All of us in Quraish know you along with your traits; did the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) not tell you and Abu Bakr: Both off you go and salute him with the title of Amirul Momineen? You two asked: Is it a command of Allah and His Messenger and he replied: Yes?
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Abu Bakr said: It happened thus, but after that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Prophethood and Caliphate do not gather in my Ahle Bayt. Buraidah said: By Allah, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) did not say this. By Allah, I will not live in the country ruled by you. Umar ordered them to drive out Buraidah with force. Then Umar said to Ali: O son of Abu Talib, come forward and pay allegiance. Imam (a.s.) asked: What if I don’t? Umar said: I will eliminate you. Imam (a.s.) posed this question thrice and got the same reply, till the proof was exhausted on those people. Then Umar raised his hands and without Ali (a.s.) raising his hand Abu Bakr extended his hand, placed his hand on Ali’s hand. According the report of Ibne Abbas, when Umar said: I will eliminate you, Imam Ali (a.s.) said: By Allah, O son of Zahhak, you are not capable of this and you are weaker and wicked that you should do that. Khalid, the hypocrite, drew out his sword and said: By Allah, if you don’t pay allegiance, I will eliminate you. Ali (a.s.) caught his collar and he fell down flat, dropping the sword. Salman says: When they dragged Ali (a.s.) in the Masjid with a rope around his neck he turned to the purified grave of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and said: 170B َ ﻲ وِﻮﻧُ ﻔَ ﻌْﻀَ ﺘْ اﺳَ مْ ﻮَ ﱠ اﻟْﻘ نِﱠ إ مُ أَ ﻦ ﻲ ْاﺑ ِ ﻨَﻮﻧُ ﻠُ ﺘـْ ﻘَوا ﻳـُﺎدَ ﻛ 1053B“Son of my mother, surely the people reckoned me weak and had well-nigh slain me.” (Surah Araaf 7:150) 3144BIt was the remark, which Harun had made to Musa after the calf worship of Bani Israel. Then they asked Zubair to give allegiance, but he refused and Umar, Khalid and Mughira with the cooperation of others snatched his sword and broke it. Then they brought him forcibly and he paid allegiance under duress. Salman says: Then they apprehended me and strangled me in
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such a way that I was out of breath and in the end, I also gave the allegiance under force. After that allegiance was taken by force from Abuzar and Miqdad as well and other than Amirul Momineen (a.s.) we four gave allegiance under compulsion; but the refusal of Zubair was much more than us. When he paid allegiance, he said: O son of Zahhaka, by Allah, if this group of sinners had not been there to support you, you could not have compelled me when I am armed. I know your cowardice very well, but some Satan worshippers have supported you, so you take advantage of their support. Umar became infuriated and said: Are you talking of Zahhaka? Zubair said: Who was she that I could not name her? Zahhaka was a black fornicating slave girl of my grandfather, Abdul Muttalib; she fornicated with your grandfather, Nufail and your father, Khattab was born from it. After the birth of that illegitimate boy, Abdul Muttalib gifted the slave girl to your grandfather and your father is the slave of our grandfather. So, Abu Bakr made peace between them and they left each other alone at the moment. Sulaym says: I asked Salman, did you pay allegiance to Abu Bakr, without saying anything? Salman replied: After paying allegiance, I said: You have apostasied till Judgment Day. Do you know what you have done with yourself? You adopted the practice of disbelievers, who preceded you and created dissension in this Ummah abandoning the practice of your Prophet, till you removed the Caliphate from its source. Umar said: Now, that you and your Imam have given allegiance, you may say whatever you like. I said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) say: On you and your companion (Abu Bakr, whose allegiance you have given) are sins equal to all the sins of the Ummah till Judgment Day and the punishment equal to that will be upon you. Umar said: You may say what you like; your Imam has given allegiance while you were not pleased that he was unable to get the Caliphate. I said: I testify
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that I read in some heavenly scriptures that among the gates of Hell is a gate named after you, your lineage and traits. He said: You can say what you like as Allah has taken away Caliphate from Ahle Bayt, whom you regarded as your gods other than Almighty Allah. I said: I swear that I heard the exegesis of these verses: 171B ٌ ﺪَ ﺣَ أُ ﻪَاﺑَ ﺬَ ﻋُ ﱢب ﺬَ ﻌُ ﻳـَ ﻻٍ ﺬِ ﺌَ ﻣْ ﻮَ ﻴـَ ﴾٢٥﴿ ﻓـ 1054B“But on that day shall no one chastise with (anything like) His chastisement,” (Surah Fajr 89:25) 172B ٌ ﺪَ ﺣَ أُ ﻪَﺎﻗَ ﺛَ وُ ﻖِﻮﺛُ ﻳَ ﻻَ ﴾٢٦﴿ و 1055B“And no one shall bind with (anything like) His binding.” (Surah Fajr 89:26) 3149BThat this verse is regarding you and that your chastisement is more severe than that of infidels. Umar said: Shut up, you son of a dirty woman! May Allah shut your mouth. Amirul Momineen (a.s.) said: Salman, I adjure you to keep quiet. Salman says: By God, if Amirul Momineen (a.s.) had not commanded me thus, I would have mentioned all verses and traditions that I had heard from the Prophet regarding him and Abu Bakr. When Umar saw that I had fallen quiet, he said: You are their obedient one and their praiser. 3150BThus, when Abuzar and Miqdad paid allegiance and did not say anything, Umar said: Salman, why don’t you also become quiet as your two companions have paid allegiance without saying anything; your love and honor with regard to Ahle Bayt is not more than these two. 3151BAbuzar said: Umar, do you condemn us, because of our love and regard for Aale Muhammad (a.s.)? May Allah curse and He has cursed those who are inimical to them and have created innovations regarding them and one, who forcibly usurps their rights and hoist people over them, making people turn on their heels from this religion. Umar said: Amen, may Allah curse
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those who oppress them. They had no share in Caliphate; on the contrary, they and others are same. Abuzar asked: Then why did you argue with the Ansar on the basis of proximity of the Prophet? Amirul Momineen (a.s.) said: Son of Zahhaka, do we have no share in Caliphate? Is Caliphate exclusive for you and Abu Bakr, the son of the debased one; who is the son of the fly-eater? Umar said: Now, that you have paid allegiance, you should restrain from such statements; all have approved my companion and they have not approved you; so what is my fault? Imam (a.s.) asked: But Allah and the Messenger have not approved anyone other than me; thus, you and your companion; and those who have followed you should expect divine chastisement and degradation. O son of Khattab, woe on you, do you know what you have done? What kind of chastisement have you prepared for yourself and your companion? Abu Bakr said: O Umar, now, that he have given allegiance and become secure from his mischief, leave him to say what he likes. Imam (a.s.) said: I don’t say anything, except: O Salman, Abuzar, Miqdad and Zubair; I remind you of Allah, you heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) say: There is a casket of fire in Hell having twelve persons: six from the previous nations and six from this Ummah. That casket is kept in a well of the castle of Hell. There is a stone covering the mouth of that well. When Allah intends to increase the heat of Hell, He commands them to remove the stone from that well; thus, it hikes the flaring of Hell. So I asked the Prophet in your presence, who those persons are and he said: From the previous nations are: Qabil, son of Adam, who killed his brother, Firon and Nimrod, two men from Bani Israel, one of whom misguided the Jews and another, who deviated the Christians and the sixth of them is Iblis. From this Ummah are Dajjal and the five, who would collude in that accursed pact. They would unite on your enmity and cooperate
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with each other to usurp your right; and he even mentioned their names. Salman says: Thus, the four us testified that we had heard this from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). Uthman asked: Did you hear any tradition regarding me? Ali (a.s.) said: Yes, I heard the Prophet cursing you and after that I never heard him recant. Uthman became infuriated and said: What do I have to do you? You neither left me alone during the lifetime of the Prophet nor after his passing away. Zubair said: May Allah humiliate you! Uthman said: By Allah, I heard the Prophet say that Zubair would be killed as an apostate. Salman said: At that time Amirul Momineen (a.s.) said to me softly: Uthman is right, because after the killing of Uthman, Zubair would pledge allegiance to me and then break the allegiance, apostasies and would be killed. Sulaym says: Salman used to say: After the passing away of the Prophet, except for four persons, everyone apostasied. These persons became like Harun and followers of Harun. Their opponents became like the calf and the followers of calf. Thus, Ali (a.s.) is like Harun and Abu Bakr is like the calf; Umar is like the Samari. We heard the Prophet say: On Judgment Day, some of my companions would approach me, from those who apparently possess some respectability, in order to cross the Siraat Bridge. When I see them and they see me, I will recognize them and they would recognize me. But they would drive them away from me and I will say: O Allah, they are my companions. The angels would reply: Do you know what they did after you? They apostasied after you left them. I will say: Take them away. I also heard the Prophet say: They will repeat the acts of Bani Israel exactly; like a pair of shoes and size of arrows, which are of the same size corresponding to each span of hand; because Taurat and the Holy Quran are both written with one hand, one pen and on one scroll and the examples and practices of both the nations are same.
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It is narrated from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) that when they forcibly brought Amirul Momineen (a.s.) out of the house to compel him to pay allegiance, Lady Fatima (s.a.) also came out and Bani Hashim ladies accompanied her. When Lady Fatima (s.a.) came to the holy grave of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), she said: Leave my cousin alone, except for that God, who sent Muhammad with truth, I will expose my hair and placing the dress of the Prophet on head stage a protest in the court of Almighty. The she-camel of Salih is not more honorable with Allah than me and her young one is not more honorable than my son. Salman says: I was near the Prophet’s grave. By Allah, I saw the walls of the Masjid rise up leaving their foundation in such a way that if one wanted one could have gone out from under them. I went to Lady Fatima (s.a.) and said: My lady, the Almighty Allah had deemed your father as mercy for the worlds; you don’t be a cause of divine chastisement on this Ummah. Fatima went out from the Masjid and the wall returned to their former position raising a cloud of dust, which entered our nostrils. According to another report, Lady Fatima (s.a.) took Imam Hasan (a.s.) and Imam Husain (a.s.) to the grave of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) in order curse this nation. Amirul Momineen (a.s.) said to Salman: Go to the daughter of Muhammad, as I see the surroundings of Medina shaking; if she exposes her hair, tears her collar and goes to the grave of her respected father and beseeches in the court of Allah, they will not get any respite and Medina will sink into the earth along with its inhabitants. Salman came to Lady Fatima (s.a.) and said: Ali (a.s.) is asking you to go back and remain there so that you may not be the cause of chastisement on this Ummah. She said: If Ali has said thus, I will return and remain patient. It is narrated through authentic chains of narrators from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) that when they were taking Imam Ali (a.s.) forcibly to Abu Bakr and when he reached the purified grave of the Prophet, he recited the following verse:
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ﻲ 173B ِ ﻨَﻮﻧُ ﻠُ ﺘـْ ﻘَوا ﻳـُﺎدَ ﻛ َ ﻲ وِﻮﻧُ ﻔَ ﻌْﻀَ ﺘْ اﺳَ مْ ﻮَ ﱠ اﻟْﻘ نِﱠ إ مُ أَ ﻦْاﺑ 1056B“Son of my mother, surely the people reckoned me weak and had well-nigh slain me.” (Surah Araaf 7:150) 3165BA hand came out of the purified grave of the Prophet, which everyone recognized that it was the Prophet’s hand and a voice came out, which all recognized: 174B ْ ﻦِﱠ ﻣ ﻢُ ﺛٍابَ ﺮُ ﺗـْ ﻦِ ﻣَ ﻚَ ﻘَ ﻠَ ي ﺧِ ﺎﻟﱠﺬ ِ ﺑَتْ ﺮَ ﻔَ ﻛَ أ ً ﻼُ ﺟَ رَ ﱠاك ﻮَ ﱠ ﺳ ﻢُ ﺛٍ ﺔَ ﻔْﻄُ ﻧ 1057B“Do you disbelieve in Him Who created you from dust, then from a small seed, then He made you a perfect man?” (Surah Kahf 18:37) 3166BMoreover, through Shia channels, it is narrated from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) and through Ahle Sunnat channels, it is narrated from Zaid bin Wahab that twelve person refused to pay allegiance to Abu Bakr. They were prominent personalities from Muhajireen and Ansar and they also presented irrefutable justification for their stance. From the Muhajireen were Khalid bin Saeed bin Aas from Bani Umayyah; Salman, Abuzar, Miqdad, Ammar and Buraidah Aslami. From the Ansar were Abu Shahim bin Hatiyan, Sahal bin Hunayf, Uthman bin Hunayf, Khuzaimah bin Thabit, Ubayy bin Kaab and Abu Ayyub Ansari. 3167BWhen Abu Bakr mounted the pulpit, these people counseled among themselves that they should pull Abu Bakr down. Some said: You will be killed and Allah has told you not to intentionally cast yourself into perdition. Then they decided to meet Amirul Momineen (a.s.) and seek his counsel. 3168BThey said: O Amirul Momineen (a.s.), you have abandoned the right, for which you were worthier than Abu Bakr, because we heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) say: Ali is with truth and truth is with Ali, wherever he goes. We want to pull down Abu Bakr from the pulpit and we came to ask your opinion about it.
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Ali (a.s.) said: If you do that, it would lead to a civil war and you, in comparison to them, are very few. You and they would come with swords to me and they will say: Pay allegiance or we would kill you. At that time, it would be necessary for me to drive them away by force and that would go against the command of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), because before his demise, he told me: Soon, the people of my Ummah would plot against you and break their covenant regarding you. You in relation to me are like Harun was to Musa. After me, people of my Ummah would be like Samari and his followers as compared to Harun and his followers. I asked: Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), what should I do when this happens? He replied: If you get supporters, you fight against them and if you don’t, be patient and keep your life secure so that you come to me oppressed. When the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) went to his heavenly abode, I was busy in his final rituals. Then I swore that I will not leave the house, except for prayers, till I don’t compile the Quran and then I compiled the whole Quran. After that I took Fatima, Hasan and Husain and went to the houses of Badr fighters and adjured them to honor my rights. I requested them to help me, but except for four: Salman, Abuzar, Miqdad and Ammar, none responded. Thus, fear Allah and keep quiet, because you know the malice they harbor and you are aware of the enmity they have for Allah, the Messenger and Ahle Bayt of Prophet. All of you go to him together and tell them whatever you heard from the Prophet about them and me, so that proof is complete and no excuse remains; and when they meet the Prophet on Judgment Day, their condition would be deplorable. On Friday, when Abu Bakr mounted the pulpit of the Prophet and all gathered around him, the first to speak up was Khalid bin Saeed, since he relied on the support of Bani Umayyah. He said: O Abu Bakr, fear Allah. You know that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said in the Battle of Quraiza: O Muhajireen and Ansar, remember that Ali (a.s.) is the Amir and
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my Caliph among you and my Lord has advised me and if you don’t remember my advice, you will become disunited and religion would become ambiguous to you and the evil ones from you will be your rulers. Indeed, my Ahle Bayt are the heirs of my office and they will act according to my command after me. O Allah, whoever from my followers obeys them and remembers my advice about them, please raise them with me and reward them with salvation. O Allah, keep one, who usurps Caliphate from Ahle Bayt (a.s.) deprived from Paradise, whose width is equal to the heavens and the earth. Thus, Umar objected to him and Khalid said much about his lineage and vile acts and then finally observed: You simile in this matter is like Shaitan, as the Almighty Allah has said in Quran: ﻲ 175B ﱢ ﻧِ إَ ﺎلَ ﻗَ ﺮَ ﻔَ ﱠﺎ ﻛ ﻤَ ﻠَ ﻓـْ ﺮُ ﻔْ اﻛِﺎنَﺴْ ﻧِْ ﻺِ ﻟَ ﺎلَ ﻗْ ذِ إِﺎنَﻄْ ﱠﻴ اﻟﺸِ ﻞَ ﺜَ ﻤَ ﻛ َ ﻴﻦِ ﻤَﺎﻟَ بﱠ اﻟْﻌ َ رَ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ُﺎفَ ﺧَ ﱢﻲ أ ﻧِ إَ ﻚْ ﻨِ ﻣٌيءِ ﺮَ ﴾١٦﴿ ﺑ 1058B“Like the Shaitan when he says to man: Disbelieve, but when he disbelieves, he says: I am surely clear of you; surely I fear Allah, the Lord of the worlds.” (Surah Hashr 59:16) 3174BThus, the end of those two would be that they would remain in Hell forever and this is the recompense of the unjust. 3175BAfter that Salman arose and first said in Persian: What have you done? You don’t know what you have done. 3176BThen he said in Arabic: O Abu Bakr, when you encounter a problem you cannot solve, whom will you refer to? What justification do you have for taking precedence over one, who is wiser than you and nearer to the Prophet? He is the most learned about Book of Allah and Sunnah of Prophet and whom the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) accorded precedence during his lifetime and at the time of his death made a bequest to him? You rejected the statement of Prophet, ignored his bequest and broke the covenant made to him.
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You invalidated the command of Prophet, who appointed Usamah as commander over you. The aim of the Prophet was to send you all out of Medina lest you create this mischief and it became clear to the whole Ummah that you have not obeyed the Prophet in any matter. O Abu Bakr, very soon you will die and go into the grave with this deadly sin. Beware as it is not too late. Repent for your acts so that you don’t carry the load of sins to the hereafter. Indeed, you also heard what we heard regarding Ali (a.s.) and you also saw what we saw; but all this did not prevent you from taking up the responsibility of this great misdeed. After that Abuzar arose and said: O Quraish, you have committed a strange vile act; you disregarded the relationship of the Prophet and a large group would apostatize as a result of this and harbor doubts about religion. If you had left the Caliphate for Ahle Bayt of the Prophet, no dissension would have appeared among you. Now, that you have done this, who has power to take over the Caliphate? And a lot of bloodshed will take place in it. The righteous among you are aware that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said that Caliphate is for Ali, after me. After that for my two sons: Hasan and Husain and then for the purified Imams from my progeny. But you rejected the directions of your Prophet, sold your everlasting hereafter in exchange for the temporal world and followed the practice of the past nations, which apostasied after their prophets. Very soon you will see the evil consequences of your evil deeds. Then Miqdad arose and after dispensing many advices, said: You know well that the allegiance of Ali rests on your neck and the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) put you and Umar under the standard of Usamah, the freed slave of Prophet and under the Chief of Believers, so that such thoughts may not enter your minds. At another time, he put you two under the command of Amr bin Aas, the source of evil and hypocrisy during the Battle
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of Zatus Salalil. He was such a hypocrite regarding whom the verse of: 176B ُ ﺮَ ﺘـْ ﺑـَْ اﻷَ ﻮُ ﻫَ ﻚَ ﺌِﺎﻧَ ﱠ ﺷ نِ ﴾٣﴿ إ 1059B“Surely your enemy is the one, who shall be without posterity.” (Surah Kauthar 108:3) 3182B…was revealed. Thus, the Prophet appointed such a hypocrite over you and other hypocrites. He appointed Umar and you as mace-bearers of that group, but you promoted yourself from this directly to Caliphate? O Abu Bakr, you know well that after the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), Caliphate is the right of Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.). So give that right to him. 3183BAfter that Buraid Aslami arose and said: 177B َ ﻮنُ ﻌِ اﺟَ رِ ﻪْ ﻴَ ﻟِ ﱠﺎ إ ﻧِ إَ وِ ﱠﻪ ﻠِ ﱠﺎ ﻟ ﻧِ ﴾١٥٦﴿ إ 1060B“Surely we are Allah’s and to Him we shall surely return.” (Surah Baqarah 2:156) 3184BO Abu Bakr, what harm has truth received from falsehood? Have you forgotten that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) ordered us to address Ali as Amirul Momineen (a.s.) and salute him with this appellation? The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said on a number of occasions that he is the chief of believers and the slayer of unjust. Thus, fear Allah and entrust the right to him, for which he is most eligible. 3185BAmmar stood up and said: O Quraish, Ansar and Muslims; know that the Ahle Bayt of your Prophet are most worthy of Caliphate and more rightful for his heirloom and they can stage an uprising more than all of you regarding issues of religion. They can in a better way, preserve the Ummah of the Prophet. They are the great well wishers of Ummah. So tell your companion, Abu Bakr to return the right to the worthy one, before your matter becomes weak, a great mischief appears and enemies become greedy about you. You should know that Ali is
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your guardian after your Prophet and you also know that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) discriminated between you and Ali on many occasions. He closed all the doors opening into the Masjid, except his door. He married his noble daughter, Fatima to him though many asked for her hand. He said: I am the city of wisdom and Ali is its door. Whoever seeks wisdom should approach from that door. You are needful of him in all issues of religion and he is not needful of you in anything, in addition to the precedence he commands, which none of you possess. Thus, why are you inclined to others? Why do you trespass on his rights? 178B ً ﻻَ ﺪَ ﺑَﻴﻦِ ﻤِﻠﻈﱠﺎﻟ ِ ﻟَﺲْ ﺌِ ﴾٥٠﴿ ﺑ 1061B“Evil is (this) change for the unjust.” (Surah Kahf 18:50) 3187BNow, it was the turn of Ubayy bin Kaab. He arose and said: O Abu Bakr, do not deny the right, which Allah has kept for someone else. Restore the right of those, who deserve. Then he rendered more advices. 3188BThen Khuzaimah got up and said: People, do you not know that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) deemed my testimony as equal to the testimony of two persons? All said: It is true. Khuzaimah said: I testify having heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) say: My Ahle Bayt separate truth from falsehood and they are the Imams, whose obedience is necessary. I have stated whatever I knew. 179B ُ غَ ﻼَ ﱠ اﻟْﺒ ﻻِ إِﻮلُ ﻰ اﻟﺮﱠﺳ َ ﻠَﺎ ﻋَ ﻣ 1062B“Nothing is (incumbent) on the Apostle, but to deliver (the message).” (Surah Maidah 5:99) 3189BAfter him, Abul Shayim got up and said: I testify that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) on the day of Ghadeer propped up Ali (a.s.) and Ansar said: He did not prop Ali on us, except for Caliphate. Some said: He propped him up, so that people may be
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aware that he is the master of those, whose master the Prophet is. We sent a group and they asked the Prophet. He said: Tell them that after me, Ali is the guardian of believers and he is more concerned about the Ummah than the people. I have told you what I knew. Thus, whoever may like, may believe it and whoever likes may disbelieve; and the Judgment Day is the rendezvous of everyone. It was now the turn of Suhail bin Hunayf to rise up and after divine praise and benedictions, he said: O Quraish, be my witness as I am testifying for the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) that I saw him between the grave and the pulpit holding the hand of Ali and saying: O people, this Ali is your Imam after me and he is my legatee during my lifetime as well as after my passing away. He will repay my debts and fulfill my promises. He would be the first to shake hands with me at Hauz Kauthar. Thus, glad tidings to one, who follows him and woe on one, who opposes him and does not help him. Then Uthman bin Hunayf arose and said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) say: My Ahle Bayt are the stars of the earth. So do not take precedence over them; on the contrary, accord priority to them as they are my representatives after me. Someone arose and asked: O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), who are your Ahle Bayt? He replied: Ali and the purified ones of his descendants. Thus, O Abu Bakr, do not be the first to deny this statement. Do not be dishonest with the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and don’t embezzle what you are entrusted with, while you are aware of truth. After that Abu Ayyub arose and said: People, fear Allah with regard to the right of Ahle Bayt of your Prophet. Restore the right, which Allah made exclusive for them. Without any doubt, you also heard what your brothers heard that the Prophet often declared: After me, my Ahle Bayt are your Imams. He used to gesture to Ali (a.s.) and say: He is the chief of the righteous and slayer of the deniers. Allah abandons one, who
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abandons Ali and He helps those, who help Ali. So repent in the court of the Almighty from your injustice; doubtlessly Allah accepts repentance and He is the most merciful. Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) said: Thus, Abu Bakr became speechless on the pulpit, unable to utter a single word. At last he said: I have become your ruler, but I am not better than you. You can cancel the allegiance, which you pledged to me. Umar said: O fool, come down! Why are you sitting there when you cannot respond to the arguments of Quraish? By God, I wish to dismiss you from Caliphate and appoint Saalim, the freed slave of Huzaifah. Abu Bakr came down and held the hand of Umar and they went home. After that they did not appear in the Masjid for three days. On the fourth day, Khalid bin Walid came with a thousand men and asked: Why are you sitting idle? Bani Hashim is vying for Caliphate. Saalim also came with a thousand men and Maaz bin Jabal also came with a thousand men. Thus, army after army arrived, till four thousand hypocrites came out with naked swords, Umar being ahead of all of them, till they entered the Mosque of the Prophet. Umar said: O companions of Ali, by God, if anyone speaks like the previous day, I would strike off his head. Khalid bin Saeed arose and said: O son of the black slave girl, Zahhaka, are you threatening us with your swords? Do you wish to drive us away with excess of your men? By Allah, our swords are sharper than yours and inspite of our minority we are stronger than you, because the Divine Proof is among us. By Allah, if our Imam had not restrained us from fighting, and his obedience is incumbent on us, we would have definitely fought to make our cause known. Ali (a.s.) said: Khalid, take your seat, the Almighty Allah is aware of your struggle in the path of truth and He will reward you with the best recompense. So he took his seat. Salman arose and said: God is the greatest, God is the greatest. I heard from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and if I have
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not heard it, my ears should become deaf. He said: A day will come, when my brother and cousin would be seated in my Masjid with a few of his companions, when suddenly he would be surrounded by a group of hellish people and they will intend to kill him and his companions. There is no doubt that you are those people. Umar tried to attack Salman and Ali (a.s.) stopped him by catching his collar and threw him down. Then he said: O son Zahhaka, the black woman; if a pact had not been written before and a covenant has not been made to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), I would have definitely shown you whose supporters are weak and whose numbers is less. Then he said to his companions: Turn back, may Allah have mercy on you. By Allah, I will not enter this Masjid, except in the manner, in which my two brothers, Musa and Harun entered when the companions of Musa said: Go you and your God fight, we are sitting here. ﺎ 180B َ ﻴﻬِﻮا ﻓُ اﻣَﺎ دَا ﻣً ﺪَ ﺑَ ﺎ أَ ﻬَ ﻠُ ﺧْ ﺪَ ﻧْ ﻦَ ﱠﺎ ﻟ ﻧِ إٰ ﻰَﻮﺳُﺎ ﻣَﻮا ﻳُﺎﻟَ ۖ ﻗ ◌ ْ ﺐَ ﻫْﺎذَ ﻓ َ ونُ ﺪِﺎﻋَﺎ ﻗَ ﻨُ ﺎﻫَ ﱠﺎ ﻫ ﻧِ إَ ﻼِﺎﺗَ ﻘَ ﻓـَ ﱡﻚ ﺑَ رَ وَﺖْ ﻧَ ﴾٢٤﴿ أ 1063B“They said: O Musa! We shall never enter it so long as they are in it; go therefore, you and your Lord, then fight you both, surely we will here sit down.” (Surah Maidah 5:24) 3202BBy Allah, I will not enter, except for visiting (Ziyarat) the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) or when people encounter a difficult problem and I come to give justice to the rightful, because it is not lawful for the Divine Proof appointed by the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) to leave people in confusion. 3203BWe should know that it is a summary of traditional reports mentioned in Shia books of history regarding that tragic event. Most of these points are narrated in books of biography, traditions and history of Ahle Sunnat here and there and I have mentioned some of them in Biharul Anwar.
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For example, Ibne Abil Hadid says: There are different reports about Saqifah and whatever the Shia say and which a large number of historians have also reported, it is that Imam Ali (a.s.) refused to give allegiance till they brought him by force. Zubair also refused to pay allegiance and said: I will not pledge allegiance to anyone, except to Ali. In the same way, Abu Sufyan, Khalid bin Saeed, Abbas, uncle of the Messenger and all his sons; Abu Sufyan bin Harith and all Bani Hashim abstained from allegiance. They explain that when Umar came, Zubair pulled out his sword. A group of Ansar and others were accompanying Umar, who said: Take away Zubair’s sword and break it. The people did that and afterwards they brought him to Abu Bakr by force. No one, except Imam Ali (a.s.) remained and they did not bring him out, because of regard for Lady Fatima (s.a.). Some say that they brought out Ali (a.s.) also and he paid allegiance to Abu Bakr. Muhammad bin Jarir Tabari has mentioned a large number of reports that when Ansar saw that they could not get the Caliphate, all of them or some of them said: We will not give allegiance to anyone, except Ali (a.s.). Ali bin Abdul Karim, alias Ibne Athir Mosuli has also in his Tarikh, mentioned the same. Moreover, Ibne Abil Hadid says that after the passing away of the Prophet, Ali (a.s.), who had a firm determination, used to say: I would have indeed fought Jihad. Nasr bin Muzahim has mentioned this in Kitab Siffeen and many other historians have also narrated it, but whatever the traditionists and reliable scholars of Ahle Sunnat say is that Ali refused to pay allegiance to Abu Bakr for six months and remain secluded at home. As long as Lady Fatima (s.a.) was alive, he did not pay allegiance to Abu Bakr and he did so only after her passing away. It is mentioned in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim that as long as Fatima was alive, Ali has the support of people and after her passing away they forsook him. Thus, Ali paid allegiance and
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the period Fatima remained lived after the passing away of her father, was six months. The author says: It is astounding that in spite of the fact that this learned writer has narrated this tradition from his canonical books and in the beginning said that after the passing away of Fatima, Ali paid allegiance willingly, however, the text of Sahih Bukhari and Muslim clearly proves that as long as Ali was having supporters, and it was possible to refuse allegiance, he did not pay allegiance. When the people turned away from him and he was disappointed, he paid allegiance at that time. Moreover, Ibne Abil Hadid has quoted from Kitab Saqifah of Ahmad bin Abdul Aziz Jauhari, which he always extols, that when people paid allegiance to Abu Bakr, Zubair, Miqdad and some companions visited Ali and the latter was at Fatima’s house, a venue of their mutual consultations. Umar barged into Fatima’s house and said: O daughter of Messenger of Allah; no one is dearer to us than your respected father and after him, no one is dearer to us than you. However, by Allah, this does not prevent me from torching your house, if these people gather here. When Umar bin Khattab went away and they came there, Lady Fatima (s.a.) told them what Umar had said, and added: I am sure he will do what he said. Keep away from this house. So they went away and paid allegiance to Abu Bakr. Then Ibne Abil Hadid says: It is among the famous statements of Muawiyah that he wrote to Imam Ali (a.s.): Yesterday you mounted your wife on a mule and taking your sons, Hasan and Husain with you, you did not leave any companion of Badr or any elder in faith, but that you went to his door when people had paid allegiance to Abu Bakr and your intention was to mobilize people to fight the companion of the Messenger of Allah; but none accepted your advice, except four or five of them. If you had been worthy, they would have definitely accepted your claim. If I overlook everything you told my father when he tried to instigate you, you said that if you had
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forty determined persons, you would have definitely fought Abu Bakr. Moreover, it is narrated from the book of Jauhari that Salman, Zubair and Ansar wanted to pledge allegiance to Imam Ali (a.s.) and Salman said: You were right in not giving the discretion to Muhajireen, but you committed the mistake of not handing the authority to its source, Imam Ali (a.s.). According to another report, he said: You did not surrender authority to the Ahle Bayt of the Prophet and if you had done so, never would have two persons differed and you would have lived in prosperity. Moreover, Jauhari has narrated from Abul Aswad that some persons from Muhajireen became infuriated at the allegiance of Abu Bakr and Ali and Zubair were also angry at it and they entered Fatima’s house amicably. Then Umar came with some people, including Usaid bin Hazir and Salma bin Salama. Lady Fatima (s.a.) protested and adjured them in the name of Allah, but to no avail. They surrounded the house, confiscated the sword of Ali and Zubair and broke them. Then Umar dragged him out, till he paid allegiance to Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr stood up and through a sermon justified that allegiance was an act, through which a mischief was created and ‘Allah saved us from its evil. I was afraid, lest a mischief should appear. By Allah, I never vied for Caliphate, but people placed this burden on my back, to bear which I don’t have strength and this function cannot be fulfilled by me. On the contrary, I wanted that a person stronger than me should be appointed at my place.’ He offered many such excuses and the Muhajireen accepted. According to another report, he said: Thabit bin Qays was also in the group, which entered Fatima’s house with Umar. According to another report, Abdur Rahman bin Auf was also present in that group; and Muhammad bin Salma as well and it was he that broke Zubair’s sword.
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Then in the book of Jauhari, it is narrated from Salma bin Abdur Rahman that when Abu Bakr mounted the pulpit, Ali and Zubair were in Fatima’s house, along with a group of Bani Hashim. Umar came and said: By the God, in whose hand my life is, you are coming out to pay allegiance or I will torch this house over you? Zubair came out with a naked sword. A man from Ansar or Ziyad bin Labid engaged him and he dropped the sword. Abu Bakr called out from the pulpit: Break the sword and they did that. Then Abu Bakr said: Leave them, as Allah will bring them. Jauhari has said that in another report, it is mentioned that Saad Ibne Abi Waqqas and Miqdad were also present with them in Fatima’s house and they had gathered there to pay allegiance to Ali. Thus, Umar arrived and committed arson to the house. At that time Zubair came out with the sword and Lady Fatima (s.a.) also came out weeping and wailing. Then Jauhari has narrated that Abdullah bin Musa Husaini was asked about the circumstances of Abu Bakr and Umar and he replied: I will reply with the response of Abdullah bin Hasan, when he was asked about them. He said: Fatima was Siddiqa, infallible and the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and when she passed away, she was infuriated at them; that is why, we are also infuriated at them. Moreover, it is narrated from Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) that Ibne Abbas used to say: I heard Umar say: After the passing away of the Messenger of Allah, your companion was most superior to all for Caliphate, but we feared him for two things. I asked: What? He replied: Because of his young age and his partiality to the descendants of Abdul Muttalib. Ibne Abil Hadid says: However, the refusal of Ali to pay allegiance to Abu Bakr till he was dragged out of his house as mentioned before, is recorded by all tradition scholars, historians and biographers and whatever Jauhari has narrated from tradition narrators in this regard is also clear, and all this is authentic and
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confirmed. Besides Jauhari, others have also mentioned it so excessively that it cannot be doubted. Moreover, Jauhari has narrated from Abu Bakr Bahili and Ismail bin Mujahid; and they narrate from Shobi that Abu Bakr asked Umar: Where is Khalid bin Walid? He replied: He is here. Abu Bakr said: Go both of you and get Ali here to pay allegiance. So Umar entered the house and Khalid remained out. Umar said to Zubair: What sword is this? Zubair said: I prepared it for allegiance of Ali. Many people had gathered in that house, like Miqdad and all members of Bani Hashim. Umar snatched Zubair’s sword and broke it against a stone. Then he dragged Zubair out and handed him to Khalid. A huge group was accompanying Khalid, whom Abu Bakr had sent to assist. Then Umar entered the house and said to Amirul Momineen (a.s.): Get up and pay allegiance. Imam (a.s.) refused. He dragged out Ali (a.s.) also and handed him over to Khalid. The hypocrites surrounded them and dragged them through the streets of Medina filled with people and all witnessed this scene. Lady Fatima (s.a.) came out of the house with many ladies of Bani Hashim clan. Shrieks and wails rose up in the atmosphere. Lady Fatima (s.a.) screamed at Abu Bakr: How soon have you attacked the house of Ahle Bayt of the Messenger? By Allah, I will not speak to you till I meet my Lord. When Ali and Zubair paid allegiance and this mischief ended, Abu Bakr came and sought the intercession of Umar with her and she became pleased with him. After quoting these traditional reports, Ibne Abil Hadid says: In my view, it is certain that Lady Fatima (s.a.) passed away from the world while she was infuriated at Abu Bakr and Umar and she made a bequest that they should not pray her funeral prayers and this, in the view of our scholars, is a lesser sin, which is forgiven. However, the preferable option was that they should have respected her sanctity. Moreover, Ibne Abil Hadid says: I used to read out that tradition before my teacher, Abu Ja’far Naqib; that Habbar bin
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Aswad speared the litter of Zainab, daughter of the Prophet, which terrified her and the fetus she was carrying at that time was miscarried; that is why the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), on the day of the conquest of Mecca condemned him to death. When I read this tradition, Naqib said: When the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) condemned Habbar to death for being responsible for miscarriage of Zainab, it is clear that if he were alive, he would have made condemned to death, one, who threatened Fatima and caused her miscarriage. Ibne Abil Hadid says: I asked Naqib: Can I quote you that companions threatened Fatima leading to her to miscarry the fetus named Mohsin? He acted on dissimulation and said: Don’t quote me in its favor or against it, because I have reserved my judgment in this matter. Then Ibne Abil Hadid has quoted from Muhammad bin Jarir Tabari, their reliable historian, the report of Saqifah as we have quoted. Waqidi has narrated that Umar bin Khattab came to the house of Ali with Usaid Ibne Hazir, Salma bin Aslam and others and said: Come out or I would torch this house over you. In Kitab Ghurar, Ibne Harasa has narrated from Zaid bin Aslam that he said: I was among those who accompanied Umar, carrying firewood to the door of Fatima’s house, when Ali and his companions refused to pay allegiance. Umar said: Expel those who are present in your house, or I will burn this house along with its inmates. At that time Ali, Fatima, Hasan, Husain and some companions were present in the house. Fatima asked: Will you burn this house on me and my children? He replied: Yes, I will do that by Allah, or they should come out and pay allegiance. Ibne Abde Rabb, a famous Ahle Sunnat scholar, says: Ali and Abbas were present in Fatima’s house. Abu Bakr said to Umar: If they refuse to come here, fight them. Umar came with firewood to burn down Fatima’s house. Fatima said: Son of Khattab, do you want to burn down my house? He replied: Yes.
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Then Ibne Hadid has narrated the circumstances of Saqifah, as was mentioned above, but it is more reliable that he said: Bani Hashim gathered in the house of Ali, and Zubair was also there, because he considered himself to be from Bani Hashim and Amirul Momineen (a.s.) used to say: Zubair was always with us, Ahle Bayt (a.s.), till his sons reached maturity and turned him away from us. Thus, Umar came to Fatima’s house with some people including Usaid and Salma. Umar said: Come and pay allegiance, but they refused. Zubair emerged with a naked sword. Umar said: Apprehend this dog. Salma bin Aslam snatched his sword and hit it at the wall, breaking it. Then they dragged Zubair and Ali to Abu Bakr and Bani Hashim accompanied them. Imam Ali (a.s.) was saying: I am the servant of Allah and brother of His Messenger. When they brought him to Abu Bakr and ordered him to pay allegiance, he said: I am more worthy of this and I will not pay allegiance to you. On the contrary, you all pay allegiance to me. You took this Caliphate from Ansar on the pretext of proximity to Prophet and I argue with you with the same. If you fear Allah, observe justice and accept our right as the Ansar accepted your right, or you are deliberately committing oppression and have occupied the seat of Caliphate. Umar said: We will not leave you, till you don’t pay allegiance. Ali (a.s.) said: You two have hatched a nice conspiracy. Today you are demanding allegiance for him, so that tomorrow he may turn this Caliphate to you. By Allah, I will not obey you and I will not pay allegiance to him. Abu Bakr said: I will not force you, if you are unwilling. Abu Ubaid said: O Abul Hasan, you are young and they are elders of your community, you don’t have the experience that they have. Abu Bakr is more capable of fulfilling this responsibility. So, you accept his Caliphate and if you survive and reach old age, you will become worthy of it due to the
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excellence you have and as a result of those struggles you have undertaken. Ali (a.s.) said: O Muhajireen people, fear Allah and don’t take away the rulership of Muhammad to your families and don’t drive away Ahle Bayt from their position and right. O Muhajireen, by Allah, we Ahle Bayt are more worthy of this matter than you, because it is necessary that a person should be present among you, who recites and understands the Book of Allah; who is having deep knowledge about religion of Allah and is aware of the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and who can administer the affairs of subjects. By Allah, all these capabilities are present among us. Thus, do not desire that which would take you away from rightfulness. Bashir bin Saad said: If Ansar had heard these statements from you before allegiance, even two persons would not have differed regarding you; but they have already given allegiance to Abu Bakr. So Ali (a.s.) returned home and remain secluded there till Fatima passed away. At that time he paid allegiance to Abu Bakr. Then he quotes from Kitab Saqifah from Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) that Ali (a.s.) put Fatima on a mount at night and went to the houses of Ansar, soliciting their help, but they did not respond. They said: O daughter of Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), we have paid allegiance to that person. If your cousin had delivered this discourse before, we would not have sidelined him in favor of someone else. Ali (a.s.) said: Should I have left the body of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) at home and come to demand Caliphate before performing his last rites? Lady Fatima (s.a.) said: Whatever my cousin did was right and the Almighty Allah would inform them of the act, which those people have committed. Muhammad bin Muslim bin Qutaibah, a great scholar and historian of Ahle Sunnat, in his History, has described the incident of Saqifah as mentioned before, but it is more detailed;
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till he says: When Abu Bakr learned that some people have not paid allegiance to him and they are gathered in Ali’s house, he sent Umar to summon them. When they refused, Umar called for firewood and said: By one, in whose hand the life of Umar is, either you come out or I’ll burn down this house with you in it. People said: Lady Fatima (s.a.) is present there. Umar said: I will burn it even if she is present. So all came out and paid allegiance, but Ali said: I have taken oath that I will not leave the house till I have not compiled the Quran. Lady Fatima (s.a.) stood at the door and said: I have not seen any community more wicked than you. You left the body of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and usurped the Caliphate without our permission. Umar came to Abu Bakr and said: Ali refuses allegiance. Will you allow him to remain at home? Abu Bakr asked Qunfudh to bring Ali. Qunfudh went and said: The Caliph of the Messenger of Allah is calling you. Ali said: How soon you have attributed falsehood to the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.)! When this was reported to Abu Bakr, he wept and said: Go and tell him that the chief of believers is calling him. When he said this, Ali (a.s.) said: How nice! He claims something, which is not possible for him. When Qunfudh brought this message, Abu Bakr again wept. Now, Umar stood up and taking some men with him came to Fatima’s house and knocked at the door. When Fatima heard them, she began to weep. She wailed: O Messenger of Allah, What all we had to suffer at the hands of the son of Khattab and the son of Qahafa after you! When people heard the wails of Fatima, they turned back weeping and their hearts were about to break. However, Umar remained there with some people till he brought Ali out and took him to Abu Bakr. He told Ali to pay allegiance to Abu Bakr. Ali said: What if I don’t? He replied: By God, I will strike off your head. Ali said: In that case you would have killed a servant of Allah and brother of His Messenger. He said: Servant of Allah is all right, but brother of the Messenger?
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No! Abu Bakr was speechless at this time. Umar asked him: What do you order about Ali? He replied: I cannot force him in any matter as long as Fatima is at his side. Thus, Ali (a.s.) went to the grave of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and pleaded: 181B َ ﻦ ﻲ ْاﺑ ِ ﻨَﻮﻧُ ﻠُ ﺘـْ ﻘَوا ﻳـُﺎدَ ﻛ َ ﻲ وِﻮﻧُ ﻔَ ﻌْﻀَ ﺘْ اﺳَ مْ ﻮَ ﱠ اﻟْﻘ نِﱠ إ مُ أ 1064B“Son of my mother, surely the people reckoned me weak and had well-nigh slain me.” (Surah Araaf 7:150) 3247BUmar said: Let us go to Fatima’s house as we have angered her. When they sought permission to enter, Fatima did not allow. So they came to Ali (a.s.) and requested him to intercede on their behalf. Ali (a.s.) asked Fatima to allow them and he covered the face of Fatima, When they came in, Fatima turned away from them and faced the wall. They greeted her, but she did not respond. 3248BAbu Bakr said: O beloved daughter of Messenger of Allah, I am more concerned about the kindred of the Prophet than I am concerned with my kindred. Do you think that after recognizing you and being aware of your right I will not give you the inheritance of the Prophet? The fact is that I heard the Prophet say: We are the community of prophets; we don’t leave any inheritance; whatever we leave is Sadaqah. Lady Fatima (s.a.) asked: Will you admit if I narrate a tradition from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.)? 3249BYes, they replied. She said: I adjure you, did you not hear the Prophet say: Fatima’s pleasure is my pleasure and Fatima’s displeasure is my displeasure. One, who is devoted to my daughter, Fatima, is in fact, devoted to me. And one, who has pleased Fatima, has, in fact, pleased me. And one, who angers Fatima, has, in fact, angered me? They said: Yes, we heard this from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). 3250BFatima said: Thus, I make Allah and the angels as witnesses that you have angered me and not pleased me. If I meet the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), I will complain to him about you.
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Abu Bakr said: O Fatima, I seek Allah’s refuge from divine anger and you. Abu Bakr wept so much that he was on the verge of death. Lady Fatima (s.a.) said: By Allah, I will invoke curse on you in every ritual prayer. Abu Bakr said: I will pray for you in every ritual prayer. Then he came out weeping and said to the people: Each of you goes to his wife and sleeps in a happy mood, but you left me in these circumstances. I am not in need of your allegiance. You all may recant my allegiance. People said: O Caliph of Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), this will only remain established with you. If you resign from this post, the religion of Allah will not be established. Abu Bakr said: If there was no risk that the Firm Handle (Urwatul Wuthqa) Islam had declined, I will not have passed a single night with your allegiance after listening to the statements of Fatima. Thus, Ali did not pay allegiance as long as Fatima was alive; and she was alive for seventy-five days after the passing away of her father. Balazari, a famous Ahle Sunnat traditionist and historian, who is also very much bigoted, he has narrated that when Abu Bakr summoned Ali (a.s.) to pay allegiance and the latter did not accept, Umar came with firewood to burn down the house. Lady Fatima (s.a.) came to the door and said: O son of Khattab, will you burn down the house, when I am inside it? He replied: Yes and what your father has brought (Islam) is stronger. So, Ali (a.s.) came out and paid allegiance. Ibrahim bin Saeed Thaqafi, who is considered reliable by both sects, narrates from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) that Amirul Momineen (a.s.) did not pay allegiance to Abu Bakr till smoke did not rise up from the house. Moreover, Balazari has narrated from Ibne Abbas that: During Abu Bakr’s allegiance, when Ali (a.s.) refused to pay it, he sent Umar bin Khattab to him, saying: Bring Ali to me in the most severe and worst manner possible. On the way, Ali (a.s.) and Umar had an altercation. Ali (a.s.) said to Umar: Milk
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the camel of Caliphate, your share is secure. By Allah, your greed for assuring rulership for Abu Bakr is there, because he will nominate you as his successor… Ibrahim Thaqafi has narrated from Zuhri that Ali (a.s.) did not pay allegiance, but after six months and people oppressed him much after the passing away of Fatima. Also, Ibrahim has narrated that the Aslam tribe refused to pay allegiance to Abu Bakr and said: As long as Buraidah does not pay allegiance, we will also not pay allegiance, because the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) had told Buraidah that: After me Ali is your Wali. Thus, Amirul Momineen (a.s.) said: They gave me two choices: one is that I should pay allegiance to them and they may usurp my rights; two that I should undertake an armed confrontation with them and that people may apostatize from religion, but I chose the first option that even if I should be oppressed, people should not turn away from religion. Additionally, it is narrated from Adi bin Hatim that he said: I was never as merciful on anyone as I was to Ali. When they dragged him by his collar to Abu Bakr and the latter demanded him to pledge allegiance, Ali said: What if I don’t? He replied: I will cut off your head. Ali (a.s.) raised his head to the sky and said: O Allah, be a witness. Then he raised his hand and they were satisfied with that allegiance. The author says: O seeker of truth and certainty! Know that the best argument of the opponents is that all companions reached consensus (Ijma) on his Caliphate and that consensus is proof. Thus, it is necessary that his Caliphate should be valid. The opponents have themselves defined consensus (Ijma) to be an agreement of all scholars (Mujtahids) of the time on an issue. There are a lot of doubts and debates in this consensus. First Discussion
The opponents have mentioned many contradictory points in their books of the fundamentals of religion:
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First Contradiction
Whether investigation about such issue is possible or impossible? Second Contradiction
Whether such a consensus has ever been established or not? Third Contradiction
Whether on establishment of such a matter, it becomes a proof of an issue or not? Fourth Contradiction
If it did occur, does it reach to the level of widely related reports (Tawatur) or not and in each of those matters, many contradictions and disputes have arisen. Thus, as a result of consensus, the proof of Abu Bakr’s Imamate depends on proving true these issues. When Ahle Sunnat are not unanimous on these issues, how can they argue on the basis of it? After that what is the guarantee that those who reached consensus on this, will remain firm on it till their death? Is it a condition of its validity or not? And the dispute whether consensus alone is proof or some basis is necessary for it? And is that basis proof? The basis they mention is jurisprudential analogy. That the leadership of the world and religion should be derived from analogy of prayers, which is invalid due to many reasons:
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First Reason
Imamiyah scholars have proved through many Shia and Sunni channels that leading of prayers by Abu Bakr was not by the command of Prophet; it was according to the directions of Ayesha; and when the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) learnt of this, inspite of weakness, he came to the Masjid leaning on Ali and Fazl bin Abbas or Abdullah and after ordering Abu Bakr to leave the Mihrab, himself led the prayers in sitting position. As reported by Urwah in Sahih Bukhari: “Allah’s Apostle felt a bit relieved and came out and Abu Bakr was leading the people. When Abu Bakr saw the Prophet, he retreated, but the Prophet beckoned him to remain there. Allah’s Apostle sat beside Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr was following the prayer of Allah’s Apostle and the people were following the prayer of Abu Bakr.” Second Reason
It is invalid to consider analogy as binding proof and some Ahle Sunnat scholars, Zahiriya and all Mutazila do not regard analogy as binding proof and they mention many strong arguments against its validity. Third Reason
In fact, a binding proof is binding only when it should be a cause and in that cause the branch should be like the root. However, in this issue, such a possibility is missing, because they consider leadership of Prayer possible for every righteous and sinful person; and they consider justice, valor and being a Quraishite necessary for Caliphate along with other conditions. Moreover, leadership of congregation is a matter, in which excess of knowledge is not required and valor and planning in the matter of subject is also not necessary and since Caliphate is the rulership in all matters of the world and religion; that is why
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excess of knowledge and many other conditions are required, from which even one condition was not present in Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman. In every matter, they used to be caught in a quagmire like fools and seek help from Ali (a.s.) and other companions. The claim of some hypocrites that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) chose him for our religion; so we should adopt him for our worldly affairs; is nothing, but falsehood and a mistake and their researchers, like the author of Sharh Tajrid, have defined Imamate as rulership of religion and world of the Ummah. If this was an evidence of Imamate, why he did not use this evidence against the Ansar and based his claim only on his relationship to the Prophet? Fourth Reason
If analogy is binding proof, it is a binding proof in secondary matters and not on fundamental issues; and even if we were to accept that; we say that since the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) appointed Ali (a.s.) as his Caliph in Medina during the battle of Tabuk and after that he did not dismiss him – and when Ali (a.s.) was the Caliph in Medina, he must have been Caliph in all other places as well, because no one claims he was ever dismissed – this argument is stronger than theirs, because Caliphate of Medina was Caliphate of religion and the world, as opposed to leading the Prayer. Second Discussion
It is clear from previous traditional reports what type of a consensus their consensus was? That is Saad bin Ubadah and all his companions were out of this consensus and they definitely did not pledge allegiance to Abu Bakr. Ahle Bayt of the Prophet and all Bani Hashim also did not pay allegiance for six months; and those who apparently paid, they did so only after the
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opponents burnt down the house of prophethood and wielded their swords. Thus, if a tyrant gains domination and a group of transgressors supports him due to greed; does he become a Caliph of Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and his obedience becomes obligatory on all people of excellence and knowledge? We all know that allegiance for Bakhte Nassar, Nimrod, Shaddad and Musailima Kazzab was also established by this infamy. If they say that first consensus was not established, but after six months when Ali (a.s.) paid the allegiance at that time the consensus was established we will say that it is also invalid. On the contrary, it is evident that Saad bin Ubadah and his sons were not included in this allegiance as Ibne Abde Barr has written in Istiab under the biography of Abu Bakr that people paid allegiance to Abu Bakr in Saqifah Bani Saadah, on the day the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) passed away; the next day, which was Tuesday; public allegiance took place, but Saad bin Ubadah and a group from Khazraj and a group of Quraish refused to pay allegiance to him. Moreover, Ibne Barr has mentioned in the same book and Ibne Hajar Asqalani has written in Isabah that Saad neither paid allegiance to Abu Bakr nor Umar and they were unable to force him as they had used force on others in taking allegiance, because his Khazraj tribe was very numerous and strong. They feared its mischief. When Umar became the Caliph; one day he met Saad and said: Either you join our allegiance or leave this town. Saad said: It is unlawful for me to live in a town, whose ruler you are! Then he moved to Shaam as he was having many supporters in the outskirts of Damascus. He lived with each family for a week and every week he moved from one village to another. One day someone shot an arrow at him, which proved fatal. The author of Rauzatus Safa says: Saad did not pay allegiance to Abu Bakr and instead moved to Shaam. After
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sometime he was killed by the plot of a very prominent person of the Muslim community, and it is clear who he is implying. Balazari has mentioned in his Tarikh that Umar ordered Khalid bin Walid and Muhammad bin Muslima Ansari to eliminate Saad. Each of them shot an arrow at him and he died. People were made to believe that a Jinni had killed him. They fabricated a couplet and attributed it to the Jinn. Their according respects to Ali (a.s.) till their last moments is reported in widely related narrations and whatever Ali (a.s.) had written in reply to Muawiyah, clearly proves that Imam (a.s.) did not pay allegiance willingly. Third Discussion
Even if it is supposed that allegiance was established after six months, how could they exercise power on Muslim lives, honor and property and send out battalions to the surrounding areas, before its establishment and without any proof? Moreover, it is clear that Ahle Sunnat have defined consensus to be a general agreement of all and one and at the same time. If it is not possible in one time, it is possible that after the latters give allegiance the former may change their opinion. Thus, how the consensus of Abu Bakr, which was established gradually, be valid? It is amazing that when many latter-day Ahle Sunnat scholars, like Mulla Saaduddin author of Maqasid, the author of Mawafiq and Sayyid Sharif observed that relying on such a consensus was humiliating, they became aloof from it and said: When achievement of Imamate, willingly and by allegiance, was proved, there is no need of consensus of all intellectuals, because no rational or textual evidence supports it. On the contrary, only allegiance of one or two important persons is sufficient to prove Imamate and to demand obedience of people. Because we know that in spite of capability in religion, they
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were content with this much in Imamate. As the appointment of Umar by Abu Bakr and appointment of Uthman by Abdur Rahman; and even consensus of those who present in Medina is not necessary for their appointment; what to say of the consensus of whole Ummah and scholars of all areas? And no one refuted their statements on this issue. On the contrary, by this time the Ansar also agreed to it. Mulla Saaduddin has said in Sharh Maqasid that there are many evidences of the Caliphate of Abu Bakr: First Evidence
It is the consensus of people having a say, even if it took place after hesitation of some of them, as they narrate that the Ansar said: Let there be a chief from us and a chief from you and Abu Sufyan said: O sons of Abde Manaf, have you accepted that the ruler be from Bani Teem. I will fill up the streets with cavalry and infantry. In Sahih Bukhari etc. it is mentioned in the Book of Companions that allegiance by Ali took place after a long gap of time. Abu Bakr’s sending of Umar and Abu Ubaidah to Ali is a subtle message, which reliable scholars have narrated through correct chains of narrators. It comprises of a heated exchange between two sides and some harshness of Umar. They narrate that after Ali paid allegiance and was leaving, he said: May you be blessed in the matter, which pleased you and made me distressed. They narrate that people paid allegiance to Abu Bakr, and Ali, Zubair, Miqdad, Salman and Abuzar refused. Then the following day Ali (a.s.) came and paid allegiance. It is worth noting that he issued a statement similar to what the author of Mawafiq has reported. Fakhre Razi says in Nihayatul Uqool that consensus on Caliphate of Abu Bakr did not take place during his lifetime; it was completed after his death during the Caliphate of Umar,
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when Saad bin Ubadah was killed. Sane and religious persons should note how Shaitan dominated Ahle Sunnat scholars; that in avoiding the humiliation of consensus, they cast themselves into a greater evil; like a person escapes from the fry pan and throws himself into the fire. Thus, when the consensus is not established, how it can prove the validity of that allegiance? Because it is known from the reports of Saqifah that it was based on the rivalry of Aws and Khazraj tribes and also on the pact, which took place between Abu Bakr and Umar that the latter should make Abu Bakr as the Caliph and then Abu Bakr should appoint Umar as Caliph after him. If not giving allegiance of that group makes the consensus invalid how their lack of denial can be known? And when they considered allegiance of one person sufficient, then why, in spite of thousands of people pledging allegiance, did they refuse to pay it? It can also be said that imamate of Abu Bakr was established in absence of consensus of ordinary people of Ummah, because it is mentioned in their Sihah books that no one from Bani Hashim paid allegiance for six months and all allegiance makers were included in them, although consensus of Ahle Bayt (a.s.) is decisive proof from the aspect of the widely related tradition that: I leave among you two heavy things; and on account of the following famous tradition that: The simile of my Ahle Bayt is like the simile of the Ark of Nuh. The author of Kashaf has, in spite of severe prejudice narrated that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: Fatima is my soul and her two sons are fruits of my heart and her husband is the light of my eyes and Imams from her progeny are trustees of my Lord; and they are connections between God and His creatures and those who are attached to it, receive salvation and one, who avoids it, is destroyed and he falls into Hell. It is extremely astonishing of those scholars, who in spite of claiming that knowledge, integrity and justice is required for establishing the leadership of religion and world, regard as
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sufficient, the allegiance of one person only to make it obligatory for all to obey him, even if all the people of excellence, knowledge and reform are on the other side. If one person testifies that a dirham of Zaid is payable on Amr, his testimony is not accepted, but in the matter of Imamate, they are content on allegiance of only one person. That is why they regard the profligate Yazid and accursed Walid – who made Quran as target of his archery – as Caliphs of God, whose obedience was incumbent on all. We wish they will be called on Judgment Day according to the verse of: 182B ْ ﻢِ ﻬِ ﺎﻣَ ﻣِ ﺈِ ﺑٍﺎسَ ﻧُﻞﱠ أ ُﻮ ﻛُ ﻋْ ﺪَ ﻧَ مْ ﻮَ ﻳـ 1065B“(Remember) the day when We will call every people with their Imam.” (Surah Isra 17:71) 3295BThey should be raised with such an Imam and should share in his vile deeds. 7945BFourth Discussion
3296BIn the traditions mentioned above and by admission of famous Ahle Sunnat scholars, it was proved that for a long time – for at least six months – there was dispute between His Eminence, Amirul Momineen (a.s.) and Abu Bakr regarding Caliphate and Imam Ali (a.s.) condemned him and his Caliphate and attributed injustice and oppression to him. 3297BTherefore, they should either admit that the basis of his Caliphate was on falsehood and oppression or confess that Imam Ali (a.s.) was in the wrong till that time; and he was disowned by his imam and he denied the imamate of the rightful imam due to bigotry. Thus, it is necessary that one of them lacked capability of Caliphate. 3298BMost great Ahle Sunnat scholars have accepted the correctness of the tradition that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.)
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said: Ali is with the truth and the truth is with Ali and the truth turns in the direction he turns. Ghazzali has also inspite of his prejudice, said in Ihyaul Uloom that never has anyone with insight related a single mistake in any matter to Ali. Ahle Sunnat scholars have narrated in their Sihah books that after the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), Ali is the judge and ruler of this Ummah. As Zamakhshari has said and Ibne Abil Hadid in Sharh Nahjul Balagha has narrated from Yahya bin Saeed Hanbali that he said: I was present with Ismail bin Ali Hanbali, the leader of Hanbalis in Baghdad, when a follower of his school approached him. He had lent some money to a man from Kufa. Ismail asked: Have you recovered your money? He replied: I have despaired of it, because on the day of Ghadeer, I went to the tomb of Imam Ali (a.s.), hoping to recover my money, but there I witnessed such a condition that I forgot my money altogether. People were openly condemning and criticizing the companions. Ismail said: So what is their sin? By Allah, they did not have this audacity till the owner of that grave himself initiated this. He was asked: Who is the owner of that grave? He replied: Ali Ibne Abi Talib (a.s.). That person was shocked and he asked: Is Ali responsible for this? Ismail replied: Yes, by Allah. That man asked: If Ali was right, why do we believe in the imamate of Abu Bakr and Umar; and if he was wrong, why do we accept him as Imam? The narrator says: When Ismail heard this, he arose from his place in haste saying: May Allah curse Ismail, the illegitimate born, if he knows the reply to this question. Then he retired into his house. Fifth Discussion
Once we have learnt that the evidence of their Caliphate is a good consensus, we would from the same traditions, which are proofs of their consensus, prove the lack of eligibility of their
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Caliphs. On the contrary, prove their denial and hypocrisy. Because it is proved from their and our traditional reports that Umar by the order of Abu Bakr and for his pleasure intended to burn down the house of Ahle Bayt (a.s.) of prophethood; which was surrounded by revelation, and which was a place of the descent of angels. Amirul Momineen, Fatima, Hasan and Husain (a.s.) were present in that house and Umar terrorized, warned and harassed them. He made them angry and fearful. On the contrary, it is learnt from authentic traditional reports that Lady Fatima (s.a.) was threatened and also hit at her side. He injured her with the point of sword and she suffered miscarriage; and she passed away while she was angry with them (Abu Bakr and Umar). The author of Jamiul Usul has narrated from Sahih Tirmidhi from Anas that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Four women are the most excellent in the universe: Maryam, daughter of Imran, Khadija, daughter of Khuwailad, Fatima, daughter of Muhammad and Asiya, wife of Firon. Then he narrates from Sahih Tirmidhi from Jami bin Umair that he said: I went to Ayesha with my paternal aunt (father’s sister) and she asked Ayesha: Who was the dear most female to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.)? She replied: Fatima. She asked: Who was the dear most male for him? She replied: Her husband. A traditional report of the same meaning is also narrated from Buraidah. It is mentioned in all Sihah books of Ahle Sunnat on the authority of Huzaifah bin Shahab that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Fatima is a part of me; one, who distresses her, in fact distresses me and one, who hurts her, hurts me. One, who harasses her, in fact harasses me. It is narrated from Tirmidhi that His Eminence said: Fatima is the best of the ladies of Paradise. According the report of Ayesha she is the best of the ladies of believers or she is the best of the ladies of this Ummah. Moreover, according to the report of Tirmidhi it is narrated from Ayesha that she said: I have not seen anyone more resembling the Prophet in manners, than
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Fatima. When she came to the Prophet, he stood up, kissed her and seated her in his place and when the Prophet went to her, she stood up, kissed him and seated him in her place. Moreover, it is narrated from Zaid Ibne Arqam in Sahih Tirmidhi that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said to Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain (a.s.): I am at war with one, who is at war with you and I am at peace with one, who is at peace with you. It is also narrated from Huzaifah in Sahih Tirmidhi that he said: I sought my mother’s permission to visit the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), pray the Maghrib Prayer behind him and request him to seek forgiveness for us. I came to the Prophet and prayed the Maghrib and Isha with him. When the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) concluded the prayer, I followed him. He heard me and asked: Are you Huzaifah? I replied: Yes. He asked: What do you want? May Allah forgive you and your mother. Today an angel came to me, who had never landed on the earth before; he had sought the Lord’s permission to visit and greet me. He gave me the glad tiding that Fatima is the best of the ladies of Paradise and Hasan and Husain are the best of the youths of Paradise. Moreover, it is narrated that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: You must accept whatever tradition Huzaifah narrates to you. Thalabi has narrated from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) that Hasan and Husain are the two gems of the Arsh of the Almighty. In Jamiul Usul, it is narrated from Sahih Bukhari, Muslim and Tirmidhi that Baraa reports: I saw the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) carrying Hasan bin Ali on his shoulders and saying: O Allah, I love him (this boy), so You also please love him. It is narrated from all companions that Baraa reported: The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) glanced at Hasan and Husain and said: O Allah, I love these two; thus, You also love them. It is narrated from Tirmidhi from Anas that people asked the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.): Who are the most beloved to you from your family members? He replied: Hasan and Husain.
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He used to tell Fatima: Call my sons. Then he kissed them and took them in his arms. Moreover, it is narrated from Tirmidhi that Abu Huraira reported: The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) put his hand around the neck of Imam Hasan (a.s.) and said: O Lord, I love him, so You also love him and love one, who is devoted to him. Similar traditions are mentioned in Bukhari and Muslim also. Furthermore, it is narrated from Usamah in Tirmidhi that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) placed Hasan and Husain on his knees and said: They are my sons and the sons of my daughter. O Lord, I love them; so, You also love them and love those, who are devoted to them. Then Tirmidhi has narrated from Yaala bin Murra that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Husain is from me and I am from Husain; O Allah, love those, who are devoted to Husain and Husain is a tribe from the tribes. Tirmidhi has also narrated from Abu Saeed Khudri that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Hasan and Husain are two Sayyids and the best of the youths of Paradise. Bukhari, Muslim, and Tirmidhi have narrated from Ibne Umar that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: Hasan and Husain are my two basils. Traditions of the excellence of these noble personalities are much more than what can be collected in this treatise. It is mentioned in widely narrated traditions that causing distress to Imam Ali (a.s.) is in fact causing distress to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and causing distress to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) is same as causing distress to Almighty Allah; and Allah has said that those who cause distress to Him and His Messenger, He has cursed them in the world and the hereafter and has prepared a debasing chastisement for them. Hence, it is clear that those who caused distress to these persons are accursed in the world and hereafter and counted among those who make war against Almighty Allah and the
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Prophet and they are people of disbelief and misfortune; then how they deserve Imamate? Fourth Indictment: Usurpation of Fadak
That monumental calamity, which occurred by the usurpation of Fadak at the hands of Abu Bakr and Umar First, we will narrate the incident in brief through Shia sources and after that quote from books of Ahle Sunnat to support it, so that may be proved beyond any doubt that this incident is accepted by both the sects. The incident is that when Abu Bakr usurped the Caliphate of Imam Ali (a.s.) and made his position strong after taking allegiance from Muhajireen and Ansar forcibly; at that time he decided to usurp Fadak from Ahle Bayt (a.s.) fearing that people should not, due to greed for wealth, become inclined to Ahle Bayt (a.s.); because relationship, excellence and declaration of Allah and the Prophet was also with Ahle Bayt (a.s.). The hypocrites would abandon them and instead be inclined to tyrants only if Ahle Bayt (a.s.) are deprived of material wealth. If the Ahle Bayt (a.s.) had even a little, it was possible for some people to become inclined to them and then their false Caliphate would be destroyed. That is why, in the beginning, when they were writing the accursed scroll, they fabricated the false tradition: ‘We are the group of prophets; we don’t leave any inheritance; whatever we leave is Sadaqah’. Fadak was a property, which had fallen into the hands of the Prophet without fighting war, because when Khyber was conquered at the hands of Imam Ali (a.s.), the people of Fadak and inhabitants of surrounding villages realized that they cannot confront the Prophet, so they surrendered the areas to him. At that time it was declared that windfalls are for Allah and the Apostle. Since it was taken without fighting, it was the property of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). Then the following verse was revealed:
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183B ُ ﱠﻪ ﻘَ ﺣٰ ﻰَ ﺑْ ﺮُا اﻟْﻘَ ذِآتَ و 1066B“And give to the near of kin his due…” (Surah Isra 17:26) 3325BThe Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) asked Jibraeel: Who are the near of kin are and what is their due. He replied: It is Fatima and her right is Fadak. So the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), by the command of Allah, gave Fadak to Fatima that it may remain in her possession and in possession of her descendants till Judgment Day. 3326BWhen Abu Bakr managed to usurp the Caliphate, he sent his men and drove out the caretakers of Fatima from Fadak. Ibne Babawayh and Shaykh Tabarsi etc have through reliable chains of narrators narrated from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) that when Abu Bakr make his position stable and took allegiance from most Muhajireen and Ansar, he sent someone to expel the representative of Fatima from Fadak. 3327BLady Fatima (s.a.) came to Abu Bakr and said: Why do you deny the inheritance of my respected father to me? Why have you expelled my caretaker from Fadak, although the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) gave it to me on the command of Allah? Abu Bakr said: Bring your witnesses to support your claim. Lady Fatima (s.a.) brought Umme Aiman and she said: O Abu Bakr, I will not testify, till I don’t exhaust the argument through what the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said in my favor. I adjure you my Allah, do you not know that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: Umme Aiman is a lady of Paradise? 3328BAbu Bakr said: Yes, I know that. Umme Aiman said: Thus, I testify that Almighty Allah revealed to His Messenger to give the due to the near of kin. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) gave Fadak to Fatima under divine command. Then Amirul Momineen (a.s.) also came and testified in the same way. 3329BAccording to another report, Imam Hasan (a.s.) and Imam Husain (a.s.) also gave the same testimony. So Abu Bakr wrote a
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document regarding Fadak and gave it to Fatima. Umar came and asked what that document was. Abu Bakr said: Fatima claimed Fadak and Umme Aiman and Ali testified in her favor; so I wrote this document for her. Umar snatched the document and tore it up and Fatima came out weeping. The following day, Imam Ali (a.s.) came to Abu Bakr when Muhajireen and Ansar were around him. He said: O Abu Bakr, Why did you impound the inheritance of Fatima, which the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) had given to her; although during the lifetime of the Prophet she had taken possession of it and she was the owner of it? Abu Bakr said: It is the right of all Muslims. If Fatima can prove from witnesses that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) gave it to her and made it exclusive for her, I will return it; otherwise she has no right to it. Imam Ali (a.s.) said: O Abu Bakr, do you deny us the divinely sanctioned right, which is there for all Muslims? Abu Bakr said: No. Imam Ali (a.s.) said: If anything is in possession of Muslims, and after that I claim that it belongs to me, from whom would you demand witnesses? Abu Bakr said: From you. Imam Ali (a.s.) said then why did you seek witnesses from Fatima, because during the lifetime of the Prophet, and even after that, it was in her possession, and she was the owner and controller of it? And why did you not seek witnesses from Muslims, as you demanded from me in that supposed issue? Abu Bakr fell silent. Umar said: Stop talking like this as we cannot argue with you. If you bring just witnesses, we will give it to you; otherwise Fatima has no right to it. Imam Ali (a.s.) asked: O Abu Bakr, have you read the Quran? He replied: Yes. He said: Tell me whether this statement of Allah is revealed about us or someone else? 184B ْ ﻢُ ﻛ َ ﱢﺮ ﻬَﻄُ ﻳَ وِ ﺖْ ﻴَ اﻟْﺒـَﻞْ ﻫَ أَﺲْ اﻟﺮﱢﺟ ُ ﻢُ ﻜْ ﻨَ ﻋَﺐِ ﻫْ ﺬُ ﻴِ ﻟُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ُﻳﺪِ ﺮُﺎ ﻳَ ﱠﻤ ﻧِ إ ا ً ﻴﺮِ ﻬْﻄَ ﴾٣٣﴿ ﺗ
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“Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O people of the House! and to purify you a (thorough) purifying.” (Surah Ahzab 33:33) Abu Bakr said: It is revealed in your favor. Imam Ali (a.s.) said: Then if witnesses testify before you (I seek refuge of Allah) that Lady Fatima (s.a.) has committed fornication, what will you do? Abu Bakr said: I will apply the penalty on Fatima as I apply it on others. Imam Ali (a.s.) said: If you do that, you will become a disbeliever. “Why?” asked Abu Bakr. Imam Ali (a.s.) said: Because you rejected the testimony of Allah regarding her and accepted the testimony of people. In the same way, you rejected the command of Allah and the Prophet that he had given Fadak to Fatima and it was in her possession and control and accepted the testimony of a Bedouin, who urinates on his heels and he testified that the Prophet leaves no inheritance. Thus, you took Fadak from Fatima saying that it is public property. Without any doubt the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said that that the claimant has to present witnesses and the defendant has to take the swearing; but you rejected the statement of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and acted in opposition to it. When the discussion reached this point, people started weeping and wails arose. Most people testified to the statements of Imam Ali (a.s.). Amirul Momineen (a.s.) came home and Lady Fatima (s.a.) came to the Masjid and circled the grave of her respected father. She complained of the tragic times and the oppression of hypocrites in couplets, in such a way that wails arose from doors and walls. Abu Bakr and Umar turned to their homes and Abu Bakr called Umar and asked: Did you see how Ali acted with us? If he debates with us in this same manner again, he would destroy our rulership. So, what do you suggest? Umar said: You can order them to be eliminated. Abu Bakr asked: Who can do this? Umar said: Khalid bin Walid. So they summoned Khalid and said: We would like to entrust you with a great assignment. Khalid said: I will do whatever you say, even if it is killing Ali Ibne Abi Talib.
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They said: We want this only. When should I assassinate him? Khalid asked. Abu Bakr said: When he comes for prayers, you stand beside him and when I complete the salutation, you rise up and slay him. Khalid said: I’ll do that. At that time, Asma binte Umais was the wife of Abu Bakr and before that she was wife of Ja’far Tayyar. She was among the Shia of Imam Ali (a.s.). She heard this conversation, but was unable to warn the Imam openly. So she told her slave girl to go to Fatima’s house and convey greetings to her, and to and fro, recite the following verse of Quran, in which the believer of Firon had warned Prophet Musa (a.s.): 185B َ ﻦِ ﻣ َ ﻚَ ﱢﻲ ﻟ ﻧِ إ ْجُ ﺮْﺎﺧَ ﻓ َﻮكُ ﻠُ ﺘـْ ﻘَ ﻴـِ ﻟ َ ﻚِ ﺑ َونُ ﺮِ ﻤَ ﺗْ ﺄَ ﻳ ََ ﻸَ ﱠ اﻟْﻤ نِ إ َ ﻴﻦِ ﴾٢٠﴿ ﺤِاﻟﻨﱠﺎﺻ 1068B“Surely the chiefs are consulting together to slay you, therefore, depart (at once); surely I am of those who wish well to you.” (Surah Qasas 28:20) 3339BShe also said: If they don’t understand you should continue to repeat this verse. That slave girl came conveyed the greetings and turned away from there reciting this verse. 3340BImam Ali (a.s.) said: Tell your mistress after greetings that Almighty Allah will not allow their plot to succeed. According to another tradition he said: If they eliminate me, who will fight the oath breakers (Nakiseen), the unjust (Qasiteen) and apostates (Mariqeen)? 3341BThen Amirul Momineen (a.s.) arose and after getting ready came to the Masjid for prayers and in observance of Taqayyah stood behind Abu Bakr; but he recited his prayer individually. Khalid was also standing besides the Imam, armed with a sword. When Abu Bakr sat down to recite the Tashahud, he felt regretful and feared that mischief would occur. 3342BHe was also aware of the valor and daring of Imam Ali (a.s.), so he was extremely worried. He continued to recite the
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Tashahud again and again and did not recite the salutation due to fear, till people thought that he was making a mistake in prayers. Then he turned to Khalid and said: Don’t do what I had ordered you. According to yet another report he repeated this thrice and after that recited the Salaam. Imam Ali (a.s.) asked: Khalid, what did he order you? Khalid replied: Abu Bakr had commanded me to eliminate you. Imam (a.s.) asked: Will you do it? He replied: Yes, by Allah, if he had not restrained me before saying Salam, I would have definitely eliminated you. Imam caught him and threw him down. Umar said: By Allah, Ali is killing him. At that time people gathered and adjured Imam Ali (a.s.) in the name of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). Imam (a.s.) left that accursed man and caught the collar of Umar and said: O son of Zahhaka, if the bequest of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and the will of Almighty Allah had not been there, you would definitely have come to know that who from us is having less supporters. Then he went back to his house. According to another report, this incident occurred at the time of dawn prayers and that Tashahud was prolonged so much and he continued to ponder for so long that the sun almost arose. On the basis of the report of Abuzar, Imam Ali (a.s.) held Khalid with his index and middle finger and pressed him so hard that he was on the verge of death and he urinated in his clothes. He was flaying his limbs and was unable to speak. Abu Bakr said to Umar: This is due to your wrong advice, I knew that it was imminent; but thanks to Allah, he did not turn to us. Whenever someone tried to free Khalid, Imam glared at him and he turned away in fright. Abu Bakr called Abbas to make peace. Abbas arrived and adjured Imam Ali (a.s.) in the name of the Prophet, Hasan, Husain and their respected mother. At that moment, Imam (a.s.) released him and Abbas kissed the illuminated forehead of the Imam.
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It is mentioned in reliable books that after the usurpation of Fadak, Amirul Momineen (a.s.) wrote a severe letter to Abu Bakr containing many indictments and threats. Abu Bakr became very fearful and wanted to restore Fadak as well as Caliphate, but Umar said: I made the way of Caliphate clear for you and you wish to let it go, as always? I made Arab stalwarts submit before you, but you don’t know its value? This is Ali Ibne Abi Talib, who has slain the leaders of Quraish and destroyed that clan. Do not pay any attention to his threats, as I will defeat him through intrigue. Abu Bakr said: O Umar, I adjure in the name of Allah, leave these fictions, by Allah, if he wants to kill you and me, he can do so with his left hand without even moving his right hand; and nothing has saved us from him, except the following three qualities: First: He is alone and is not having any supporter. Second: He is following the bequest of the Prophet, who commanded him not to take up arms. Third: All Arab tribes harbor malice to him. If these three things had not been there, the Caliphate would have been transferred to him at that time only. Have you forgotten the Battle of Uhad, when all of us fled and he alone drew his sword and slew the standard bearers and stalwarts of Quraish? Do not be deceived by Khalid. And as long as he does not confront us, you also don’t confront him. The author says: As Ahle Sunnat wanted to conceal the order that Abu Bakr and Umar had given about the assassination of Imam Ali (a.s.); that is why they have not mentioned it clearly in most of their books. They have merely reported that Abu Bakr spoke during prayer and addressed Khalid. The context is clear and reports of Shia in this regard are correct and true. As Ibne Abil Hadid says: I asked my teacher, Abu Ja’far Naqib: Is the incident of Khalid that Abu Bakr ordered him to eliminate Ali, true? Abu Ja’far said: Some Alawite Sadat narrate
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it. Moreover, they narrate that a person came to Zufair bin Huzair, a student of Abu Hanifah and inquired whether it was lawful to exit Prayer without reciting Salaam; like speaking; and many other acts and even by passing flatulence. Zufair said: Yes, it is allowed as Abu Bakr said in Tashahud whatever he said. That person asked: What did Abu Bakr say? Zufair said: It is not necessary to ask about it. That man repeated his query and Zufair said: Throw him out as he must be from the followers of Abul Khattab. Ibne Abil Hadid asked Naqib: What do you say regarding this? He resorted to dissimulation and said: I consider it unlikely, but the Imamiyah narrate like this only. In Kitab Aizah, Fazal bin Shazan has mentioned the same incident quoted above from Sufyan bin Uyyana, Hasan bin Salih bin Hayy, Abu Bakr bin Ayyash, Shareek bin Abdullah and many other Ahle Sunnat jurists; and he says: People asked Sufyan, Ibne Hayy and Waki: What is your view about what Abu Bakr said? All replied: It was an evil act, but he did not take it to completion. Another group of the people of Medina says that there is no fault of Abu Bakr; even if he wanted to eliminate a person to maintain unity of Ummah. Since Ali was restraining people from his allegiance, he also ordered him to be killed. Some have, due to fear of disgrace, not mentioned the real order. They just say that Abu Bakr ordered Khalid to do such and such thing, when he recites the Salaam. Then he regretted it and before Salaam, said: O Khalid, don’t do what I ordered you. All writers mention this without clarifying what it was. They take his speaking as proof of the legality of speaking before Salaam. After that he says: Someone asked Abu Yusuf, Chief Qadi of Baghdad and student of Abu Hanifah: What it was that Abu Bakr had told Khalid to do? Abu Yusuf did not reply and said: Shut up, what do you have to do with it? By Allah, if Ali was satisfied with allegiance of Abu Bakr and was obedient to him and he (Abu Bakr) and all his
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companions testify that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: Ali is the from the folks of Paradise. Then there is no greater injustice on the face of the earth than that Abu Bakr should order the killing of Ali. If he was not satisfied with his allegiance, it is, in fact the religion of Shia that Abu Bakr obtained precedence on Ali through force and oppression. [End of the statement of Fazl bin Shazan]. Therefore, we can conclude that even if we don’t know what Abu Bakr ordered Khalid, we can be sure that it must have been something very disgraceful from the way these people are trying to veil the matter. Which Muslim can suggest that one having intention to kill such a great personality is eligible for Caliphate? Curse of Allah be on the oppressors. Among traditions recorded through Ahle Sunnat channels regarding usurpation of Fadak, is the famous sermon of Lady Fatima (s.a.). The actual sermon proves the veracity of her claim. Other than the Holy Imams (a.s.), who are the source of revelation and inspiration, such a discourse cannot be issued from anyone else and Ibne Abil Hadid, a great Ahle Sunnat scholar has, in Sharh Nahjul Balagha, said under the discussion of a letter, which Amirul Momineen (a.s.) wrote to Uthman bin Hunayf, which is having many sections: I quote whatever is mentioned in reports and biography from people of traditions and their books and not from books of Shia and their tradition reporters and whatever I mention in this section, it is from the Kitab Saqifah of Abu Bakr Ahmad bin Abdul Aziz Jauhari and this Abu Bakr Jauhari is a scholar and a traditionist; a prolific writer, a reliable author and a religious personality. All tradition scholars have extolled his virtues and they have narrated excessively from his writings. Thus, he has narrated the following sermon through three chains of narrators from Zainab, daughter of Amirul Momineen (a.s.), Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) and Abdullah bin Hasan.
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The author of Kashful Ghumma has also narrated from Jauhari’s book and Masudi has also mentioned it in his Murujuz Zahab, which is a very reliable book of history. Sayyid Murtaza (r.a.) has narrated it from Ayesha in his book of Shafi. Sayyid Ibne Tawus (r.a.) has also narrated through Ahle Sunnat channels and Sayyid Ahmad bin Abi Tahir has narrated in Balaghatun Nisa through many chains of narrators. Ibne Athir has reported majority of its words in his book of Nihaya. No one can deny this sermon due to its excessive fame. It is a very long sermon and this treatise does not have the scope of the whole sermon. I will quote only some of its parts regarding Fadak. It is narrated that when Abu Bakr decided to seize Fadak from Lady Fatima Zahra (s.a.) and when this was reported to Fatima, she donned her Hijab dress, covered her head and came out along with her attendants and some female relatives. But her covering sheet tangled in her feet due to shame that she was coming out of her house. No onlooker was able to distinguish between her style of walking and that of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), till she came to Abu Bakr in the Masjid. He was there surrounded by Muhajireen and Ansar. A white curtain was placed before Lady Fatima (s.a.) and she seated herself behind the curtain and delivered such an emotional sermon that people in the audience began to wail. Then she paused for a while till they fell silent. Then she resumed her discourse as follows and praised and glorified the Almighty Allah in such a way that everyone was shocked. Then she invoked blessing on the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and mentioned the rights of the Prophet upon his followers. After that she said: Thus, the Almighty Allah took away the soul of His Eminence with mercy and love, because He liked for him the abode of the hereafter. He released him from the travails of the world and gave him the company of the goodly angels, pleasure of the Lord and neighborhood of Almighty Allah. May Allah, the Mighty and the High bless my
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father that he is the Messenger of the Almighty Allah and the trustee of His revelation. He is the chosen one “You are the slaves of Allah; you are the establishers of His commands and prohibitions. You are the possessors of His Religion and His Revelation, the trustworthy ones with regards to yourselves and you should propagate it (Islam) to other nations, while you deem yourselves worthy of all this. A pledge from you is taken in advance by Allah and there is among you His Remembrance, and that is the book of Allah (Quran), the speaking one – that is a book of complete truth, bright effulgence and brilliant light. Its imminence is evident, its secrets are revealed, its apparent are clear, its adherents become reasons for others envy, it leads its adherents to the status of Paradise, its listeners are guided to salvation, and through it gain the illuminated evidences of Allah, it determines the commands and prohibitions, its evidences are illuminated and its proofs are sufficient. It contains the virtues of the Recommendable acts (Mustahabbat), freedom with regards to performing Mubah and Makruh acts, and in it are written down other Legal Laws (of Islam).” “Faith is made to cleanse you of polytheism, prayers are prescribed to keep you away from pride, Zakat is ordered to purify ones self and result in increment of sustenance; Fasting is prescribed so that genuineness may be reinforced. Hajj is prescribed to establish Religion. Justice is prescribed to establish proper harmony in the hearts. The obligation to obey us (the Ahle Bayt) is prescribed to set up order in the community. Our authority (Imamah) is prescribed to save oneself from differences. Jihad is the honor of Islam and humiliation for people of polytheism and hypocrisy. Patience is made a medium for recompense to be bestowed. Enjoining good is prescribed for general welfare (of the society). Righteousness with ones parents is a safeguard against His
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(Allah’s) wrath. Kindness with ones relatives is a medium of increasing lifespan and increment of friends and relations. Retribution is prescribed, so that people’s lives may be safe. Fulfillment of vows leads to forgiveness. Consideration of accuracy in measurement in weighing commodities saves from loss. Prohibition of intoxicants is prescribed, so that man may refrain from filth. Prohibition of defaming (of adultery) is prescribed, so as to keep oneself away from the curse of Allah. Robbery is prohibited, so that the hands may be pure. Polytheism is prohibited, so that sincerity may be established in Allah’s Divinity. 186B َ ﻮنُ ﻤِ ﻠْﺴُ ﻣْ ﻢُ ﺘْ ﻧـَ أَ ﱠ و ﻻِﱠ إ ﻦُﻮﺗُ ﻤَ ﺗَ ﻻَ وِ ﻪِﺎﺗَ ﻘُ ﱠ ﺗـ ﻖَ ﺣَ ﻮا اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ُ ﱠﻘ ﴾١٠٢﴿ اﺗـ 1069B“Be careful of (your duty to) Allah with the care which is due to Him, and do not die unless you are Muslims.” (Surah Aale Imran 3:102) 3378BAnd obey Allah with regards to His orders and prohibitions. For Verily 187B ُ ﺎءَ ﻤَ ﻠُ اﻟْﻌِ ﻩِﺎدَ ﺒِ ﻋْ ﻦِ ﻣَ ﻰ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َﺸْﺨَﺎ ﻳَ ﱠﻤ ﻧِ ۗ إ ◌ ٌ ﻮرُ ﻔَ ﻏٌ ﻳﺰِ ﺰَ ﻋَ ﱠ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ نِ إ ٢٨﴿﴾ 1070B“Those of His servants only who are possessed of knowledge fear Allah; surely Allah is Mighty, Forgiving.” (Surah Fatir 35:28) 3379B“O people! Know that I am Fatima and my father was Muhammad (s.a.w.s.). I say, and I shall repeat again and again, and I shall not utter falsehood, and whatever I do shall not be wrong. 188B ٌ ﻮلُﺳَ رْﻢُﻛ َ ﺎءَ ﺟْ ﺪَ ﻘَ ﻟ ٌ ﻳﺺِ ﺮَ ﺣْ ﱡﻢ ﺘِ ﻨَ ﺎ ﻋَ ﻣِ ﻪْ ﻴَ ﻠَ ﻋٌ ﻳﺰِ ﺰَ ﻋْ ﻢُ ﻜِ ﺴُ ﻔْ ﻧـَ أْ ﻦِ ﻣ ٌ ﻴﻢِ ﺣَ رٌوفُ ءَ رَﻴﻦِ ﻨِ ﻣْ ﺆُﺎﻟْﻤِ ﺑْ ﻢُ ﻜْ ﻴَ ﻠَ ﴾١٢٨﴿ ﻋ
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“Certainly an Apostle has come to you from among yourselves; grievous to him is your falling into distress, excessively solicitous respecting you; to the believers (he is) compassionate, merciful.” (Surah Taubah 9:128) If you understand and see, you will find that this Apostle is my father and not the father of anyone of your females, and is the brother of my cousin (Imam Ali) and not the brother of any one of your males and how fortunate is one related to him (the Prophet). Then the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) proclaimed the message while stopping people from ignorance and polytheism and opposing the customs of polytheists. He broke their backs and their breath had entrapped in their breasts. He called to the way of his Lord with wisdom and kind exhortation. He broke the idols and crushed the heads (rebellion) of the polytheists until they were eradicated and took to flight. Then the darkness of the night passed away and it dawned and truth became manifest in its true form. When the Leader of the Religion (the Prophet) spoke, foam gushed forth from the mouths of polytheists and they became silent. The degraded group of hypocrites was annihilated and pledges between disbelief and animosity broke. You all started uttering the words of sincerity (Monotheism) and were among a group consisting of illuminated countenances and the fasting ones, those whom Allah intended to keep off from them uncleanness and purify them with a thorough purification. 189B ِ اﻟﻨﱠﺎرَ ﻦِ ﻣٍ ةَ ﺮْ ﻔُﺎ ﺣَ ﻔَ ﺷٰ ﻰَ ﻠَ ﻋْ ﻢُ ﺘْ ﻨُ ﻛ َ و 1072B“And you were on the brink of a pit of fire.” (Surah Aale Imran 3:103) 3383BYou were a community that was (considered just) a medium of quenching the thirst of others and a tool in the hands of the avaricious. You were similar to the place were hasty men come to take the fire (for their own benefit), and were being trampled
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under the feet. While your state at that moment was that you were drinking water from wayside gutter and your food was unclean hides (of animals) or leaves. You were humiliated and degraded among men, fearing that people may carry you away by force. Allah, the Blessed, the Sublime, delivered you through the medium of my father, Muhammad (s.a.w.s.), while you attained this deliverance after he (the Prophet) faced numerous straightened circumstances and scuffle with stubborn polytheists, the beasts among Arabs and after that with People of the Book (Christians and Jews).” “Whenever polytheists kindled the fire of battle, Allah would put it off. When the adherents of Shaitan manifested themselves or the beastly ones among polytheists opened their mouths of envy, he (the Prophet) dispatched his brother (Ali) to them. He crushed them and extinguished their fire with his sword. He bore extreme brutality in the way of Allah and strove to obey the commands of Allah. He was nearest to the Prophet of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and the Master of the Friends of Allah. He was always ready to serve the creations (of Allah), looking at the welfare of people, endeavoring and toiling (in this way). He was not affected with the censure of any censurer, while you were living a life of pleasure and peace, and far from the severity of battle; in enjoyment and security. Then you waited for us Ahle Bayt (a.s.) to be engulfed in the tragedy and to hear this news; and in the heat of the battle you retreated and fled.” “When Allah exalted His Prophet (s.a.w.s.) from this perishable world towards the abode of His prophets (a.s.) and His ‘Chosen Ones’, the thorns of hypocrisy manifested in you; and the mantle of your religion gave, and the astray ones, who were silent till yesterday, suddenly started shrieking; the degraded and mean ones came out of their burrows into the open, and the valiant ones of the polytheists of falsehood started roaring.
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Now, these same people have taken the reins of authority in their hands and Shaitan has raised his head from the place of his concealment, inviting you to evil; and he found you accepting his invitation. You beheld him with an intention to secure position or being deceived. Shaitan invited you to rebel and found you to be base and mean and he incited your rage and you were enraged. You began to usurp the rights of others and entered the spring that did not belong to you. You did all this when not much time has passed after the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and the wound (of his death) is deep and the wounds of our hearts have not yet healed and the corpse of the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was not even laid to rest in the grave. You acted very swiftly dreading an agitation. Beware they themselves have fallen into the pit of agitation. ﻮا 190B ُ ﻄَ ﻘَ ﺳِ ﺔَ ﻨْ ﺘـِﻲ اﻟْﻔِ ﻓ َ ﻻَ ۗ أ ◌ َ ﻳﻦِ ﺮِﺎﻓَﺎﻟْﻜِ ﺑٌ ﺔَﻴﻄِ ﺤُ ﻤَ ﻟ َﻨﱠﻢَ ﻬَ ﱠ ﺟ نِ إَ و ٤٩﴿﴾ 1073B“Surely into trial have they already tumbled down, and most surely hell encompasses the unbelievers.” (Surah Taubah 9:49) 3390BFar from it! What has happened to you? Where are you wandering? The book of Allah (i.e. Quran) is amongst you, whose orders are apparent, and judgments, illuminated, and its emblems dazzling, whose commands and prohibitions are straight forward. Did you not cast it behind your backs and turned your faces away from it in disgust to something else for judgment? 191B ً ﻻَ ﺪَ ﺑَﻴﻦِ ﻤِﻠﻈﱠﺎﻟ ِ ﻟَﺲْ ﺌِ ﴾٥٠﴿ ﺑ 1074B“Evil is (this) change for the unjust.” (Surah Kahf 18:50)
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192B ِ ةَ ﺮِ ﺧْﻲ اﻵِ ﻓَ ﻮُ ﻫَ وُ ﻪْ ﻨِ ﻣَﻞَ ﺒْ ﻘُ ﻳـْ ﻦَ ﻠَﺎ ﻓـًﻳﻨِ دِ مَ ﻼْﺳِْ اﻹَ ﺮْ ﻴـَ ﻏِ ﻎَ ﺘْ ﺒَ ﻳـْ ﻦَ ﻣَ و َ ﻳﻦِ ﺮِﺎﺳَ اﻟْﺨَ ﻦِ ﴾٨٥﴿ ﻣ 1075B“And whoever desires a religion other than Islam, it shall not be accepted from him, and in the hereafter he shall be one of the losers.” (Surah Aale Imran 3:85) 3391BYou did not even wait long enough for the tempest to calm, and hastened to take the reins (of caliphate) into your hands. After having acquired it, you began to ignite the fire of mutiny and became engrossed in inciting the fire. 3392BYou responded to the call of Shaitan, the seducer, and intended to put out the light of the Glorious Religion. You began to destroy the practices of the Chosen Prophet (s.a.w.s.); then delight in suckling the delicacies of caliphate and thus, you oppose the Ahle Bayt (a.s.) in secret and in open; while we have no choice, but to bear the cuts of your daggers and the piercing of the spear.” 3393B“Now, you presume that we do not get any inheritance from the Prophet (s.a.w.s.). Do you follow the customs of ignorance? 193B َ ﻮنُ ﻐْ ﺒـَ ﻳـِ ﱠﺔ ﻴِ ﻠِ ﺎﻫَ اﻟْﺠَ ﻢْ ﻜُﺤَ ﻓَ ۚ أ ◌ ٍ مْ ﻮَ ﻘِﺎ ﻟً ﻤْ ﻜُ ﺣِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ ﻦِ ﻣُ ﻦَﺴْ ﺣَ أْ ﻦَ ﻣَ و ﴾٥٠﴿ َﻮنُﻨِﻮﻗُﻳ 1076B“Is it then the judgment of (the times of) ignorance that they desire? And who is better than Allah to judge for a people who are sure?” (Surah Maidah 5:50) 3394BIt is as clear as sun that I am the daughter of the Prophet of Allah (s.a.w.s.). 3395BO Muslims! Is it befitting that I be deprived of my inheritance O son of Abu Qahafa? Is it mentioned in Quran that you inherit from your father, while according to your opinion I cannot inherit from my father?
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ﺎ 194B ّ ﻳِ ﺮَﺎ ﻓً ﺌْ ﻴَ ﺷِ ﺖْ ﺌِ ﺟْ ﺪَ ﻘَ ﴾٢٧﴿ ﻟ 1077B“Surely you have done a strange thing.” (Surah Maryam 19:27) 3396BIndeed, you have made a strange allegation on Allah and His Prophet. Did you then intentionally forsake the Book of Allah and leave it behind your backs? Allah says: 195B َ ودُ اوَ دُﺎنَ ﻤْ ﻴَ ﻠُ ﺳَثِ رَ وَ و 1078B“And Sulaiman was Dawood’s heir.” (Surah Naml 27:16) 3397BAnd in the episode of Zakariya (a.s.), He says: ﺎ 196B ّ ﻴِ ﻟَ وَ ﻚْ ﻧُ ﺪَ ﻟْ ﻦِﻲ ﻣِ ﻟْﺐَ ﻬَ ﴾٥﴿ ﻓـ 1079B“Therefore grant me from Thyself an heir,” (Surah Maryam 19:5) 197B ُ ثِ ﺮَ ﻳَ ﻲ وِ ﻨُ ﺛِ ﺮَ ﻳ َ ﻮبُ ﻘْ ﻌَ ﻳـِ آلْ ﻦِ ﻣ 1080B“Who should inherit me and inherit from the children of Yaqub.” (Surah Maryam 19:6) 3398BAllah also says: 198B ِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِﺎبَ ﺘِﻲ ﻛِ ﻓٍﺾْ ﻌَ ﺒـِ ﺑٰ ﻰَ ﻟْ وَ أْ ﻢُ ﻬُﻀْ ﻌَ ﺑـِ ﺎمَ ﺣْ رَْ ﻮ اﻷُوﻟُ أَ و 1081B“And the possessors of relationships are nearer to each other in the ordinance of Allah.” (Surah Anfal 8:75) 3399BAnd Allah says: 199B ْ ﻢُ ﻛِ دَ ﻻْ وَﻲ أِ ﻓُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ُ ﻢُﻴﻜِﻮﺻُ ۖ ﻳ ◌ ِ ﻦْ ﻴَ ﻴـَ ﺜـْ ﻧـُْ ﻆﱢ اﻷ َ ﺣُﻞْ ﺜِ ﻣِ ﺮَ ﻠﺬﱠﻛ ِ ﻟ
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“Allah enjoins you concerning your children: The male shall have the equal of the portion of two females.” (Surah Nisa 4:11) He also says: 200B ِ وفُ ﺮْ ﻌَﺎﻟْﻤِ ﺑَﻴﻦِ ﺑَ ﺮْ ﻗـَْ اﻷَ وِ ﻦْ ﻳَ ﺪِاﻟَ ﻮْ ﻠِ ﻟُ ﱠﺔ ﻴِ ﺻَا اﻟْﻮً ﺮْ ﻴـَ ﺧَ كَ ﺮَ ﺗـْ نِ ۖ إ ﺎ ◌ ّ ﻘَ ﺣ َ ﻴﻦِ ﱠﻘ ﺘُ ﻰ اﻟْﻤَ ﻠَ ﴾١٨٠﴿ ﻋ 1083B“If he leaves behind wealth for parents and near relatives according to usage a duty (incumbent) upon those who guard (against evil).” (Surah Baqarah 2:180) 3401BYou presume that I do not have a share and allowance (in the inheritance) and that I should not inherit from my father and there is no relation between us? 3402BHas Allah in His verses not taken into consideration you all in general and are not all classes of men included in these verses? Is my father discharged from the generality of this verse? Or you say that two people of the same community do not inherit from one another? Is not my father and myself a part and parcel of one community? Are you more cognizant of understanding the general and particular verses of the Quran than my father (s.a.w.s.) and my cousin (Ali)? 3403BThen take thou it (Fadak) until we meet you on the Day of Judgment, then Allah is the Best Judge, and Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) shall be the claimant on that day, and our destined time of meeting will be Qiyamat. On that promised day, the fallacious shall be engulfed in deep loss and their regret shall be of no use to them. 201B ﱞ ﺮَ ﻘَ ﺘـْﺴُ ﻣٍ ﺈَ ﺒَ ﻞﱢ ﻧـ ُ ﻜِ ۚ ﻟ ◌ َ ﻮنُ ﻤَ ﻠْ ﻌَ ﺗـَفْ ﻮَﺳَ ﴾٦٧﴿ و 1084B“For every prophecy is a term and you will come to know (it).” (Surah Anaam 6:67)
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202B ٌ ابَ ﺬَ ﻋِ ﻪْ ﻴَ ﻠَ ﻞﱡ ﻋ ِ ﺤَ ﻳَ وِﻳﻪِ ﺰْﺨُ ﻳٌابَ ﺬَ ﻋِﻴﻪِ ﺗْ ﺄَ ﻳْ ﻦَ ﻣَﻮنُ ﻤَ ﻠْ ﻌَ ﺗـَفْ ﻮَﺴَ ﻓ ٌ ﻴﻢِ ﻘُ ﴾٣٩﴿ ﻣ 1085B“So shall you know: who it is on whom, will come a chastisement, which will disgrace him, and on whom will lasting chastisement come down.” (Surah Hud 11:39) 3404BThen Fatima (s.a.) turned to the Ansar and said: O group of valorous men! Aides of nation and helpers of Islam! What is this slackness with regards to me and you behold oppression on me and lie in slumber. Then did not my father say that the rights of a father for his children should be considered? How soon have you changed tracks, when you possess the strength to defend my rights and are capable of supporting me in my claim? Do you say that Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) passed away and there remains no responsibility upon you? 3405BThen his loss is great and the crack that has appeared is grave and the separation is immense. Unity has shattered and the earth is engulfed in darkness due to his concealment. The sun and the moon are in eclipse and the stars have scattered. Hopes have broken, mountains have crumbled, the family of the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) is lost and their sanctity is dishonored after his death. That, by Allah, is a great calamity and adversity, while this calamity is incomparable and there is no other greater calamity than the death of the Prophet (s.a.w.s.). 3406BThis (demise of Prophet) was already declared to you by the Book of Allah, may He be glorified. You read the Quran day and night, in a loud voice, lamenting, in a normal tone and in a pleasant voice. What happened to Allah’s Prophets (a.s.) and Apostles (a.s.) previously, the command is decisive and destiny enjoined.
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203B ُ ﻞُ اﻟﺮﱡﺳ ِ ﻪِ ﻠْ ﺒَ ﻗـْ ﻦِ ﻣْﺖَ ﻠَ ﺧْ ﺪَ ﻗٌﻮلُ ﺳَ ﱠ ر ﻻِ إٌ ﱠﺪ ﻤَﺤُﺎ ﻣَ ﻣَ ۚ و ◌ َ ﺎتَ ﻣْ نِ ﺈَ ﻓَ أ ْ ﻢُ ﻜِﺎﺑَ ﻘْﻋَ أٰ ﻰَ ﻠَ ﻋْ ﻢُ ﺘْ ﺒَ ﻠَ ﻘْ اﻧـَﻞِ ﺘُ ﻗْ وَ ۚ أ ◌ ِ ﻪْ ﻴَ ﺒـِ ﻘَ ﻋٰ ﻰَ ﻠَ ﻋْﺐِ ﻠَ ﻘْ ﻨـَ ﻳـْ ﻦَ ﻣَ و ﺎً ﺌْ ﻴَ ﺷَ ﱠ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ﺮُﻀَ ﻳْ ﻦَ ﻠَ ۗ ﻓـ ◌ َ ﻳﻦِ ﺮِ اﻟﺸﱠﺎﻛ ُ ي اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِ ﺰْﺠَ ﻴَ ﺳَ ﴾١٤٤﴿ و 1086B“And Muhammad is no more than an apostle; the apostles have already passed away before him; if then he dies or is killed will you turn back upon your heels? And whoever turns back upon his heels, he will by no means harm Allah in the least; and Allah will reward the grateful.” (Surah Aale Imran 3:144) 3407BBeware! I said what I wanted, even though I know that you shall not assist me, while this slackness of yours to assist us has become your habit, but all this complaint is the result of the grief of the heart and internal rage, and (I know that) it is of no use, but I said it to express my internal sorrow and complete my proof upon you. 3408BUsurp it (Fadak), and fasten it firmly, for it is weak and feeble, while its shame and disgrace shall always remain on you. Rage of Allah is cast upon it, and it shall be an everlasting disgrace upon you, and it shall lead you to the fire of Allah that will engulf the heart. Thus, Allah sees whatever you do: 204B َ ﻮنُ ﺒِ ﻠَ ﻘْ ﻨـَ ﻳـٍ ﺐَ ﻠَ ﻘْ ﻨـُ يﱠ ﻣ َﻮا أُ ﻤَ ﻠَ ﻇَﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ ُ ﻢَ ﻠْ ﻌَ ﻴـَ ﺳَ ﴾٢٢٧﴿ و 1087B“And they who act unjustly shall know to what final place of turning they shall turn back.” (Surah Shoara 26:227) 3409BI am the daughter of the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) who was sent to warn you against the severe wrath of Allah: 205B َ ﻮنُ ﻠِ ﺎﻣَ ﱠﺎ ﻋ ﻧِ إْ ﻢُ ﻜِ ﺘَﺎﻧَ ﻜَ ﻣٰ ﻰَ ﻠَﻮا ﻋُ ﻠَ ﴾١٢١﴿ ﻤْاﻋ 1088B“Act according to your state; surely we too are acting.” (Surah Hud 11:121)
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206B َ ونُ ﺮِ ﻈَ ﺘْ ﻨُ ﱠﺎ ﻣ ﻧِوا إُ ﺮِ ﻈَ ﺘْاﻧـَ ﴾١٢٢﴿ و 1089B“And wait; surely we are waiting also.” (Surah Hud 11:122) 3410BWhen the speech of Fatima (s.a.) reached here, Abu Bakr replied to her. After Praising and Glorifying Allah, he said, “O daughter of Prophet of Allah! Your father, Prophet of Allah, was affectionate, generous, kind and merciful to the believers and enraged and severe to unbelievers. 3411BThe Prophet of Allah was your father in relation and not of any other female, and he was brother of your husband and not of anyone else. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) preferred him (Ali) for all important tasks than all else, and he was an excellent aide for him. None befriends you, except the felicitous and none, except the unfortunate can bear enmity to you. 3412BYou are the Chaste Progeny of Prophet of Allah and you are the virtuous and chosen ones of Allah. You are our guides to felicity and shall be our master to Paradise. And you, O best of women, the daughter of the best of Prophets, are honest in your speech and eminent with regards to intelligence and your words cannot be refuted, rather they should be accepted. 3413BBy Allah! I have not disobeyed the orders of Prophet and have not acted, except by his permission. Certainly, one, who leads does not speak a lie. I hold Allah as witness that I heard from Prophet of Allah that we prophets do not leave any gold or silver, land or property as inheritance, while our inheritance is Knowledge, Wisdom, the Book and Prophethood. 3414BWhatever we leave behind of material things are under the possession of one, who takes up the authority and it is upto him to spend it as he may deem fit. I have spent from that, regarding what you claim, for preparing avenues and resources for wars, like weapons and mounts, so that Muslims may succeed and obtain greatness, and they may attain victory in wars against polytheists and enemies.
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I did this after obtaining general consent of Muslims, and I do not share this view alone. This is my personal wealth, you may take it as you please, and I don’t wish to hoard my wealth withholding it from you. You are the mistress of the nation of your father and the Chaste Mother of your children. We don’t refuse your merits and status in consideration of your father and children. While your order upon what is in my hands is binding, but how do you think that I disobey the orders of your father the Prophet of Allah?” Fatima (s.a.) replied, “Glory be to Allah! My father the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) never turned his face from the Quran nor opposed it, rather he was obedient to its injunctions and traversed the path in the light of its verses. Have you gathered unitedly upon treachery and making excuse with deceit and fraud? These strategies of yours are similar to strategies of hypocrites during the lifetime of Prophet (s.a.w.s.), and this is the Quran that is a justifiable judge and a decisive orator. It says: 207B َ وَ ﻚْ ﻧُ ﺪَ ﻟْ ﻦِﻲ ﻣِ ﻟْﺐَ ﻬَ ﻓـ ﺎ ّ ﻴِ ﴾٥﴿ ﻟ 1090B“Therefore grant me from Thyself an heir,” (Surah Maryam 19:5) 208B َ ﻮبُ ﻘْ ﻌَ ﻳـِ آلْ ﻦِ ﻣُثِ ﺮَ ﻳَ ﻲ وِ ﻨُ ﺛِ ﺮَ ﻳ 1091B“Who should inherit me and inherit from the children of Yaqub.” (Surah Maryam 19:6) 3418BHe also says: 209B َ ودُ اوَ دُﺎنَ ﻤْ ﻴَ ﻠُ ﺳَثِ رَ وَ و 1092B“And Sulaiman was Dawood’s heir.” (Surah Naml 27:16) 3419BAllah, in His Book, has discussed in detail and clearly regarding laws of inheritance; precepts and classes of heirs, and
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has explicitly declared the portions of heirs among men and women and there is no reason for hesitation or doubt by deceptive people. These verses of Quran have refuted suspicion and doubts of those to come in future. ا 210B ً ﺮْ ﻣَ أْ ﻢُ ﻜُﺴُ ﻔْ ﻧـَ أْ ﻢُ ﻜَ ﻟ ْﺖَ ﱠﻟ ﻮَ ﺳْﻞَ ۖ ﺑ ◌ ٌ ﻴﻞِ ﻤَ ﺟ ٌ ﺮْ ﺒـَﺼَ ۖ ﻓ ◌ ُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ و َ ﻮنُ ﻔِﺼَﺎ ﺗَ ﻣٰ ﻰَ ﻠَ ﻋُﺎنَ ﻌَ ﴾١٨﴿ ﺘـْﺴُاﻟْﻤ 1093B“Nay, your souls have made the matter light for you, but patience is good and Allah is He, Whose help is sought for against what you describe.” (Surah Yusuf 12:18) 3420BAbu Bakr replied, “Certainly the words of Allah and His Prophet (s.a.w.s.) are true and right while you, O daughter of Prophet of Allah speak the truth. You are the mine of wisdom, homeland of guidance and blessings, Pillar of Religion and Evidences of truth, and I do not dispute your opinion and words, but these Muslims seated before judged and opined similarly. And whatever I have done was in accordance to their opinion. This (usurpation of Fadak) is not done by me to display arrogance or deem myself to be great, nor is my personal opinion present in it, neither do I prefer myself upon others, and these all are witness upon these words of mine.” 3421BFatima (s.a.) turned towards those present and said, “O group of Muslims! Very soon you hastened to fallacious words and shut your eyes in the wake of ugly and harmful deeds. ﺎ 211B َ ﻬُﺎﻟَ ﻔْ ﻗـَ أٍﻮبُ ﻠُ ﻗـٰ ﻰَ ﻠَ ﻋْ مَ أَآنْ ﺮُ اﻟْﻘَونُ ﱠﺮ ﺑـَ ﺪَ ﺘَ ﻳـَ ﻼَ ﻓَ ﴾٢٤﴿ أ 1094B“Do they not then reflect on the Quran? Nay, on the hearts there are locks.” (Surah Muhammad 47:24) 212B ﱠ ﻼَ ۖ ﻛ ◌ ْ ﻞَ ۜ ﺑ ◌ َ ﻮنُ ﺒِ ﺴْ ﻜَﻮا ﻳُﺎﻧَﺎ ﻛَ ﻣْ ﻢِ ﻬِﻮﺑُ ﻠُ ﻗـٰ ﻰَ ﻠَ ﻋَانَ ﴾١٤﴿ ر 1095B“Nay! Rather, what they used to do has become like rust upon their hearts.” (Surah Mutaffifeen 83:14)
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These evil deeds have shut your ears and eyes. The result of your deeds is very evil, as also what you have indicated. And the things that you usurped are also evil, and by Allah, you shall find it weighty and not be able to bear its burden. Its end shall be very ugly, when the curtain shall be lifted from before you and adversities behind it shall be manifested to you. There shall appear unto you from your Lord what you had not been reckoning. 213B َ ﻮنُ ﻠِ ﻄْ ﺒُ اﻟْﻤَ ﻚِﺎﻟَ ﻨُ ﻫَ ﺮِ ﺴَ ﺧَ ﴾٧٨﴿ و 1096B“And those who treated (it) as a lie were lost.” (Surah Ghafir 40:78) 3423BIn conclusion of sermon, Fatima (s.a.) turned to the grave of the Prophet of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and addressed him saying: 3424B“Just after you, such troubles and incidents appeared, that if you were alive, they would not have increased; your death for us is similar to the earth devoid of rain, your nation defaulted after your departure, then be thou witness and do not neglect it; and the one, who occupies proximity and status near Allah, is near to his relatives too (and does not forget them); a few men arose, whose hearts were full of rancor, when you were no longer amongst us and were hidden under the earth; a group of men looked at us with resentment and deemed our status low. 3425BWhen you went away from our midst they snatched all our rights; you were the light and a full moon from whom people benefited, and it is you upon whom books were revealed from Allah; while Jibraeel who brought the verses, was our aide, and all goodness left with your passing away; and I wish death had taken us before you. We are engulfed in such sorrow after your departure, that no sorrow among the Arabs and Non-Arabs can be compared to that of ours’.” 3426BImam Ali (a.s.) was waiting at home for Fatima (s.a.). Fatima (s.a.) arose from the grave of the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) after her discourse and weeping, and then she proceeded to her house
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in a disturbed state. When she entered her sight fell on Imam Ali (a.s.). She said, “O son of Abu Talib! You are sitting in seclusion similar to a child wrapped up in its mother’s womb. You are taking refuge in a corner of the house like an accused. Are you not the one, who tore the wings of hawks, while now, the emptyhanded people are usurping your rights? This is son of Abu Qahafa, who snatched with oppression the gift of my father and sustenance of my sons. He opposes me openly, and I found him to be my worst enemy. The Ansar have displayed slackness to assist me, and Muhajireen too turned a blind eye. None defended me or prevented their oppression. I left in a fit of rage and returned defeated and humiliated. From the day you sheathed your sword, you portrayed yourself as meek in front of others. You are the one, who hunted the wolves of Arabs and now, you take refuge on the earth? Neither do you silence the speaking ones nor do you take steps to stop the fallacious. I have nothing in my fold and I wish I had died before sitting in seclusion and humiliation. May Allah forgive me when I have spoken harshly in your presence. And you should defend and assist me. Woe upon me every sunrise! Woe upon me every sunset! My refuge (the Prophet) has passed away and my arms have weakened due to his separation. I complain to my father and complain to Allah. O Allah! Your Power and Might is more than anyone else’s and Your punishment and wrath is also severer than all.” Ali (a.s.) told her, “Woe and wailing should not be for you, but for your enemies. Control yourself, O daughter of the Chosen one of Allah and remembrance of Prophethood! I have not acted feebly in the acts of religion nor have I neglected what is destined for me. If you worry regarding your sustenance, know that it is already reserved for you and your Surety (Allah) is Trustworthy. Whatever has been destined for you in the hereafter is better than what they snatched from you. Leave it to Allah.” Fatima
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(s.a.) was pacified by these words and she said, “Verily Allah is sufficient for me and the Most Excellent Protector is He.” The author says: At this point, investigation of some issues is necessary. The first is the removal of those doubts regarding the way Lady Fatima (s.a.) spoke to Imam Ali (a.s.) as both of them were infallible personalities. The fact of the matter was based on exigency, so that accursed one may become aware that Amirul Momineen (a.s.) did not leave Caliphate on account of his choice and that he was angry at the usurpation of Fadak. In many places of Quran, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) is addressed in harsh words, but it implies condemnation and warning to others and it is like the harsh statements of Musa (a.s.) when he returned to his nation and found that his followers have adopted the worship of calf. So, Musa (a.s.) threw down the tablets, caught the beard of Harun (a.s.), and pulled it inspite of being aware that there was no fault of his. The intention was to expose the evil of the act his people had committed. Like the chastisement Almighty Allah would send on Prophet Isa (a.s.) if he asked people to consider him and his mother as two deities, although the Almighty knows that he never did so. There are many examples of such discourses. If they say that so much exaggeration on her part in her claim of Fadak, her coming into public and delivering the sermon is in negation of her sanctity, piety and perfection of divine cognition; it can be replied from two aspects: Firstly, the right was not exclusive to Lady Fatima (s.a.) that she could have surrendered it for those oppressors. On the contrary, all the Imams of guidance and noble descendants of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) had a share in it till Judgment Day. Thus, to reach a compromise in such a matter would have entailed trespassing on their rights. That is why, it was incumbent on her to try as much as possible that their rights are not destroyed. Also, the intention of Lady Fatima Zahra (s.a.) was not recovery of Fadak alone, on the contrary, it was to expose the disbelief and hypocrisy of those enemies of faith, so that people
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may recognize them and are not deceived by their misguidance and that the proof is exhausted on all who were present there and even those who were absent; and that evidence is established for the Shia till Judgment Day. As she has hinted at this at the end of this sermon: “In spite of knowing that you will not help me, I mentioned all this to exhaust the argument.” It was like the debating of Amirul Momineen (a.s.) with those hypocrites regarding Caliphate and all his life his expression of oppression and complaining, as mentioned a number of times before. It was not due to love of the world, position and rulership, but it was to expose their injustice and apostasy, so that proof may be exhausted on all. Secondly is explanation of disbelief of Abu Bakr and Umar, as mentioned in reports regarding this matter and it is possible through a number of aspects: First Aspect
It is learnt from the reports of Shia and Ahle Sunnat books that Lady Fatima (s.a.) and Amirul Momineen (a.s.) considered those two hypocrites as oppressors, usurpers and sinners in this matter and they also considered these two lofty personalities liars, false claimants and deniers of the imam; and it is necessary that one of the two sides should be right. Ahle Sunnat people have also mentioned in their Sihah books through numerous channels that one, who leaves the obedience of the Imam, separates from congregation and dies in this condition would have died the death of Ignorance. Moreover, it is narrated that one, who leaves the obedience to the extent of one hand span, he dies the death of Ignorance and one, who dies without having allegiance of an imam on his neck, dies the death of Ignorance. It is proved and very much clear that Lady Fatima (s.a.) never approved the Caliphate of Abu Bakr and considered him
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deviated and an invalid Caliph. So much so that she passed away in this condition. Thus, one, who believes in the imamate of Abu Bakr, has to believe that the chief of ladies of universe, whom Almighty Allah had purified from every sin and filth died the death of deviation and Ignorance! However, no apostate or heretic can admit this. In Jamiul Usul, it is narrated from Sahih Muslim and Sahih Abu Dawood that Lady Fatima Zahra (s.a.) asked Abu Bakr to restore the inheritance she had received from her respected father and also what Almighty Allah had given her from spoils. Abu Bakr said: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: We do not leave any inheritance, whatever we leave is charity. Fatima was angered and she became aloof from him and remained like this till she passed away from the world. After the passing away of Prophet, Fatima remained alive for around six months. She continued demanding her share from what Almighty Allah had bestowed to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.); that is Khyber, Fadak and endowments of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) in Medina, but Abu Bakr refused to hand them over to her. Umar acted similarly; that is although he restored the endowments of Medina to Ali and Abbas, but he retained Khyber and Fadak. Some of these points are also mentioned in Sahih Bukhari. Ibne Abil Hadid narrates from Kitabul Saqifah that when Abu Bakr seized Fadak from Fatima and justified his stance, Fatima said: By Allah, I will never speak to you again. Abu Bakr said: By Allah, I will never become aloof from you. Fatima said: By Allah, I will invoke divine curse on you. Abu Bakr said: I will pray for you. When it was the time of the passing away of Lady Fatima (s.a.), she drew a will that Abu Bakr should not pray on her bier. That is why she was buried during the night and Abbas prayed on her bier. There was a period of seventy-two days between her demise and the passing away of Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). It is mentioned in Ahle Sunnat Sihah books that neither Amirul
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Momineen (a.s.) nor anyone from Bani Hashim pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr during the lifetime of Fatima. Thus, it is clear that the Caliphate of Abu Bakr was invalid and he was unjust in usurping Fadak; and a liar in quoting the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). If not, then Amirul Momineen (a.s.), in spite of infallibility and purity, and not separating from truth was disobedient, oppressor and one disowned by his imam. Moreover, the enmity of Amirul Momineen (a.s.) is a sign of disbelief and hypocrisy and what enmity can be more severe than that which these people displayed in this incident and other incidents against the Holy Imam (a.s.)? So much so that Ibne Abil Hadid has narrated from Saqifah of Jauhari that when Abu Bakr heard the sermon of Lady Fatima Zahra (s.a.) on the matter of Fadak, he mounted the pulpit and said: “O people! What situation is this? Why do you lend your ears to every speech and where was this desire of yours during the age of the Prophet of Allah (s.a.w.s.)? Beware! Then anyone, who has heard anything regarding it (Fadak) from the Prophet of Allah (s.a.w.s.) should relate it, and whoever was present should say something. Verily he is a fox who is betrayed by his own tail (he refers to Imam Ali, Allah’s refuge), he seduces and is the one, who says that we should return to the previous state (of confusion) when he has turned old. He invites the weak ones to assist him and seeks help from women, similar to the renowned woman Umm Tahhal,1 whose most dear kinsman is one, who is more disgraced.
1 Umme Tahhal was an adulteress in the days of ignorance, with whom the men of her own family were fond of committing adultery. Thus, Abu Bakr uses such offensive language for Imam Ali (a.s.). The Ulama have, in slightly different words, reported from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) that, “One who reviles Ali, really reviles me; who reviles me, really reviles Allah.” (Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, Musnad; Imam Nasai, Khasaisul Alawiyah; Imam Dhahabi and Fakhruddin Razi in their Tafseer; Ibne Abil Hadid, Shahr Nahjul Balagha; Muhammad bin
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Beware! If I desire I could speak and if I speak I could bring to light, but now, I have chosen silence.” Then he turned to Ansar and said, “O Ansar! I heard your stupid talks that you are nearer to the Prophet (s.a.w.s.), you gave refuge to the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and assisted him, because he came to you. Beware! I shall extend my tongue and hands to the one, who thinks that we are not entitled to this position.” Saying this, he alighted from the pulpit and Fatima (s.a.) returned home. The author says: O, seekers of truth! Ponder upon this report and see with eyes of justice. Ali is the chief of successors, cousin and brother of Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.); having such excellence that friends and foes both narrate them. Can one, who makes such allegations against him be eligible for Caliphate and claim any share in Islam? Another reason is falsification of Lady Fatima (s.a.), daughter of Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and chief of ladies of universe; in spite her infallibility proved by the statements of Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and Verse of Purification; which is in fact, a refutation of statements of Allah and His Messenger.
Yusuf Ganji Shafei, Kifayatut Talib; Sibte Ibne Jauzi, Tadkira Khawasul Ummah; Imam Muslim, Sahih; Muhammad bin Talha Shafei, Matalibus Soo-ol; Hakim Nishapuri, Mustadrak. Muhammad bin Ganji Shafei in Kifayatut Talib reports that once Abdullah bin Abbas and Saeed bin Jubair saw on the brink of Zamzam a group of Syrians ranting at Ali (a.s.). They went to them and said, “Who among you was abusing the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.)”? They replied, “None of us was abusing… Then they said, “Well, who among you was abusing Ali (a.s.)”? They replied, “Yes, we have been abusing Ali.” They said, “You should bear witness that we heard the Prophet of Allah (s.a.w.s.) saying to Ali, one who abuses you really abuses me; one who abuses me, really abuses Allah. If someone abuses Allah, He will throw him headlong into the fire of hell.”
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Second Aspect
Through Ahle Sunnat and Shia channels, it is narrated in widely reported traditions that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Fatima is a part of me; one, who angers her, has in fact angered me; and one, who has hurt her, has in fact hurt me, as was mentioned previously also. It is evidence of the infallibility of Lady Fatima Zahra (s.a.), because if divine disobedience was possible from her, it would be necessary for Abu Bakr to issue legal penalty on her and to support her in that disobedience would not be approved by Allah and His Prophet. If they say that harassing her oppressively causes displeasure of the Prophet and keeping her happy in obedience is pleasing to the Prophet, we will reply that specification is against the original implication, while the tradition is general. If it is implied, no difference will remain between her and other Muslims and no excellence would be proved in her favor in this statement, although by general consensus this statement was issued by way of praise and it was a specific statement. Also, comparing her to a part of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) would be useless, because other people also share this quality. Also, there is the tradition mentioned in Sihah books of Ahle Sunnat that I leave among you two great things: The Book of Allah and my Ahle Bayt, if you follow them, you would never go astray. In Mishkat etc., it is narrated from Abuzar that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: The simile of my Ahle Bayt is like the simile of the Ark of Nuh; one, who boarded it, was delivered and one, who kept away was destroyed. In many traditions of their Sihah, it is mentioned that Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain are family members of the Prophet and following them is cause of deliverance and opposing them brings destruction. Thus, it is necessary that their statements should be based on truth and their behavior be exemplary to be followed. They should be infallible in words and deeds and their opponent should be deviated and accursed.
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Third Aspect
The claim of Abu Bakr that prophets do not leave any inheritance is false and fabricated due to many reasons. First of all it is against verses of Quran. Yahya inherited Zakariya. If they say that inheritance implies knowledge and prophethood, we will reply that it is invalid due to many reasons: First
On the basis of dictionary meaning and common parlance, inheritance implies inheritance of tangible property, especially when the context of the verse shows the presence of tangible property, because Prophet Zakariya prayed to Allah to give him a righteous son, who would receive his inheritance. It is clear that prophets are as such only. Thus, this condition is of no use. Moreover, the fear of relatives and other people can be only regarding tangible property and not with regard to knowledge and prophethood. Why Prophet Zakariya should fear that the Almighty Allah would appoint prophets and scholars from his relatives; but such a thing is possible in property, because he knows that wealth would strengthen their sinfulness and mischief; that is why he was against it. In the same way, is the matter of Prophet Sulaiman inheriting from Prophet Dawood (a.s.). The same arguments apply in this regard as well. Moreover, the stance of Abu Bakr is opposed to the verses of inheritance. How can prophethood cause deprivation of his relatives from inheritance? It is mentioned in famous books of Ahle Sunnat among the chapters of religious obligations. Also, the testimony that Abu Bakr gave in this report is in fact under the ambit of vested interest and it is condemnable from many aspects. First of all, he wanted these properties to remain under his control, so that he can give to whoever he liked and deprive anyone he wished as is narrated in Jamiul Usul from
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Abu Yahzal that Lady Fatima (s.a.) came to Abu Bakr and demanded the inheritance of her father. Abu Bakr said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) say: When Almighty Allah bestows some property to a prophet, it is the right of one, who assumes his successorship after him. Second
Contexts show that his intention was to weaken them, so that the poor may not become inclined to them and that they may not be able to dispute with him regarding Caliphate and this much is sufficient for allegation; on the contrary, it is from that aspect stronger than that Abu Bakr had vested interest to prevent the testimony of Ali (a.s.). They claim that some other persons also supported the statement of Abu Bakr. The fact is that all of them were his partners in that endowment and his supporters in his enmity to Ahle Bayt and this allegation was clear in them also. Third
It is proved from authentic reports that Amirul Momineen (a.s.) considered this report false and fabricated. As Muslim has mentioned in Sahih from Malik bin Aws that Umar said to Imam Ali (a.s.) and Abbas that: Abu Bakr said that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: We do not leave any inheritance; whatever we leave is charity, so you two considered him a liar, fraudulent and dishonest, although Allah knows that he was truthful, righteous and a follower of truth. When Abu Bakr died, and I said that I am the successor of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and Abu Bakr, you considered me also a liar, fraudulent and dishonest. Allah knows that I am truthful, righteous and a follower of truth. In Sahih Bukhari, a similar report is present and Ibne Abil Hadid also quoted a similar report from Kitab Saqifah through many chains of narrators. It was mentioned in authentic and
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correct traditions that Imam Ali (a.s.) never forsakes the truth and also there is the Verse of Purification, Tradition of Two Heavy things and tradition of Ark, which were mentioned above. In the same way is the denial of Lady Fatima Zahra (s.a.) regarding the authenticity of that tradition all this definitely proves the falsehood of that tradition. Fourth
If this tradition was genuine, it was necessary for Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) to mention it to Lady Fatima Zahra (s.a.), so that she may not claim inheritance and he should have also explained this principle to Amirul Momineen (a.s.), who was his successor and source of his knowledge that he should not allow Lady Fatima (s.a.) to raise a wrong claim. No sane person suggests that Lady Fatima (s.a.) heard this from her father and after that she exaggerated so much in this regard. That she came into the crowd of Muhajireen and Ansar and disputed with one, who in your view was the ruler of Muslims and delivered such discourse and accused him of oppression and tyranny and instigated people to rise up against him. So that this may lead to a large part of the Muslim community to regard Abu Bakr as an usurper and an oppressor and to curse him and his supporters till Judgment Day. If Amirul Momineen (a.s.) knew that Fatima did not have any right and Abu Bakr was correct, why, after her passing away he considered it lawful to dispute with Abbas regarding inheritance? This proves that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) never mentioned this to Ahle Bayt (a.s.). Now, can anyone suggest that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) committed such carelessness and mistake in the matter of propagation of faith, especially with regard to his Ahle Bayt (a.s.)? Therefore it is definite that this tradition was false and only a fabrication.
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Fifth
Among the signs of falsehood of this tradition is that habit and manners of people have continued through the ages in a natural way and whatever is against the ordinary, is very much noticeable. Also, since Prophet Adam (a.s.) special attention is paid to the circumstances of prophets and their inheritors. Thus, if inheritance of prophets was opposed to normal laws, it should have been noticed and recorded somewhere in history? No one, other than Abu Bakr and some hypocrites were aware of it? In the past, such dispute never arose regarding inheritance of prophets or it would have definitely been recorded in the accounts of prophets. No one has ever recorded that the staff of Musa or the finger ring of Prophet Sulaiman (a.s.) or any property of any deceased prophet was ever given away as charity or that anyone should boast that the dress of so and so has been given to me. Thus, anyone having the least understanding knows that this tradition was fabricated and he made this idiotic fabrication not considering its consequences. All that is clear from their Sihah books and Ibne Abil Hadid has also admitted it, is that no one other than Abu Bakr has narrated this tradition. Some say that Aws bin Malik also testified to it, but they considered this statement rare and according to books of fundamental principles they cannot act on the statement of a single companion. In spite of this, they act only on the tradition of Abu Bakr. However, they mention that during the period of Umar, Ali and Abbas disputed before him regarding inheritance and he sought the testimony of Talha, Zubair, Abdur Rahman bin Auf and Saad Ibne Abi Waqqas and they, due to fear, gave consensual testimony.
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Sixth
Among the injustices, which Abu Bakr committed against Lady Fatima (s.a.) and Ahle Bayt (a.s.) was that in opposition to the command of Allah and His Messenger, he denied them share of the near of kin as specified for them in Quran. Ibne Abil Hadid says that people think that the dispute of Lady Fatima (s.a.) with Abu Bakr was on two issues: In inheritance and gifts. It is mentioned in traditions that she disputed with him in a third issue as well, but Abu Bakr did not give her that also; and it was the share of the near of kin as narrated from Anas in Kitab Saqifah that Fatima came to Abu Bakr and said: You know that the Almighty Allah has made Sadaqah unlawful on Ahle Bayt (a.s.) and has specified a share for us in the verse of the spoils of war. Abu Bakr replied: I have read this verse, but I don’t think that the entire share is for you. Fatima asked: Is it the property of you and your relatives? He said: No, but I will give some of it to you and spend the remaining in welfare of Muslims. Fatima said: This is not the command of Allah. Abu Bakr said: It is the command of Allah. If the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) has made a pledge in this regard to you, you may mention it and I will testify for it and leave that property for you and your family members. Fatima said: The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) has not mentioned anything specific regarding this, but I heard from him that he said when this verse was revealed: O Aale Muhammad (a.s.), glad tidings to you that prosperity has come to you. Abu Bakr said: I don’t conclude from this verse that I should give all of it to you, but I will give as much as is sufficient for you, and Umar also supported him in this matter. They have narrated other traditions also on this matter. In Jamiul Usul, it is narrated from many channels from Ibne Abbas etc. that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) used to distribute the share of the near of kin among his relatives, but
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Abu Bakr and Umar reduced it and did not give all of it to Fatima. It is narrated from Imam Muhammad Baqir and Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) that the Almighty Allah had reserved a part of Khums for Aale Muhammad (a.s.), but Abu Bakr, due to jealousy and enmity, denied them their share; whereas Almighty Allah says: Those who does not act according to the command revealed by Allah, are transgressors. A large number of traditions are recorded from the channels of Ahle Bayt (a.s.) regarding this. The apparent meaning of the holy verse is that all shares should be equal as the Ahle Sunnat and Shia jurists say with regard to relatives and inheritance. Allah has not laid condition of poverty and needfulness among the near of kin. Thus, whatever Abu Bakr did, was opposed to the verse; and one, who acts against the command of Quran, is, according to the declaration of Quran, an oppressor and a transgressor. Seventh
Seventhly, the objection against Abu Bakr is that according to general consensus, he allowed wives of prophet to retain possession of their chambers and did not say that they were Sadaqah. It contradicts that order, which he issued against Fatima, regarding Fadak and inheritance of the Prophet, because the transfer of ownership of chambers was either due to inheritance or due to gifting; the first case is against the fabricated tradition he has narrated and the other case was needful of proof, but Abu Bakr did not demand any witness from them as he demanded from Fatima. Thus, it was proved that in this matter, his intention was only to harass Ahle Bayt (a.s.). On this point, Ibne Abil Hadid has narrated a very interesting thing; he says: I asked Ali Faruqi, a teacher of Madressa Ghariba, Baghdad: Was Fatima truthful in
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her claims? He replied: Yes. I asked: Then why Abu Bakr did not give Fadak to her? He smiled and said: If that day he had surrendered Fadak to her upon her claim, without asking for witness or proof and the following day, she had come claiming Caliphate for her husband, he would not have had any excuses to reject her claim. Ibne Abil Hadid says: Even though Ali Faruqi said it in jest; it was true. There is scope for very long discussions in this matter, but this treatise cannot present all of them. I have explained everything in detail in Biharul Anwar. Fifth Indictment: His Allegiance was sudden
All theological, traditional and grammar books of Ahle Sunnat mention that Umar, during his Caliphate, announced from the pulpit: “The allegiance of Abu Bakr was sudden, but Allah saved the Muslims from its consequences, but kill anyone, who tries to repeat this.” Anyone having the least understanding and justice knows that no statement clearer than this can be made in condemnation of Abu Bakr and refutation of his Caliphate. If he was true, then Abu Bakr was too far from eligibility of Caliphate and he was the organizer of mischief for Muslims. So much so, that he is also necessarily deserving of the death sentence. But if he was false, he himself is not worthy of Caliphate. If they say that the basis of Umar’s Caliphate was the Caliphate of Abu Bakr, so how can he condemn it? We would reply that since his Caliphate and rulership was established and his awe had become rooted in the hearts of people, he was sure that his Caliphate will not be affected by such statements and no one will dare to raise any objection. But at the same time he was also fearful lest after him, Amirul Momineen (a.s.) gets Caliphate and that is why he issued such a statement, which would pave way for the formation of Shura and realization of his plan.
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Ibne Abil Hadid has narrated from Hafiz that when Umar heard Ammar saying that when Umar dies, I will pay allegiance to Ali, he issued this statement. Bukhari and others have narrated that Umar said in his sermon: I heard that some of you say that if the chief of believers (Umar) dies, I will pay allegiance to such and such person. You should know that even though the allegiance of Abu Bakr was sudden, unplanned and without consensus, but Allah warded off its mischief. Thus, it is proved that enmity to Amirul Momineen (a.s.) impelled Umar to issue this statement and his intention was to clear the way for the elimination of Imam Ali (a.s.) as he stipulated this in Shura as well. Sixth Indictment: Killing of Malik bin Nuwairah
When his Caliphate was established, Abu Bakr deputed Khalid bin Walid to the Yarbu tribe to collect Zakat, because previously, the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) had appointed Malik bin Nuwairah to collect Zakat from them, but when he heard about the passing away of Prophet, he stopped collecting Zakat and told the people to wait till it is clear who has succeeded him as Caliph. According to Shia traditional reports, its reason was that Malik had asked the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) about faith and His Eminence had, under the explanation of fundamentals of faith, said: This is my successor, and he gestured to Imam Ali (a.s.). When the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) passed away, Malik came with the Bani Tamim tribe to Medina and found Abu Bakr on the pulpit of the Prophet. He asked: Who allowed you to mount this pulpit, though the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) had appointed Imam Ali (a.s.) as his successor and ordered me to obey him? Abu Bakr said: Expel him from the Masjid. The tyrant Qunfudh and oppressive Khalid drove him out. Abu Bakr then sent for Khalid and said:
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Do you know what he said? I don’t feel secure, because he can create disruption in our matter, so you must slay him. Khalid went to Yarbu and after killing Malik, raped his wife the same night as well. Ahle Sunnat historians, like Ibne Athir in Kamil and others as well, have narrated that when Khalid bin Walid reached the tribe of Malik, people of that tribe called out the Adhan and recited prayers and also expressed obedience. When it was night, signs of deceit became apparent from Khalid; that is why they armed themselves to be on the safe side. Khalid’s companions asked: Why are you arming yourselves when we are Muslims? They replied: We are also Muslims, then why have you armed yourself? Khalid’s companions said: Disarm yourself, so that we may also disarm. When they disarmed, Khalid’s forces captured them and after tying their hands brought them to Khalid. Abu Qatada, who was accompanying that army said to Khalid: This group has expressed Islam and you have given security to them. Khalid paid no heed due the enmity he harbored against since the days of Jahiliyya. He ordered their men to be killed and took their children and ladies as prisoners and distributed them among his men. He took the wife of Malik in his share and committed fornication with her the same night. Abu Qatada swore that he would never join an army commanded by Khalid. Then he mounted and came to Abu Bakr and narrated the circumstances to him. When Umar heard this, he denied it vehemently. Umar told Abu Bakr that legal penalty was applicable on Khalid. When Khalid returned and entered Medina with his men, and arrows were embedded in his turban, Umar pulled out the arrows and broke them up, saying: O enemy of God, O enemy of yourself, you executed a Muslim man and committed fornication with his wife; by Allah, I shall have you stoned to death. Khalid remained quiet, because he thought that Abu Bakr was also in his support. But when he went to Abu Bakr and mentioned absurd excuses, and Abu Bakr due to his vested interests, accepted those
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excuses, he came out from there in glee and mentioned some ambiguous words to Umar and went away from there. Some Ahle Sunnat scholars have narrated that the army men of Khalid testified that people of that community had called out the Adhan and performed the prayer. Brother of Malik sought the mediation of Umar and met Abu Bakr to complain about Khalid. Umar also said that retaliation must be taken from Khalid. Abu Bakr said: We do not slay our companion for the sake of a Bedouin. According to another report, which the author of Nihaya has mentioned, he said that Khalid is the sword of God and I will not sheath the sword, which God has drawn on the polytheists. Umar swore that if he managed to gain power, he will execute Khalid in retaliation of Malik. Umar did not spend from the wealth that Khalid had brought from that expedition; on the contrary, he kept it aside and when he became the Caliph, his gave it to children and women and what remained with people he gave to their men and owners and sent them away, even though most of them were pregnant. Since Khalid was fearful of Umar’s threat, he kept away from him. Later he came with an offer to eliminate Saad bin Ubadah in lieu of killing Malik. Then he eliminated Saad as was mentioned before. At that time, Umar became reconciled to him and kissed his forehead. When the brother of Malik arrived and asked Umar to fulfill his promise about eliminating Khalid, he said: I don’t act in contravention to what the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) has done. It is mentioned in Shia traditional reports that when the prisoners were brought to Abu Bakr, the mother of Muhammad bin Hanafiyyah was also among them. When she saw the holy sarcophagus of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), she wailed: Peace on you, O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.); may Allah bless you and your Ahle Bayt. These people are your followers and they made us captives as if we are Nubians and Dailamites. By Allah, we have no sin to our credit, except that we sowed the seed of the love of your Ahle Bayt in
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our breasts and confessed to their excellence. These people have regarded good as evil and evil as good. Please take our revenge from them. Then she asked them: Why have you made us captives, although we admit to the oneness of Allah and prophethood of His Messenger? They replied: Your sin is not paying Zakat. She said: If you are right, our men did not pay Zakat, what is fault of children and ladies? After that Khalid and Talha tried to take her in their share. She said: No, by Allah, no one can be my master and my husband is not, except one, who would inform me of what happened to me at the time of my birth. At that moment, Amirul Momineen (a.s.) arrived there and said: When it was the time of delivery, your mother said: O Allah, make this delivery easy for me and after that if You like, keep that newborn alive and if You don’t want it, take it away. When you were born, you started speaking immediately and after reciting the dual formula of faith said to your mother: Why were you content on my death? Very soon the chief of human beings would marry me and a chief will be born from me. When your mother heard this, she ordered them to record those statements and circumstances on a copper plate and bury it. When they took you a captive, your only aim was to take that plate with you; till you dug it out and tied it to your arm. When that tablet was untied from her arm, the statements that Imam Ali (a.s.) had mentioned, were engraved on it. The Imam sent her to the house of Asma binte Umais, till her brother arrived and married her to the Imam. It is apparent from the traditions of Ahle Sunnat that one more reason of Khalid’s killing of Malik was that Khalid was infatuated with the beauty of Malik’s wife as the author of Rauzatul Ahbab says that when they brought Malik for execution, Umme Tamim, daughter of Minhal, the most elegant ladies of her time, arrived and threw herself on Malik. Malik said: Go away! I am not killed, except because of you.
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Zamakhshari has written this in Asasus Balagha and Ibne Athir has mentioned it in Nihaya under the topic of killing of Malik. Now, that we have learnt about the reports of opponents and writers on this issue; we should know that Abu Bakr is indicted in this from many aspects and in some of them, Umar was also his partner. First Aspect
Without any sin or legal interpretation of religious law, he deputed an army to a Muslim tribe and approved the killing and plunder of that large group of Muslims. The justification, which they state of this vile act, is that they had apostasied for nonpayment of Zakat. Its reply is that all the army men of Khalid testified that they had called out the Adhan and prayed. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) had declared that one, who recites the formula of faith and performs the prayer, is a Muslim. They did not refuse to pay Zakat. On the contrary, they said that they would not pay it to Abu Bakr and that they will only pay to the successor of Prophet or distribute it among the poor directly. Tabari has mentioned in his history that Malik restrained his people to reach consensus on non-payment of Zakat and dispersed them saying: You must not argue with the rulers of Islam. When they dispersed from there, Khalid arrived and through that deceit and fraud mentioned above, arrested him. Inspite of the fact that the author of Minhaj has narrated from Khitabi: If some people admit to the fundamentals of religion, they are not infidels, even if they refuse to pay Zakat. They interpreted the word of Ruddat in its literal meaning. Thus, the command of infidelity was not applicable on them, their descendants and their women. Moreover, Shaarey and Khabeer have said in the discussion of rebels that hostilities should not be initiated against those who do not initiate it. The Imam should send a trustworthy and peaceful man to inquire about the reason of their rebellion. If it
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is due to some injustice done to them, it should be removed. If they are misunderstandings, they should be cleared. If it is none of these, they should be rendered good counsel. If they persist, they should be warned of a battle and it is not mentioned in any report that Khalid followed any such procedure, when except for obedience; they did not display anything else? If there is no prejudice and enmity, why Abu Bakr etc. according to widely related reports, broke the pledge of God and opposed the clear declaration of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and usurped the rights of Amirul Momineen (a.s.) and Lady Fatima (s.a.) and rejected the testimony of Almighty Allah and the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) regarding the infallibility and purity of Ahle Bayt of the Prophet and laid the foundation of oppression and tyranny against them? Why Ayesha, Muawiyah and their supporters, who fought against Imam Ali (a.s.) and martyred the purified progeny and other Muslims, in spite of widely related traditions like: I am at peace with one, who is at peace with you and I am at war at one, who is at war with you, and similar traditions that were mentioned before, are not apostates? On the contrary, these same people are the caliphs of Prophet and imams of Muslims and their obedience is obligatory and their opposition is disbelief! Why Malik bin Nuwairah should be regarded as an apostate and deserving of execution just for saying that Abu Bakr was not the Caliph, or that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) did not ask us to pay Zakat to him? And Khalid, inspite of those vile acts should not be regarded eligible even of a single condemnation; on the contrary, it is necessary that they should praise him and address him as the Sword of God? When some Ahle Sunnat observed that this excuse was absurd, they invented another excuse for him and say that during the conversation, Khalid mentioned the name of Prophet. Malik said: Has your companion said this? Khalid asked: Is my companion not your companion? Hence, Khalid considered him
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an apostate and eliminated him. However, the invalidity of this excuse is more pronounced than the invalidity of the previous excuse as it is not mentioned in any report. Moreover, if this matter was true, it was necessary that Khalid should have mentioned it to Umar and Abu Bakr have argued with Umar with the same point when he was demanding that retaliation should be taken from Khalid. Even if it is supposed true, these statements do not clearly prove apostasy and mere doubt is sufficient for removal of penalty. Even if we suppose that Malik became an apostate, what was the crime of all the people of his tribe and how immature boys and women can be taken as prisoners? Though, the fathers of these children were not original infidels that the command of disbelief should be applicable to them. On what interpretation were they taken as prisoners and distributed among Muslims, who slept with them without performing Nikah, and children were born from them? Second Aspect
This can be either of the two: One that they were not deserving of killing, plunder and captivity. Then why Abu Bakr condemned this large group of Muslims as apostates and involved them in captivity and became the cause of trespassing on the sanctity of Islam and birth of a large number of illegitimate children? In these circumstances, it is necessary that he should be an oppressor, a transgressor and even an infidel, because he issued a command against divine orders. If they were deserving to be condemned as apostates and sentenced to death then why Umar returned their ladies and children, who had become slaves of Muslims, the issues of Muslims born from them and also returned the wealth that was plundered from them? In that case, he would have been unjust to Muslims and disobeyed his imam and by attributing folly to him become a
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transgressor and infidel. Thus, this injustice and infidelity becomes necessarily applicable to one of the two (Abu Bakr or Umar) and renders his Caliphate invalid and if one of their Caliphate becomes invalid, the Caliphate of all three of them becomes invalid collectively. Third Aspect
In this incident, Abu Bakr trespassed on some divine laws: First of all, he did not take retaliation from Khalid for slaying Malik Secondly, he did not apply the legal penalty of fornication on Khalid for raping the wife of Malik. Thirdly, he wasted all their killings and blood monies. In these acts, Umar was also his partner. On the contrary, in not taking retaliation from Khalid, Umar is the dominant partner due to two reasons: one was that he had sworn to execute Khalid and he acted in contravention of this oath. Secondly, he approved the crime of Khalid, because he agreed to eliminate Saad bin Ubadah, who was not having any crime on him. Thus, it shows that the denial of Umar in this regard was not for the sake of religion. It was, because during Jahiliyya Umar was an ally and acquaintance of Malik. Otherwise he should have employed a tenth of that religiosity with regard to the oppression on Fatima and Ahle Bayt. It is extremely surprising that Mulla Ali Qushji has claimed, in order to dispel misgivings about fornication of Malik’s wife that she was divorced and her waiting period was over. But no one else has mentioned this in any traditional report. If it were so, Khalid should have mentioned it, when Umar threatened him with execution.
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Seventh Indictment: Recanting of Caliphate
It is mentioned in reliable or rather widely related traditional reports of Ahle Sunnat that Abu Bakr was time again recanting the Caliphate. Tabari has mentioned in his Tarikh, Balazari in Ansab, Samani in his Fadhail and Abu Ubaidah etc. have also mentioned that after people pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr, he used to announce from the pulpit: Please take back your allegiance from me as I am not better than you, although Ali is present among you. Imam Ali (a.s.) says in Shiqshiqya sermon narrated by Shia and Sunni scholars: How amazing of Abu Bakr that he should during his lifetime, regret the Caliphate, but at the time of his death, fixed it for another man! According to another report, Abu Bakr said: I have become your ruler, but I am not better than you. You should follow me, if I tread the right path; but if I deviate, you bring me to the right path. Indeed I am having a Satan, who dominates me when I am angry. When you find me angry, you must avoid me as I do not affect your hair and skin. All this proves that he did not regard himself worthy of Imamate and he considered Imam Ali (a.s.) to be superior to him; but the fact is that the Imamate of the inferior is invalid. Moreover, it is an agreed matter that intellect and justice, both are necessary conditions of Imamate. If this Satan was taking control of him and making him lose his senses, the first condition, intellect, was absent. And if he could not expel him and was unable to control himself, he was a transgressor and the second condition, justice, was also absent. Now, let us see, if it is allowed for an Imam to give up Imamate or not? If it is not allowed, why Abu Bakr did so and if it is lawful, why Uthman, in spite of insistence by protestors, did not do so, till he was slain? Uthman used to say: I will not take
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off the robe that God has enrobed me with, even though it is allowed to express infidelity and to eat carrion at times of dire need. Thus, it is learnt that in view of Uthman, it was even worse than this. Thus, there is indictment for one of the two Caliphs and one, who is having even the slightest understanding, will become aware of the fraud and cunning of his friend; that all this was nothing, but deception and intrigue that they had hatched, so that people become stable in this invalid act, as testified by the statements of Shiqshiqya sermon. Eighth Indictment: Ignorant of Divine Laws
On many occasions, he proved that he was ignorant of divine laws and many verses of Quran, about which most companions were knowledgeable. Thus, this indictment comprises of many indictments; however, in this treatise, we mention only some of them. First of all, when he was asked about the meaning of Kalalah, he was unable to explain it. Kalalah, is defined as issues of a father and mother, who are paternal and maternal brothers or only paternal or maternal brothers. This is according to the reports of Ahle Bayt (a.s.) and is also clear from the verses of Surah Nisa. Some commentators of Quran say that he is one without a father or a son. Sunni and Shia have narrated that people asked Abu Bakr about the meaning of Kalalah and he was ignorant of it. After that, as is reported by the author of Kashaf, he said: I say it on the basis of my personal view. If it is right and good, it is from Allah and if it is wrong, it is from me and Shaitan; and Allah is immune from it. Kalalah is a person, who neither has a father nor a child. He acted rightly in deeming himself to be the proximate one of Satan; thus, in Hell also, he would be proximate to Satan. It is also possible that by Satan, he implied Umar.
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Another mistake is that after confessing ignorance, he interprets Quran according to his personal view. Baghawi has in his Masabih and other Ahle Sunnat scholars have also narrated through numerous channels that one, who interprets the Quran according to his personal view, should be assured of his place in Hell. According to another report, even if it is correct, he has made a mistake. According to yet another report, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) saw some people interpreting Quran according to their personal views. He said: Those who preceded you were destroyed, because of this only; they meddled and made haphazard the Book of Allah. When people interpret Quran according to personal views, contradictions appear, because the view of every person is different and there is no contradiction in the command of Allah; rather all commands are compatible to each other. You may only say what you know and inquire from one, who is aware of it about what you don’t know; because query is the cure of ignorance. All these are traditional reports of Ahle Sunnat. Fakhre Razi has said that Umar used to say that Kalala is a person without an issue. He has narrated that when he was injured fatally, he said: I think that Kalala is a person without issues and I am ashamed to oppose Abu Bakr. The author says: Firstly
How astonishing for a man not to be ashamed of opposing the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and declaring his statement as nonsense! But at the same time to be ashamed of opposing Abu Bakr and to change his own opinion in order to honor his view! If the previous statement was without any proof, woe on one, who interprets the Quran without any evidence. If someone was having evidence, woe on him who at the time of his death turns away from his statement only for the sake of Abu Bakr.
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It is also narrated that at the time of his death, Umar used to say: There are three things, which if the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) had mentioned, it would have better for me than the world and all it contains: Kalalah, Caliphate and rulership. Hence, it is known that whatever was their interpretation of Kalalah, it was only based on their personal view. In the same way, he was also having doubt about the Caliphate of Abu Bakr and it is clear that the foundation of all the acts of these hypocrites is on selfish desires and vested interests and not on any solid proof and reasoning. Sufficient to prove the ignorance of Abu Bakr is that in spite of being considered as the senior most in Islam, a confidant of Prophet and his companion in the cave, not more than 142 traditions are narrated from him and most of them are fabricated, like the tradition of inheritance of prophets. Whereas Abu Huraira has narrated thousands of traditions, inspite of his brief stint with the Prophet! Secondly
Even the simplest person knows the meaning of Abbun (grass), but Abu Bakr was unaware of it; as mentioned by the author of Kashaf that when people asked him the meaning of Abbun, he said: Which land carries me and which sky shades me if I speak about Quran without knowledge? Thirdly
He ordered cutting off the right hand of a thief, instead of the left. Fakhre Razi says that cutting the right hand for first crime is against the consensus of Muslims.
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Fourthly
When a lady sought her inheritance from her grandson, he said: I don’t find any share of the paternal grandmother in the statements of Allah and the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). Munira and Muhammad bin Muslima testified that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) had given one-sixth share to the paternal grandmother. At that time he ordered one-sixth share to be given to her. Fifthly
Abu Bakr punished Fujara Salmi in fire, because he had not obeyed him, even though he repented for his mistake and some even say that he was loudly reciting the dual formula of faith within the flames, till he was burnt up. Thus, not accepting regret and punishment by burning; both are innovation in the religion of God. The author of Mawafiq has also narrated that he had claimed to be a Muslim. The excuse presented by some people that he was a heretic and the repentance of the apostate is unacceptable, is without any basis, because nothing is mentioned in traditional reports, except that he had called some Muslims as plunderers and this does not make one an apostate. Reports about prohibition of punishing by fire are authentic traditional reports in view of Ahle Sunnat and in Sahih Bukhari it is narrated from Abu Huraira and Ibne Abbas. Ibne Abil Hadid has also narrated them. Ninth Indictment: Appointing Umar as Caliph
When Abu Bakr saw his death approach, he found the crimes that he had earned during his Caliphate to be lesser than the chastisement he was expecting, so he tried to club the chastisement of Umar along with it. Moreover, he tried to fulfill the pact he had made with Umar and also knew that other than
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Umar, no one could be a hurdle in the rights of Amirul Momineen (a.s.). Thus he appointed Umar as the Caliph after him. Ibne Abil Hadid has narrated that Abu Bakr summoned Uthman at the time of his death and said: Write down my will: In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. This is the pledge, which Abdullah bin Uthman makes with the Muslims. So to say…then he became unconscious…so Uthman wrote: I have appointed the son of Khattab as your Caliph…when Abu Bakr regained his senses he asked him to read out what he had written. When Uthman read it out, he exclaimed: Allah is the greatest! Were you afraid that if I died in the swoon, people would dispute regarding the Caliphate of Umar? Yes, said Uthman. Abu Bakr said: May Allah give you a good recompense from Islam and Muslims. Then he completed the document and ordered it to be read out before the people. After that he made bequests to Umar. Talha came to him and said: Fear Allah, and don’t impose Umar on people. Abu Bakr asked: Do you threaten me with Allah? If Allah asks me, I will say: I appointed the best man as the Caliph of Ummah. Abu Bakr committed a number of mistakes in appointing this Caliph. First
What right he had to appoint the Caliph and Imam of the people? On the contrary, he opposed the practice of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), because according to their belief, His Eminence had not appointed anyone as his Caliph and it is necessary to emulate the Prophet as per the dictates of the Holy Quran.
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Second
He said: Umar is the best man of the Ummah, in spite of the fact that Imam Ali (a.s.) was present and according to widely related traditions, he (Ali) was the best, as was mentioned before and he himself had also confessed: I am not the best of you and Ali is there among you. Third
What impelled Uthman to write down the name of such an ignorant, harsh and nasty man, without the permission of Abu Bakr in such an important matter? It was necessary for Abu Bakr to restrain and condemn Uthman for it and not to approve his act and also give him good recompense from Islam and Muslims. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) waited for divine revelation, like in the matter of Jizya, and did not take any step on the basis of his personal view. Were these audacious, ignorant fellows better than the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) that they took such important decisions according to their whims? In that case, the affection of these hypocrites on the Ummah was more than the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), who was mercy for the worlds! Because His Eminence did not appoint a Caliph and they did. Every sane person can conclude from these contradictory acts and statements that his aim was only to fulfill the pact he had made to deprive Ahle Bayt from Caliphate of Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). His acts and words, which are reported through Sunni and Shia, proving the invalidity of his Caliphate and his deviation, are too numerous and this treatise does not have the scope to include them all.
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Part Two: Indictments of Umar
This part comprises of the evil deeds and unrighteous acts of Umar and explanations of innovations of the second Caliph of Ahle Sunnat. We should know that the indictments of that source of mischief are more numerous to be compiled even in voluminous books. So how they can be gathered in this treatise? He was also a partner in the indictments of Abu Bakr. On the contrary, the Caliphate of Abu Bakr was a branch of the evils of Umar. That is why, I will mention only a few of his indictments in this treatise. First Indictment: Thursday Tragedy
An account of the tradition of the pen and ink and explanation of similar incidents This indictment is based on many indictments. Ghazzali, Muhammad Shahristani and other Ahle Sunnat scholars have clarified that this was the first dispute, which arose in Islam and its cause was Umar. Shahristani has said in Al-Milal wan Nihal that the first dispute that occurred in the world was the opposition of Shaitan from the command of Allah regarding the prostration to Adam and the first dispute that arose in Islam was the prevention of Umar from giving pen and paper as per the command of the Prophet. This incident is among the widely related incidents of the life of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and is narrated by Ahle Sunnat as well as Shia and no has denied it. In spite of his prejudice, Bukhari has mentioned this story on seven occasions with slight variations. Muslim and other tradition scholars have also recorded it through numerous channels.
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The account of all them is same and it is that Ibne Abbas used to say: Thursday and what a Thursday! Then he wept so much that the pebbles became wet with his tears. According to another report, tears flowed on his cheeks. When people asked him which Thursday? He replied: When the illness of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) took a severe turn, he said: Get me a sheep scapula and according to another report, get a scapula and inkpot or get a tablet and ink, so that I may write a document for you that after me you may never get deviated. Umar said: This man is talking nonsense and according to another report he said: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) is talking nonsense. According to yet another report, he said: What has happened to him that he is talking nonsense; you hear and understand what he is saying. According to another report, he said: The illness and pain has overcome him and the Book of Allah is sufficient for us. Ibne Abbas says: Thus, people disputed and argued, although it is not proper to argue in presence of the Prophet. Some said that it is the command of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), you must bring the ink and pen. Some said: Umar says that we must not provide the pen and ink; then many arguments took place regarding this. Finally, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Get out, all of you and leave me alone; it is not allowed to argue in my presence. Ibne Abbas says that it was the greatest tragedy, when people prevented the Prophet from writing the document and they created a lot of noise. This tradition is also mentioned in Jamiul Usul in the same way; rather it is narrated in more detail than Sahih Muslim and Sahih Bukhari. Qadi Ayaz, who is their famous scholar, has written in more detail and in harsher words in his Kitabul Shifa. It is clear to impartial sane persons that the matter that His Eminence wanted to write in that short respite and brief period on the scapula could not have been the complete laws of
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religion. It must have been a concise matter, which would have guaranteed the welfare of Ummah till Judgment Day. It was nothing, but appointment of a learned and infallible Caliph, learned about welfare and general problems of Ummah; and mistakes were not possible from him. He should keep the Ummah united on one path and teach Quran as it was revealed from the aspect of its meanings and interpretation so that the path of ignorance and deviation is completely closed as the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) had said in Hadith Thaqlayn: I leave among you the Book of Allah and Ahle Bayt. These two will not separate from each other. On the day of Ghadeer, he had already specified his successor. However, since he was aware that those people, in spite of completion of proof, would disregard those things, he emphasized it again and wanted to leave among them a clear writing, which they will not be able to deny. Umar understood this well and since it was opposed to the pact he had made with hypocrites, he put the people in doubt that illness had overcome the Prophet and he was talking nonsense. When the Prophet observed that the shameless fellow was denying his statements during his lifetime and he was supported by hypocrites, he became certain that if he insisted on it and a document was drawn, this man will say that the Prophet has written nonsense and it is unreliable. So he remained content with those declarations, through which he had exhausted proof on them previously and expelled all of them from his chamber. Moreover, when the Prophet saw them dispute in his presence, he feared that after writing that document the dispute may deepen leading to physical fights and that the hypocrites may get a pretext to destroy Islam completely. In the same way, he prohibited Amirul Momineen (a.s.) to fight them in case he was not having supporters and to deal with them amicably. It is also clearly proved that the bequest appropriate under those circumstances was only the appointment of a successor and to will regarding his survivors. As the whole Ummah was
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the survivor of Prophet, how is it possible to leave them in a lurch, without making any specific will? His Eminence himself had ordered his followers to make a will. In Sahih Tirmidhi, it is narrated from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) that sometimes it so happens that a man or a woman worship God for sixty years and at the time of death acts deficiently in making their will; that is why fire of Hell becomes incumbent on them. It is narrated in Jamius Sihah that a person should not pass a day or a night, except that his will is at the side of his head and what was mentioned is supported by this report, which Ibne Abil Hadid has narrated from Ibne Abbas. He used to say that I was in the company of Umar on way to Shaam. One day I saw him on a camel, going alone in a direction. I followed him and he said: O son of Abbas, I complain to you about your cousin; that is Ali. I said: Come with me, but he did not agree and I always found him angry with me. What do you think was the cause of his anger? I said: You know that very well. He said: I think it was due to his not getting the Caliphate. I said: Yes, it is true and he thinks that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) wanted him to succeed. He said: When Allah did not desire the Caliphate for him, what was the use of the Prophet desiring it? The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) wanted something and Allah wanted something else. What Allah wanted happened. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) also wanted his uncle to become a Muslim; but since Allah did not want it, he did not embrace Islam. Then Ibne Abil Hadid says that it is mentioned in another report that Umar said: The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) wanted to appoint Ali as his successor at the time of his death, but I feared mischief and discord in Islam, so I prevented him from that. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) understood my intention and did not declare the succession of Ali and at last what Allah had destined, happened.
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It is narrated from Ibne Abbas that he said: I met Umar at the beginning of his Caliphate. They had gathered a heap of dates on a mat for him and he was eating from them. He offered me as well and I picked one piece and he ate the whole heap. A pitcher of water was placed before him. He drank the water and reclining on a pillow, mentioned the praise of God. Then he asked me from where I was coming. I said from the Masjid. He asked: In what condition did you leave your cousin? I thought he was asking about Abdullah Ibne Ja’far; so I said he was playing with his friends. Umar said: I am not asking about him, I am asking about the head of you, Ahle Bayt. I said: He was watering the date orchard and reciting Quran. He said: O Abdullah, I adjure you, if you conceal it; the slaughtering of camels would become incumbent on you. Is he still claiming the Caliphate? I said: Yes. He asked: Does he think that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) issued a clear statement appointing him as Caliph? I said: Yes, and I say it more than this. Then I asked my father about his claim and he testified to his veracity. Umar said: The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was often making such statements regarding him, which were neither clear nor specific and sometimes due the affection he had for him, he was mixing truth with falsehood. He tried to declare his name at the time of his death, but for the sake of the well being of Islam, and because of affection for Ummah, I prevented it. By the right of the Holy Kaaba, the Quraish would never reach consensus regarding him and if he takes Caliphate; the Quraish would stage uprisings against him in the lands. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) realized that I have understood his hidden intention, so he fell silent and did not mention his name clearly and at last Allah did what was destined. [End of the discourse of Ibne Abil Hadid and his traditional reports]. We can conclude from these traditional reports that from the beginning till the end, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) wanted to specify the Caliphate of Imam Ali (a.s.) and always reiterated it,
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but this hypocrite always tried to prevent it and make it invalid. It is also clear that he considered himself a well wisher of Ummah, even more than the Prophet. What he had stated about the Arabs staging an uprising against Imam Ali (a.s.) is also regarded as his noble virtues by his followers. But the fact is that it was because of his conspiracy, because after the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) he never allowed Caliphate to be returned to Imam Ali (a.s.) so that he can deal with the people according to the practice of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). On the contrary, during those twenty-five years, he made the people used to the practice of conferring huge wealth on leaders and rich people and oppressing the poor and needy; acting only on what they consider good for the world and ignoring the commands of Allah. That is why when the rights of Imam Ali (a.s.) were restored and he tried to act according to the command of Allah and directions of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.); that wealth should be distributed equally; and he dealt with nobles at par with the poor, people could not bear it. Talha and Zubair apostasied and the mischief of Basra occurred. Umar had intentionally appointed Muawiyah in Shaam and had ordered him that if Ali ever becomes a Caliph; he should not obey him, because he knew well that Muawiyah was a severe infidel, a hypocrite and an enemy of Ahle Bayt (a.s.). Thus, it was due to his intrigue that the battles of Siffeen and Khawarij occurred and the martyrdom of Imam Ali (a.s.) also happened, and not due to the wrong planning of Allah and Messenger. The blood of all the martyrs is on him! After learning about this incident accepted unanimously by both sects, we state that his infidelity and hypocrisy is confirmed due to many reasons:
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First reason
He attributed nonsense to the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), although according to unanimity of Shia and Sunni, His Eminence is infallible from uttering any wrong statement, neither unintentionally nor intentionally and not even during illness. He cannot act in this way even in jest; anger or in a normal mood; as Qadi Ayaz has written in Kitab Shifa, Kermani in Sharh Sahih Bukhari and Nawawi in Sharh Sahih Muslim. The Almighty also Allah says: 214B ٰ ىَ ﻮَ اﻟْﻬِ ﻦَ ﻋُ ﻖِ ﻄْ ﻨَ ﺎ ﻳـَ ﻣَ ﴾٣﴿ و 1097B“Nor does he speak out of desire.” (Surah Najm 53:3) 215B ٰ ﻰَﻮﺣُ ﻳٌ ﻲْ ﺣَ ﱠ و ﻻِ إَ ﻮُ ﻫْ نِ ﴾٤﴿ إ 1098B“It is naught, but revelation that is revealed,” (Surah Najm 53:4) 7976BSecond reason
3597BTalking in this manner is extremely disrespectful, rather it is infidelity and hypocrisy; to say that ‘he is taking nonsense’; or leave him, he is talking nonsense; or to say: What has happened to him that he is talking nonsense. It is clear that one having even the least manners would not talk like that even about the most unimportant person, what to say of the Seal of the prophets, whom the Almighty Allah has in all places in Quran addressed with noble appellations and respectful names, like: O Messenger; O Prophet. He has also said: ﺎ 216B ً ﻀْ ﻌَ ﺑـْ ﻢُ ﻜِﻀْ ﻌَ ﺑـِﺎءَ ﻋُ ﺪَ ﻛْ ﻢُ ﻜَ ﻨْ ﻴـَ ﺑـِﻮلُ اﻟﺮﱠﺳ َﺎءَ ﻋُﻮا دُ ﻠَ ﻌْﺠَ ﺗَ ﻻ 1099B“Do not hold the Apostle’s calling (you) among you to be like your calling one to the other.” (Surah Nur 24:63)
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And He said:
217B ﱢ ﻲِ اﻟﻨﱠﺒِ تْ ﻮَ ﺻَ قْ ﻮَ ﻓـْ ﻢُ ﻜَاﺗَ ﻮْﺻَﻮا أُ ﻌَ ﻓـْ ﺮَ ﺗـَ ﻻ 1100B“O you who believe! Do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet.” (Surah Hujurat 49:2) 3599BIt is also clear to all sane people that such manner of talking shows extreme rudeness and utter disregard to the Prophet. That even in such circumstances he was not aggrieved and for the sake of his corrupted interests he created such a dispute regarding one, who was the recipient of divine revelation. It also proves his glee at insulting the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), which he was unable to do before. 7977BThird reason
3600BHe rejected the command of Allah, because the Almighty Allah has mentioned in Quran a number of times: 218B َ ﻮلُ ﻮا اﻟﺮﱠﺳ ُﻴﻌِ ﻃَ أَ وَ ﻮا اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ُﻴﻌِ ﻃَ أ 1101B“O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Apostle.” (Surah Nisa 4:59) 3601BAnd: 219B َ ﻓُﻮلُ اﻟﺮﱠﺳ ُ ﻢُﺎﻛَﺎ آﺗَ ﻣَ و ﻮا ُ ﻬَ ﺘـْﺎﻧـَ ﻓُ ﻪْ ﻨَ ﻋْ ﻢُﺎﻛَ ﻬَﺎ ﻧـَ ﻣَ وُوﻩُ ﺬُﺨ 1102B“And whatever the Apostle gives you, accept it, and from whatever he forbids you, keep back.” (Surah Hashr 59:7) 3602BAnd He said: 220B ْ نَا أً ﺮْ ﻣَ أُ ﻪُﻮﻟُ ﺳَ رَ وُ ﻰ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َﻀَا ﻗَ ذِ إٍ ﺔَ ﻨِ ﻣْ ﺆُ ﻣ َ ﻻَ وٍ ﻦِ ﻣْ ﺆُ ﻤِ ﻟَﺎنَﺎ ﻛَ ﻣَ و َ ﻳ ْ ﻢِ ﻫِ ﺮْ ﻣَ أْ ﻦِ ﻣُ ةَ ﺮَ ﻴـِ اﻟْﺨُ ﻢُ ﻬَ ﻟَﻮنُ ﻜ
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“And it behoves not a believing man and a believing woman that they should have any choice in their matter when Allah and His Apostle have decided a matter.” (Surah Ahzab 33:36) The Almighty Allah never mentioned that there is any difference between the health and sickness of the Prophet or that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) is dismissed from prophethood during his illness. He also did not say that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) should not be obeyed when he is ill. On another occasion He says: 221B َ ﻮنُ ﻘِ ﺎﺳَ اﻟْﻔُ ﻢُ ﻫَ ﻚِ ﺌٰ َ وﻟُ ﺄَ ﻓُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ لَ ﺰْ ﻧـَﺎ أَ ﻤِ ﺑْ ﻢُ ﻜْﺤَ ﻳْ ﻢَ ﻟْ ﻦَ ﻣَ ﴾٤٧﴿ و 1104B“And whoever did not judge by what Allah revealed, those are they that are the transgressors.” (Surah Maidah 5:47) 7978BFourth reason
3604BIt was mentioned in the traditional reports of Ibne Abil Hadid that Umar had himself admitted that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) wanted to declare the name of Ali and he (Umar) prevented it. This matter was nothing, but enmity and opposition to the Prophet. The Almighty Allah has said: ﻖِ ِ 222B ﺎﻗَﺸُ ﻳْﻦَوﻣَ ٰ ىَ ﺪُ اﻟْﻬُ ﻪَ ﻟَ ﱠﻦ ﻴَ ﺒـَﺎ ﺗـَ ﻣِ ﺪْ ﻌَ ﺑـْ ﻦِ ﻣَﻮلُ اﻟﺮﱠﺳ 1105B“And whoever acts hostilely to the Apostle after that guidance has become manifest to him.” (Surah Nisa 4:115) 7979BFifth reason
3605BHe caused distress to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and angered him so much that in spite of the fact that His Eminence possessed perfect manners and the Almighty Allah had perfected his morals and made him as the mercy of the worlds; he turned away from them and drove them away. It has come in widely
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related traditions that to cause distress to His Eminence is like distressing Allah. The Almighty Allah has also said: 223B ٌ ﻴﻢِ ﻟَ أٌابَ ﺬَ ﻋْ ﻢُ ﻬَ ﻟِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َﻮلُ ﺳَ رَونُ ذْ ﺆُ ﻳـَﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ َ ﴾٦١﴿ و 1106B“And (as for) those who molest the Apostle of Allah, they shall have a painful punishment.” (Surah Taubah 9:61) 3606BThen He says: 224B ُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ُ ﻢُ ﻬَ ﻨـَ ﻌَ ﻟُ ﻪَﻮﻟُ ﺳَ رَ وَ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َونُ ذْ ﺆُ ﻳـَﻳﻦِ ﱠ اﻟﱠﺬ نِ إ ِ ةَ ﺮِ ﺧْ اﻵَﺎ وَ ﻴْ ﱡﻧـ ﻲ اﻟﺪِ ﻓ ﺎ ًﻴﻨِ ﻬُﺎ ﻣًاﺑَ ﺬَ ﻋْ ﻢُ ﻬَ ﱠ ﻟ ﺪَ ﻋَ أَ ﴾٥٧﴿ و 1107B“Surely (as for) those who speak evil things of Allah and His Apostle, Allah has cursed them in this world and the hereafter, and He has prepared for them a chastisement bringing disgrace.” (Surah Ahzab 33:57) 7980BSixth reason
3607BBy stating that ‘The book of Allah is sufficient for us’ he has committed many blunders: 7981BFirst Blunder
3608BHe has proved the ignorance or mistake of the Prophet; because if His Eminence did not know that the Book of Allah is sufficient, he has displayed his ignorance, but if he knew it, and despite it, was making a will, then he has committed a mistake and an absurd act. 7982BSecond Blunder
3609BThe verses, through which he has reasoned, are around five hundred and it is clear that most laws of Shariah are not derived
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from them; only some are. They are very concise, doubtful and ambiguous. There is great difference of opinion in interpreting them. Some say that the clearest verse is the verse of Wudhu, but there are around one hundred doubts in it. Apart from that, in the Holy Quran there are abrogating and abrogated verses; the clear and the ambiguous and the general and the particular; the definite and conditional etc. Thus, how can the Book of Allah be sufficient to remove differences? Moreover, if it had been sufficient, why he became confused and sought the help of others? Why he said: If Ali had not been there, Umar would have perished. He was time and again reiterating his ignorance and saying that all are more learned than Umar, even ladies in seclusion. Third Blunder
If the Book was sufficient, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) would not have joined it to his Ahle Bayt as was mentioned before. In Hadith Thaqlayn, he would not have said that the two will not separate till they arrive at Hauz Kauthar to me. Thus, the Book of Allah is sufficient only with an Imam, who is the interpreter of Quran and it is not sufficient on its own. That is why Amirul Momineen (a.s.) said: I am the speaking Book of Allah. Qutubuddin Shirazi, a famous Shafei scholar and renowned Sufi, has said in his Makatib that a journey cannot be undertaken without a guide, and to say that while the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) is present among us, then what is the need of a guide, is like saying that since books of medicine are there, what is the use of doctors? It is a stupid mistake, because not everyone can understand books of medicine and we cannot derive conclusions from them; it is necessary to refer to those, who can derive conclusions from them.
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225B َ ﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ ُ ﻪَ ﻤِ ﻠَ ﻌَ ﻟْ ﻢُ ﻬْ ﻨـِ ﻣِ ﺮْ ﻣَْ ﻲ اﻷِوﻟُ أٰ ﻰَ ﻟِ إَ وِﻮلُ ﻰ اﻟﺮﱠﺳ َ ﻟِ إُ ﱡوﻩ دَ رْ ﻮَ ﻟَ و ْ ﻢُ ﻬْ ﻨـِ ﻣُ ﻪَﻮﻧُﻄِ ﺒْ ﻨَ ﺘـْﺴَ ﻳ 1108B“And if they had referred it to the Apostle and to those in authority among them, those among them who can search out the knowledge of it would have known it.” (Surah Nisa 4:83) 3613BThe real books are the breasts of the scholars. 226B َ ﻢْ ﻠِﻮا اﻟْﻌُوﺗُ أَﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ ِورُ ﺪُﻲ ﺻِ ﻓٌﺎتَ ﱢﻨ ﻴـَ ﺑـٌﺎتَ آﻳَ ﻮُ ﻫْﻞَ ﺑ 1109B“Nay! These are clear communications in the breasts of those who are granted knowledge.” (Surah Ankabut 29:49) 3614BAnd they are not in stomachs and papers. 3615BAs Amirul Momineen (a.s.) said: I am the speaking discourse of Allah and this is the silent discourse of Allah. 3616BSo far was the extract from Shafei’s book as the Almighty Allah has expressed truth from his pen, and he had condemned his ignorant imam in a severe manner. 7984BFourth Blunder
3617BHe has himself opposed his own assertion on a number of occasions: 3618BFirstly, on the day of Saqifah, before he should become free from the funeral ceremony of Prophet, he, his brother and some hypocrites hastened to Saqifah and busied themselves in seizing the Caliphate and the excuse put forth by their devotees is that it was, because they feared mischief. If the Book of Allah was sufficient to remove discord, this mischief should not have taken place. 3619BHow when the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) wanted to appoint a Caliph, they accuse him of talking nonsense, but when they
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themselves appoint an undeserving man, there is well being of Ummah? Moreover, Abu Bakr summoned Uthman at the time of his death in order to appoint Umar as Caliph and he swooned before he could mention his name. Uthman wrote Umar’s name of his own accord and when Abu Bakr regained consciousness he prayed for him. Why Abu Bakr is not accused of uttering nonsense when he was nearer to nonsense due to many reasons? Why he did not say: ‘the Book of Allah is sufficient for us’. And he did not say this when he constituted the Shura committee? Thus, every wise and informed person can conclude from different statements that from the beginning to the end, the aim of those people was only keep Ahle Bayt away from Caliphate. This was not the first occasion when Umar has opposed the Prophet. He was always objecting to him and was never satisfied by his words and acts as mentioned in Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim. Ibne Abil Hadid and all Ahle Sunnat historians and tradition scholars have narrated that when it was written in the treaty of Hudaibiyah that if someone from Muslims fled to the idolaters they would not have to return him and if someone from idolaters joined the Muslims they would have to return him; Umar became infuriated and asked the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.): Are you the Messenger of Allah? He replied: Yes. Then he asked: Are we not Muslims and they are idolaters? Then why should we allow this degradation in our religion? The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: I am doing what Allah has ordered me and Allah will not leave me in a lurch; He would help me. Umar asked: Did you not say that we will enter Mecca and circle the Kaaba; then why did we not enter Mecca? His Eminence said: I did not say that it would happen this year; it will happen after this year. Umar rose up in fury and said: If I had supporters, I would have fought them. Then he came to Abu Bakr and complained
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about the Prophet and condemned the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). Abu Bakr restrained him. On the day Mecca was conquered and the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) took the key of the Kaaba, he said: Call Umar. When he came, His Eminence said: This is what Allah had promised me and I had not lied. Some have narrated in traditional reports that Umar said: Since I embraced Islam, I was never in so much doubt about the prophethood of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), as I was on the day of Hudaibiyah and this clearly shows that he was not satisfied at the statement of the Prophet; on the contrary, he was dissatisfied with him. And the Almighty Allah says: 227B َ ﱠ ﻻ ﻢُ ﺛْ ﻢُ ﻬَ ﻨـْ ﻴـَ ﺑـَ ﺮَﺠَﺎ ﺷَﻴﻤِ ﻓَﻮكُ ﱢﻤ ﻜَﺤُ ﻳٰ ﱠﻰ ﺘَ ﺣَﻮنُ ﻨِ ﻣْ ﺆُ ﻳـَ ﻻَ ﱢﻚ ﺑَ رَ وَ ﻼَ ﻓ ﺎ ً ﻴﻤ ِ ﻠْ ﺴ َ ﻮا ﺗُ ﻤ ﱢ ﻠَ ﺴ ُ ﻳَ وَ ﺖ ْ ﻴَ ﻀ َ ﱠﺎ ﻗ ﻤِ ﺎ ﻣً ﺟ َ ﺮَ ﺣْ ﻢِ ﻬِ ﺴُ ﻔ ْ ﻧـ َ ﻲ أ ِ وا ﻓُ ﺪِ ﺠ َ ﻳ ٦٥﴿﴾ 1110B“But no! by your Lord! they do not believe (in reality) until they make you a judge of what has become a matter of disagreement among them, and then do not find any straitness in their hearts as to what you have decided and submit with entire submission.” (Surah Nisa 4:65) 3627BSo, it is concluded that he was not a believer, because he doubted the statement of the Prophet and objected why the promise was not fulfilled. It is clear that His Eminence was also disappointed with him and he knew that he was harboring doubts; so he was waiting for an opportunity to make his truth clear on that hypocrite; that is why he called him on the day of the conquest of Mecca and said: What I was saying is this and you attributed falsehood to me. 3628BWhat he said is mentioned in Sahih Muslim and Ibne Abil Hadid has also narrated it in Sharh Nahjul Balagha.
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Abu Huraira used to say that one day I went out in search of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) till I found him in an orchard of the Ansar. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) gave me his sandals and said: Take these sandals and go out of the orchard and the first person that you find, who confesses to the oneness of the Almighty Allah and has faith in his religion; you give him glad tiding of Paradise. Abu Huraira says: The first person I met was Umar. He asked: O Abu Huraira, what these sandals are? I said: They belong to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and he sent me with them so that I may give glad tidings to whoever I meet. Umar slapped my chest so hard that I fell down flat on my back. He said: O Abu Huraira, turn back. So I ran to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) wailing and Umar was in my pursuit. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) asked: O Abu Huraira, what is wrong with you? I narrated the circumstances to him. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) asked Umar: Why did you do this? He said: May my parents be sacrificed on you, did you give your sandals to Abu Huraira so that he may give glad tidings to people? His Eminence replied: Yes. He said: Don’t do this; otherwise people would rely only on this. Leave them so that they may perform good deeds. His Eminence said: All right, leave them so that they may perform good deeds. The author says: Even though from the beginning to the end it is clear that this tradition is fabricated as is clear to the wise, but it is from a tradition of their Sihah books and it proves the shamelessness and rudeness of Umar in rejecting the statement of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), which in fact, is infidelity; and he beat up Abu Huraira and insulted him. Even if the last part of the tradition is true, His Eminence mentioned it for sake of exigency and perhaps it was in order to avoid dispute with the shamelessness of that accursed one. Moreover, both Bukhari and Muslim have written in their Sahih that when Abdullah bin Ubayy, the hypocrite died, his son came to the Prophet and requested him to give his shirt to shroud
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his father. His Eminence gave the shirt. Then he requested him to pray his funeral prayers. So the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) arose to oblige him. Umar sat up, caught the tails of the Prophet’s shirt and said: Will you pray for him, while your Lord has prohibited you to do so? The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Umar, leave me alone. When he exaggerated much, the Prophet said: The Almighty Allah has chosen me and said: 228B ً ﱠة ﺮَ ﻣَﻴﻦِ ﻌْ ﺒَ ﺳْ ﻢُ ﻬَ ﻟْ ﺮِ ﻔْ ﻐَ ﺘـْﺴَ ﺗْ نِ إْ ﻢُ ﻬَ ﻟْ ﺮِ ﻔْ ﻐَ ﺘـْﺴَ ﺗَ ﻻْ وَ أْ ﻢُ ﻬَ ﻟْ ﺮِ ﻔْ ﻐَ ﺘـْاﺳ 1111B“Ask forgiveness for them or do not ask forgiveness for them; even if you ask forgiveness for them seventy times.” (Surah Taubah 9:80) 3635BI know that if I seek forgiveness for anyone more than seventy times, the Almighty Allah will forgive. Umar said: He is a hypocrite, but the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) prayed on him and after that the verse of prohibition of praying was revealed. Umar says: I was astounded on the audacity I showed to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). 3636BAccording to the report of Ibne Abil Hadid, people were shocked at the audacity of Umar to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and in Shia traditional reports; it is narrated from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) came to the bier in order to mend the feelings of the son of Abdullah. Umar asked: Has the Almighty Allah not prohibited you to stand at his grave? His Eminence did not say anything. Umar repeated the question. His Eminence said: Woe on you; do you know that I said: O Allah, fill up his belly with fire and burn him in Hell fire. 3637BImam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) said: That hypocrite compelled the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) to reveal what he did not wish to divulge openly so as not to disappoint the son of Abdullah. In any case, Umar acted in the most audacious and rude manner and such a behavior is improper even with the lowliest man – that his collar should be caught in anger and tugged at. There is no doubt that this caused distress and was insulting to the Prophet, according respect to whom is incumbent on all and it is a part of Islam.
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Moreover, he rejected the act and words of the Prophet and attributed mistake and error to him. Also, it is mentioned in two places in Sahih Bukhari that when Hatib bin Abi Balta-a wrote a letter to Meccans that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was going to Mecca and Jibraeel informed the Prophet that he has sent that letter through a woman and she was present in so and so orchard, the Prophet sent Imam Ali (a.s.), Zubair and the apostate to seize the letter from her. Umar said: O Messenger of Allah, he has betrayed the trust of Allah, the Prophet and the believers. Allow me to strike off his neck. His Eminence asked Hatib why he did that. He said: O Messenger of Allah, I did not do this for lack of faith. My family is in Mecca and I don’t have anyone there to support them. So I wanted to do a good turn to the Meccans so that they would be nice to my family. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: He is right and you don’t say anything regarding him, except a nice word. Umar said: Allow me to strike off his neck, he has betrayed trust. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: He is from the fighters of Badr, and the Almighty Allah has told the people of Badr that you may do whatever you like; I have made Paradise incumbent on you. Although this tradition is against the traditional reports of Shia, but we can blame the Ahle Sunnat that when the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) testified to the veracity of Hatib, accepted his excuse and said: ‘Don’t say anything regarding him, except a nice word’, then to again attribute betrayal of trust to him and to want to strike off his head, is rejection of the statement of Prophet and clear opposition to his orders. Moreover, Ibne Abil Hadid has written in Sharh Nahjul Balagha and Ibne Hajar in Fathul Bari, narrating from Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal and they certify the authorities of this report from Abu Saeed Khudri that one day Abu Bakr said to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.): O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), I had gone to so and so valley, there I saw a man in a nice form engrossed in prayer.
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His Eminence said: Go and slay him immediately. Abu Bakr went there and found him praying; so he did not like to slay him and returned from there. His Eminence asked Umar to go and slay him. Umar also found him praying and returned. At that time the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) asked Imam Ali (a.s.) to go and slay him. When Ali (a.s.) went there, he did not find him as he had left that place. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: That man and his companions recite the Quran, but faith does not go beyond their throat and they will exit religion like an arrow leaves the bow and they will never revert to faith. Ibne Hajar says: The proof of the veracity of this tradition is the tradition of Jabir, all of whose reporters are trustworthy. It is mentioned in the report of Ibne Abil Hadid that after that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: If this man had been killed, he was the first mischief and the last mischief; that is after that mischief would never have appeared. Then he said: Such people will appear from his descendants, who will leave religion like an arrow leaves the bow. Hafiz Abu Nuaim in Hilya, Musali in Musnad, Ibne Abde Rabb in Iqd and others have also narrated through many chains of narrators that companions praised a person for his excessive worship. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) gave his sword to Abu Bakr and ordered him to kill him, as was mentioned above. In the end he said: If he had been killed there would never have been discord in my Ummah. Thus, it was learnt that Abu Bakr did not slay him. It is a clear disobedience of the orders of the Prophet and his being engrossed in prayers cannot be a valid excuse, because the Prophet had ordered his killing after the companions had described his excessive worship. In the previous tradition, when Abu Bakr had described his sincerity in prayer, the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) had ordered his killing. The disobedience of Umar was more degrading and condemnable, because after Abu Bakr had mentioned the excuse
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that he was praying, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) did not accept that excuse and now he ordered Umar to carry out the job; but Umar also repeated the same excuse and it is also clear and proved that in this matter, the opposition of those two became the cause all mischief till Judgment Day as the prevention of giving pen and ink led to the deviation of the Ummah till Judgment Day. It is clear from these different reports that such acts were repeatedly committed by him due to his inner hypocrisy; and opposition to the Prophet was his habit and nature. Thus, no other proof of his hypocrisy can be clearer. Second Indictment: Denying that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) passed away
He denied a matter, whose occurrence cannot be concealed from any sane person. As the Shia and Ahle Sunnat have narrated through widely related channels that when it was known that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) had passed away, at that time Abu Bakr was not present there. Umar screamed: By God, the Prophet is not dead; he will return to the world and cut off the limbs of those who claim that he is dead. After that Abu Bakr arrived and asked: Have you not heard this verse: 229B َ ﻮنُ ﱢﺘ ﻴَ ﻣْ ﻢُ ﱠﻬ ﻧـِ إَ وٌ ﱢﺖ ﻴَ ﻣَ ﱠﻚ ﻧِ ﴾٣٠﴿ إ 1112B“Surely you shall die and they (too) shall surely die.” (Surah Zumar 39:30) 3651BAlso the following verse: 230B ِ ﻣْﺖَ ﻠَ ﺧْ ﺪَ ﻗٌﻮلُ ﺳَ ﱠ ر ﻻِ إٌ ﱠﺪ ﻤَﺤُﺎ ﻣَ ﻣَ و ُ ﻞُ اﻟﺮﱡﺳ ِ ﻪِ ﻠْ ﺒَ ﻗـْ ۚ ﻦ ◌ َ ﺎتَ ﻣْ نِ ﺈَ ﻓَ أ ْ ﻢُ ﻜِﺎﺑَ ﻘْﻋَ أٰ ﻰَ ﻠَ ﻋْ ﻢُ ﺘْ ﺒَ ﻠَ ﻘْ اﻧـَﻞِ ﺘُ ﻗْ وَ أ
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“And Muhammad is no more than an apostle; the apostles have already passed away before him; if then he dies or is killed will you turn back upon your heels?” (Surah Aale Imran 3:144) When Umar heard these verses, he replied: I never heard these verses in the Book of Allah. In Nihaya, Ibne Athir and the author of Kamil and Zamakhshari has mentioned this incident in Asasul Lughat and no one has denied it. Thus, this issue is not without two of the following possibilities: One is that he was so ignorant of the verses of Quran and traditions of the Prophet that he did not know such a matter, which was from fundamentals of faith, although the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) used to often mention about things that would occur after him, and used to say that after me Ali Ibne Abi Talib is the guardian (Wali) of every believer and said: O Ali, after me you will fight the oath breakers (Nakiseen), the unjust (Qasiteen) and apostates (Mariqeen). During the Farewell Hajj, he repeatedly said that his end was near and I leave among you two great things. When the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) had asked for pen and inkpot, at that time also he had hinted at this. Moreover, how he came to know that His Eminence would cut off the hands and feet of people? Thus, the indictment of this incident is more than what can be explained or interpreted Or it was his intention to deceive the people lest before Abu Bakr reached there, people pay allegiance to Ali (a.s.) and the conspiracy of those hypocrites would fail. That is why he made that claim putting people in doubt. Finally, Abu Bakr arrived as Ibne Abil Hadid has hinted and I have replied to the objections of Ahle Sunnat in detail in Biharul Anwar.
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Third Indictment: Making Hajj Tamatto and Mutah unlawful
He made Hajj Tamatto and Mutah of Women unlawful, inspite of the fact that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) had allowed them. Its detailed account is that there is no dispute among Muslims that Mutah was a legal marriage during the time of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and the dispute, which has appeared, is whether the command of Mutah is abrogated or still in force. Thus, Ahle Bayt (a.s.) have consensus that the command of Mutah is still is in force. The following verse is revealed with regard to Mutah: 231B ً ﺔَﻳﻀِ ﺮَ ﱠ ﻓ ﻦُ ﻫَﻮرُ ﺟُ ﱠ أ ﻦُﻮﻫُﺂﺗَ ﱠ ﻓ ﻦُ ﻬْ ﻨـِ ﻣِ ﻪِ ﺑْ ﻢُ ﺘْ ﻌَ ﺘـْ ﻤَ ﺘْ ﺎ اﺳَ ﻤَ ﻓ 1114B“Then as to those whom you profit by, give them their dowries as appointed.” (Surah Nisa 4:24) 3662BOn the basis of most clear interpretations and Fakhre Razi has also said in his Tafsir that the whole Ummah has agreed that Mutah was lawful during the early period of Islam and also it is narrated that when His Eminence came to Mecca to perform Umrah, ladies of Mecca dressed up and decorated themselves. The companions of the Prophet complained that they have been away from their wives since a long time. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: You may perform Mutah with these ladies. 3663BIt is mentioned in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim and the author of Jamiul Usul has also narrated numerous traditions from Qays and Jabir etc. that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) had permitted Mutah. 3664BIn Sahih Muslim, it is narrated from Qatada who narrates from Abi Nasra that Ibne Abbas used to order people to perform Mutah marriages and Abdullah bin Zubair prohibited it. I have narrated this tradition from Jabir who said: This tradition is
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issued by me. During the time of the Prophet, we performed the Mutah marriage, but when Umar became the Caliph he said: Indeed the Almighty Allah made lawful for His Messenger whatever He wanted and indeed the Quran is revealed in its stages. Thus, perform the Hajj and Umrah as Allah has commanded you and make marriages with women permanent. If they bring such a person to me, who has contracted a limited period marriage, I would stone him to death. Ahle Sunnat have narrated through numerous chains of narrators from Ibne Abbas and Imam Ali (a.s.) that if the son of Khattab had not prohibited Mutah, only the wretched would have committed fornication. Fakhre Razi has also narrated a report on this subject in his matter. Moreover, in his Tafsir, he has narrated from Imran bin Husain that the command of Mutah was revealed in Quran and after that no other verse was revealed abrogating it. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) allowed people to contract Mutah marriages and we acted on it; and the Prophet did not prohibit it. Then he said: A man did what he liked for himself. The legality of Hajj Tamatto is having consensus of Muslims and the difference that Ahle Sunnat jurists have expressed is whether it is the best type of Hajj or not. The following verse: 232B ﱢ ﺞَﻰ اﻟْﺤَ ﻟِ إِ ةَ ﺮْ ﻤُﺎﻟْﻌِ ﺑَ ﱠﻊ ﺘَ ﻤَ ﺗْ ﻦَ ﻤَ ﻓ 1115B“And accomplish the pilgrimage and the visit for Allah.” (Surah Baqarah 2:196) 3668B…is proof of its lawfulness. Numerous traditions are mentioned in Sahih Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi and Nasai etc. from Jabir Ansari, Ibne Abbas and Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) etc. that when the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) went to Mecca for the Farewell Hajj, he took with himself sacrificial animals and except for the Prophet and Talha, no one else had taken along camels with him. Since at that time Imam Ali (a.s.) was in
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Yemen, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) wrote to him to join him for Hajj directly from there. When Imam Ali (a.s.) reached the Meeqaat1, he made intention that I put on the Ihram according to the intention of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). The Prophet had taken a hundred camels with him and made Imam Ali (a.s.) as his partner in sacrifice. Thus, this is also one of the exclusive merits of Amirul Momineen (a.s.), which is mentioned in a number of places. After that the Prophet taught the right method of Tawaf and Sayy and then he stood at the Marwah Mountain and said: If I had known from before that the Almighty Allah would command changing to Tamatto, I would not have brought the sacrificial animals with me. Thus, all those, who have not brought sacrificial animals with them, should change their intention to Umrah and come out of the Ihram. Surakha Ibne Malik asked: O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) is this order exclusive for this year or it is forever? The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) interlaced the fingers of both his hands and said: Umrah has entered Hajj in this manner and it will remain like this forever. Since Imam Ali (a.s.) had put on the Ihram according to the manners of the Prophet, he was told to retain it. After that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) slaughtered sixtythree camels and Imam Ali (a.s.) slaughtered the rest. Bukhari and Muslim have narrated from Marwan bin Hakam that a dispute arose between Imam Ali (a.s.) and Uthman bin Affan, because the later restrained people from Hajj Tamatto. When Imam Ali (a.s.) came to know about it, he raised the call of Thalbiya for Hajj Tamatto and said: Labbaik, for Umrah and Hajj. Uthman said: I am preventing people from Hajj Tamatto and you are openly opposing me? Ali (a.s.) said: I do not leave the Sunnah of the Prophet on the saying of anyone.
1 Refer to the Glossary of Islamic Terms.
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It is narrated from Matraf in Sahih Muslim that he said: Imran bin Husain said: Today, I narrate a tradition for you. Perhaps the Almighty Allah would benefit you through it. Know that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) sent some of his people on Umrah on the 10th of Zilhajj and no verse was revealed abrogating this command; and the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) also did not disallow it till he passed away. After that a person said about himself whatever he wanted. A large number of such traditions are mentioned in Sahih Muslim, which are compiled in Jamiul Usul. I have mentioned all of them along with replies to their objections in Biharul Anwar. Ahle Sunnat and Shia, through numerous and widely related channels report that Umar used to announce from the pulpit: Two Mutahs were allowed during the time of the Prophet and I prohibit both of them and will punish whoever practices any of them: one is the Mutah of women and the other is Hajj Tamatto. Thus, anyone having the slightest wisdom becomes aware that such a statement is clearly due to enmity and hatred of Allah and the Prophet and a proof of the rejection of their command. One, who does this, is included in the command of the following verse: 233B ٰ ىَ ﺪُ اﻟْﻬُ ﻪَ ﻟَ ﱠﻦ ﻴَ ﺒـَﺎ ﺗـَ ﻣِ ﺪْ ﻌَ ﺑـْ ﻦِ ﻣَﻮلُ اﻟﺮﱠﺳ ِ ﻖِﺎﻗَﺸُ ﻳْ ﻦَ ﻣَ و 1116B“And whoever acts hostilely to the Apostle after that guidance has become manifest to him.” (Surah Nisa 4:115) 3677BMoreover, he did not order what the Almighty Allah commanded, although Allah says that one, who does not command according to what Allah has ordered is only an infidel, transgressor and oppressor. 3678BSome Ahle Sunnat report that a person contracted a Mutah marriage. People asked him: How did you come to know that Mutah is lawful; and on whose authority have you heard it? He replied: From Umar. People said: Umar used to prohibit and
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punish it. He replied: Because he himself said from the pulpit that two Mutahs were lawful during the time of the Prophet and I make them unlawful. I accepted from him that they were allowed during the time of Prophet, but I did not accept his personal view of prohibiting them. Fourth Indictment: Partiality to Mughira bin Shoba
Mughira bin Shoba was among the leaders of hypocrites and enemies of Imam Ali (a.s.). It is mentioned in numerous traditional reports that there were five persons, who had reached consensus on writing the accursed document and on the decision that they would assure that Caliphate does not reach Ahle Bayt (a.s.), one of them being Mughira bin Shoba, who imprecated Imam Ali (a.s.) from the pulpit for years. Ibne Abil Hadid says: Our scholars from Baghdad say, why should we not expose the defects of one, whose Islam was based on fear and exigency and its conclusion, as mentioned in widely related traditional reports, was Hell; who committed fornication in his middle age who was always cursing Imam Ali (a.s.) from the pulpit. Who never controlled his carnal desires and was always busy in cooperating with transgressors. He spent his time in pursuits other than obedience of Allah and was involved in imbibing wine and helping sinners. Why should we have regard for such a man and not expose his injustice and sinfulness? After that he has mentioned a number of traditions that this accursed one imprecated Imam Ali (a.s.) and instigated others to do the same. Ibne Abil Hadid has also admitted that Mughira was notorious for fornication during the period of Jahiliyya as well as after the advent of Islam. Therefore, it is clear what Umar’s motive was in liking such a fellow. In fact, it is a lengthy discussion, but on this juncture, we shall mention only in brief.
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When Umar appointed Mughira as governor of Basra, inspite of his merits, there was a woman of Bani Hilal tribe in Basra known as Umme Jamil and Mughira visited her place discreetly. When people of Basra learnt of this, they were extremely shocked. Tabari has narrated that the house of Abu Bakra was near the residence of Mughira and there was a road in between. A room of each of their houses faced each other and there was a window in each of them that opened towards each other. One day Abu Bakra was seated in his room along some of his friends. Suddenly there was a gust of wind and the window opened. Abu Bakra arose to close it and when he came near it, his glance fell at the room of Mughira and he saw that the wind had opened his door as well. He was between the legs of a woman and moving his bottom to and fro. Abu Bakra asked his friends to come and watch that act and be witness. They asked: Who is that woman? He replied: It is Umme Jamil, daughter of Afqam. They said: We saw a woman, but not her face. So they waited and continued to watch the activity till conclusion. When they arose, people recognized that the woman was Umme Jamil. After that Mughira set out for the Masjid immediately to pray the congregation prayer along with those who were like him, but Abu Bakra came and prevented him. Then people reported this incident to Umar and Mughira reported lies to Umar in this regard. When these two letters reached Umar, he appointed Abu Musa Ashari, an enemy of Imam Ali (a.s.) as governor of Basra and summoned Mughira to Medina along with the witnesses. Ibne Abil Hadid has narrated from Aghani of Abul Faraj Isfahani, which is the most reliable book of Ahle Sunnat, from Umar bin Shaibah that Umar bin Khattab took his seat and summoned Mughira bin Shoba along with the witnesses. First of all he called Abu Bakra and asked: Did you see Mughira between the thighs of Umme Jamil? He replied: Yes, by Allah, as if I can see the pockmarks on her things. Mughira
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remarked: You have indeed looked very carefully. Abu Bakra said: I am not careless in anything, may Allah degrade you. Umar said: By Allah, till you do not testify that you have seen the actual penetration I will not accept your testimony. Abu Bakra said: By Allah, I testify in this way only. At that moment Umar changed his color and Amirul Momineen (a.s.) said: O Mughira, your one fourth of life is wasted and some have said: Umar said it. Then Umar called Nafe and asked him. He said: I also testify like Abu Bakra. Umar said: No, by Allah, till you don’t testify that you have seen the actual penetration, it is of no use. Nafe said: I testify that he had penetrated fully. Umar was extremely aggrieved and Amirul Momineen (a.s.) said: Now, the half life of Mughira is gone. Then Umar summoned Shabil bin Mabad, the third witness and he also testified in the same manner. Amirul Momineen (a.s.) said: Three fourth of the life of Mughira is gone. Umar’s face became ashen. Ziyad, the fourth witness had not reached Medina till that time and Mughira lamented to the Muhajireen asking them to intercede for him. He also visited the wives of the Prophet and cried. After that Umar ordered that witnesses should be restrained from speaking to any person of Medina till Ziyad arrived. After Ziyad came, Umar summoned the other witnesses as well. The leaders of Muhajireen and Ansar came there. When Ziyad was seen, Umar said: I can see a person through whose tongue the Almighty Allah will definitely not degrade a member of Muhajireen. By this, he wanted to hint that he should not mention the complete testimony. When Ziyad came, Umar saw that he was an arrogant young man and he was coming in a careless manner. Umar thought he should be threatened as well. Umar’s threats despite his cowardice are famous among Arabs and non-Arabs. Umar said to him harshly: O sane man, what testimony do you have? Abdul Karim, a reporter of this tradition, says that when Abu Uthman used to narrate the traditional report of Umar
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he imitated the harsh voice of Umar and screamed in such a terrible way that I almost swooned. Thus, it is clear from the style of the statements of that tradition that, due to the attachment that existed between Umar and Mughira, Umar tried much that fornication should not be proved for Mughira and that he may issue the penalty of false accusation on those witnesses, inspite of the fact that it is wrong to trespass divine limits and to manipulate its dictates, especially when it would lead to the penalization of so many innocent souls; it is all the more appalling. Traditional reports say that most witnesses gave similar testimony and this contradiction appeared due to the deception and cunning of Umar. Abul Faraj Isfahani says that many people have narrated that Ziyad said: I saw Mughira that he had lifted the legs of Umme Jamil and I saw both his testicles moving between her thighs and I heard sharp breaths and loud sounds. Abul Faraj says: Umar liked very much the statement of Ziyad and the alteration of the testimony to deflect the penalty from Mughira. He also says that when the penalty was issued on Abu Bakra, he said: I testify that Mughira has committed fornication. Umar wanted to issue the penalty on him again, but Imam Ali (a.s.) restrained him and said: If you award the penalty to him. I will stone Mughira to death. This statement shows that in view of Imam Ali (a.s.), the crime of fornication was proved for Mughira, but he did not apply the penalty on him in view of Taqayyah. Some Ahle Sunnat have presented another justification of this statement. Abul Faraj says that Umar ordered Abu Bakra to repent. He said: Are you asking me to repent, so that you will accept my testimony and I have taken an oath that as far you remain alive and as far as I am alive, I will never testify between two persons. Moreover, Abul Faraj says that when the penalty was given to the witnesses, Mughira said: Praise be to Allah, that He has degraded you. Umar said: Shut up, may Allah kill you.
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According to another report he said: Keep quiet, may Allah destroy the house where they saw you. Then Abul Faraj says: After that Umar went for Hajj. Umme Jamil and Mughira had also gone for Hajj. Umar said to Mughira: Woe on you, do you think that I am ignorant; by Allah I don’t think that Abu Bakra had lied about you and I don’t see you at anytime without dreading stones falling from the sky, because of you. Imam Ali (a.s.) used to say: If I ever get control on Mughira, I would have him stoned to death. Thus, one, who deliberates on these reports, will not have any doubt that the fornication of Mughira was proved for Imam Ali (a.s.) and rather Umar also, but he knowingly showed him leniency and suspended the divine penalty, instead penalized those innocent persons. Fifth Indictment: Limiting the Dower
Fakhre Razi, Ibne Abil Hadid and many Ahle Sunnat and Shia tradition scholars have narrated that one day Umar said in a sermon: If I hear that any woman has taken dower more than the dower of the wives of the Prophet, I will definitely recover it from her. According to another traditional report, he said: I will deposit it in Public Treasury. So a lady stood up and said: Allah has not permitted this for you and He says in Quran: If one of you has given a Qintar to one of his wives, you must not take it back. Umar said: You are more learned and intelligent than Umar; even the ladies secluded at home are more learned than him. According to the traditional report of Ibne Abil Hadid, Umar said: Are you not amazed at an imam, who committed a mistake and a lady who acquired truth, disputed with him and emerged victorious over your imam?
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According to Fakhre Razi that lady said: O son of Khattab, Allah has bestowed a thing to us and you are keeping it away? At that time Umar addressed his self and said: O Umar, all are more learned and wiser than you and after that he retracted his order. It is clear from these reports that he was absolutely ignorant about Quran and Sunnah and a person who himself admits that ladies in seclusion are more learned than him, is not eligible to rule Muslims, especially when a person, learned in all sciences was present in the Ummah. Sixth Indictment: Refusing the command of Tayammum
It is the deadliest indictment and a clear enmity to Allah and the Prophet, but Imamiyah scholars have neither studied it in detail nor mentioned it among his indictments. That is to refuse the command of Tayammum as mentioned in Sahih Muslim, Bukhari, Abu Dawood and Nasai. The author of Jamiul Usul has also recorded it. All have narrated from Shafiq that he said: I was in the company of Abdullah bin Masud and Abu Musa Ashari. Abu Musa said: If a person is ritually impure (Junub) and does get access to water even for a month, even then he will not perform Tayammum for prayers; then what he should do regarding the following verse of Surah Maidah? ﺎ 234B ً ﱢﺒ ﻴَا ﻃًﻴﺪِ ﻌَﻮا ﺻُ ﱠﻤ ﻤَ ﻴَ ﺘـَ ﻓـًﺎءَوا ﻣُ ﺪِ ﺠَ ﺗْ ﻢَ ﻠَ ﻓـ 1117B“And (if) you cannot find water, betake yourselves to pure earth.” (Surah Maidah 5:6) 3704BIbne Masud said: If you don’t find water, you must do Tayammum on pure dust. If they are allowed Tayammum, whenever the water is cold they will do Tayammum with dust. I asked: Is that why you despise Tayammum? He replied: Yes. Abu Musa said: Have you not heard the statement, which Ammar said to Umar?
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That the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) sent me on an errand and on the way I became Junub and I could not find any water; at that time I wriggled in dust like a quadruped and informed about this to His Eminence. He said: ‘It would have been sufficient for you to do like this.’ The Prophet then stroked lightly the earth with his hands and then blew off the dust and passed his hands over his face and hands.” Abdullah said: Did you not observe that Umar was not satisfied at the statement of Ammar? Bukhari has mentioned a similar report through another chain as well that Shafiq Ibne Salma said: I was with Ibne Masud and Abu Musa Ashari; the latter asked the former, “O Abu Abdur Rahman! What is your opinion if somebody becomes Junub and no water is available?” Abdullah replied, “Do not pray till water is found.” Abu Musa said, “What do you say about the statement of Ammar (who was ordered by Prophet to perform Tayammum)? The Prophet said to him: “Perform Tayammum and that would be sufficient.” Abdullah replied, “Don’t you see that Umar was not satisfied by Ammar’s statement?” Abu Musa said, “All right, leave Ammar’s statement, but what will you say about this verse (of Tayammum)?” Abdullah kept quiet and then mentioned the same absurd justification mentioned above. Bukhari has also narrated from Saad bin Abdur Rahman from his father that Ammar said: A man came to Umar bin Khattab and said, “I became Junub, but no water was available.” Ammar bin Yasir said to Umar, “Do you remember that you and I (became Junub while both of us) were together on a journey and you didn’t pray, but I rolled myself on the ground and prayed? I informed the Prophet about it and he said, ‘It would have been sufficient for you to do like this.’ The Prophet then stroked lightly the earth with his hands and then blew off the dust and passed his hands over his face and hands.” Umar said: O Ammar, fear Allah. Ammar said: If you want, I will not narrate this report. According to another report, Ammar said: If
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you like, due to the right you have on me, I will not narrate this report to anyone. The author of Jamiul Usul, after narrating the report of Bukhari and Muslim, says: It is mentioned as follows in the report of Abu Dawood: Abdur Rahman used to say: I was with Umar when a person came to him and said: We stay at a place for a month or two without getting access to water. Umar said: If I am in that place, I will not pray till I don’t get water. Ammar asked: “Do you remember that you and I (became Junub while both of us) were together on a journey and you didn’t pray, but I rolled myself on the ground and prayed? I informed the Prophet about it and he taught me the method of Tayammum. Umar said: O Ammar, fear Allah. Ammar said: If you like, by Allah, I will not narrate this tradition to anyone. Umar said: You can do what you like. The author says: All these traditions are narrated from Sihah books of Ahle Sunnat and they cannot deny their authenticity. Therefore, we say that this matter is not without two possibilities: When Umar asked the inquirer to leave the Prayer in case of not getting water; and did not accept Ammar’s report, and said: If I am there in such a situation, I will not pray till I get water, at that time he was aware that the Almighty Allah has made Tayammum obligatory on one, who does not have water and the verses of Tayammum were also in his memory: that is the two verses, in which the Almighty Allah has clearly rejected his view; and he also remembered that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) ordered Tayammum and explained its method. Or that he was ignorant and unaware of the command of Allah and the Messenger. If it is the first possibility, then his refusal to accept the command of Tayammum, as is clear from many traditions, would tantamount to be a blatant refusal of Allah and the Messenger, only upon the notion that this matter would lead to corruption. Moreover, it would imply that Allah
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and His Messenger issued a command based on ignorance and lack of knowledge. No disbelief is clearer and worse. Although such an act was not totally unexpected from him and all his acts were based on this principle only as he removed the statement of ‘Rush to the best of the deeds’ from Adhan and in the same way, prevented giving pen and ink to the Prophet and also other issues, which are widely related and accepted by all sects of Islam; some of which were mentioned before and some will be explained in the coming pages. In case of second possibility, it would prove his extreme ignorance, foolishness and irreligiosity. That is although he remained in the company of the Prophet for more than twenty years, he was unaware of a common issue regarding the most important part of religion; that is Prayer; and most people are aware of it and its need also arises very often. How can such a fellow claim leadership of the Ummah in religion and the world? It is very amazing that when people asked to him at the time of his death, why he was not appointing his son, Abdullah bin Umar as Caliph, the justification he offered was: One, who does not know how to divorce his wife, is not qualified for Imamate. [Although the fact was that he knew Abdullah cannot argue with Imam Ali (a.s.) and very soon the Imamate would be transferred to him; so he did not appoint him.] But regarding Umar all his followers are content to accept him as Imam, even though he was ignorant of a law, which was more important and common than the method of divorcing. In spite of the fact that Abdullah after this accepted the validity of Tayammum, but Umar remained firm on his denial and did not refer to all companions after hearing the statement of Ammar, because if he was ignorant, he should have inquired about this from others. This proves that most arguments, on which Ahle Sunnat rely, are invalid. That is when no one has denied the view of
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their Caliph, it is necessary that he should be right. The reason of invalidity of this argument is that when Umar ordered something clearly opposed to Quran, Sunnah and consensus no one disputed it, except Ammar, and even he was frightened after stating the truth and he said: If you like, I will not narrate it again. When they did not have the power of refuting him in such a well known matter, in which no worldly interests were involved, how they could argue with him on the issue of Caliphate and rulership? Seventh Indictment: Passing Wrong Judgments
In most cases, he issued wrong judgment and when companions pointed out, he retracted his decision. As in the case of the woman who was pregnant through fornication; he adjudged that she must be stoned to death. Maaz said: Your judgment is applicable on this woman, but it does not cover the soul present in her womb. At that time he retracted that order. It is mentioned in Manaqib Khwarizmi that during the Caliphate of Umar, they brought a pregnant lady before him and he inquired and she confessed to fornication. Umar condemned her to be stoned to death. By chance, Imam Ali (a.s.) met them on the way; he inquired about the matter and told them to take her back. Imam came to Umar and asked: Did you condemn her to be stoned to death? He replied: Yes, she confessed adultery to me directly. Imam Ali (a.s.) said: You have the power to punish her, but you don’t have jurisdiction on what is present in her womb. Perhaps, you had threatened her before her confession? Yes, said Umar. Imam Ali (a.s.) said: Do you not know that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: Legal penalty is not applicable on one, who is in custody or one, who makes a confession after being threatened. Umar allowed that woman to be released and said: All women are helpless from giving birth
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to a son like Ali. If Ali had not been there, Umar would have perished. Moreover, it is narrated from Manaqib Khwarizmi and Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal that a mentally unbalanced female was brought to Umar with the accusation that she had committed fornication. Umar condemned her to be stoned to death. Imam Ali (a.s.) asked: Do you not know that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: Three people are absolved of religious responsibility: the insane, till he regains sanity; the child, till he reaches maturity and the sleeping one, till he wakes up? At that time, Umar released that woman. The Chief Judge (Qadiul Quzaat) and Ibne Abil Hadid have also accepted this incident. There are a large number of such incidents, but there is no scope in this book to mention them all. Eighth Indictment: Innovations in Religion
This section is regarding those innovations, which he created in the religion of God, solely on the basis of his whims and without any proof or evidence. We shall mention only some of them here. Innovation One: Tarawih Prayer
That is the extra supererogatory prayer, which they recite in congregation in the Ramadhan nights and the proof that it is an innovation is that he has himself admitted it as the author of Nihaya and most Ahle Sunnat tradition scholars have narrated; that when Umar came to the Masjid at night in Ramadhan and found it full, because of the deviation of Shaitan, he remarked: What a nice innovation we started! It is mentioned in Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim and Jamiul Usul that Abu Salma asked Ayesha what was the practice of Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) in Prayers during the month of
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Ramadhan? Ayesha replied: During the month of Ramadhan and in other months also, he did not recite more than eleven rakats. First he recited four rakats, but don’t ask how sincere and prolonged it was. After that he recited another four rakats in an extremely nice way; after that he recited another three rakats. I asked: O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), do you sleep before Witr? He replied: Ayesha, my eyes sleep, but my heart does not sleep. Muslim has narrated in another report that Ayesha said: The Prayer of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) during the month of Ramadhan and in other months was thirteen Rakats including the Nafila of Morning Prayer. It is mentioned in Jamiul Usul from Sahih Muslim, Sahih Bukhari and Sunan Abu Dawood that Allah’s Apostle made a small room (with a palm leaf mat). Allah’s Apostle came out (of his house) and prayed in it. Some men came and joined him in his prayer. Then again the next night they came for the prayer, but Allah’s Apostle delayed and did not come out. So they raised their voices and knocked the door with small stones (to draw his attention). He came out to them in anger, saying, “You are still insisting (on your deed, i.e. Tarawih prayer in the mosque), but I thought that this prayer (Tarawih) might become obligatory on you. So you may offer it at your homes, for the best prayer of a person is the one he offers at home, except compulsory (congregational) prayer.” Moreover, it is narrated from Anas that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was praying during the month of Ramadhan. I came and stood behind him. Another person came and then another, till a group gathered. When the Prophet realized that we were standing behind him in a row, he concluded the prayer at the earliest and went home and became engrossed in prayer. After that he said: It is because of you that I stopped praying in the mosque. Thus, they narrate a large number such traditions from the Prophet in their Sihah books, which clarify that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) did not pray any special prayers during the month of Ramadhan and if he did so, he was not agreeable that it
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should be in congregation. Thus, to fix its volume and to make it an emphasized Sunnah is nothing, but innovation. It is mentioned in widely related traditions narrated through Ahle Sunnat and Shia channels that every innovation is deviation and every deviation leads to Hell. It is narrated from Jabir in Sahih Muslim that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said in his sermon: The best of the discourses is the Book of Allah, and best of the guidance is the guidance of Muhammad and the most evil things are those, which are innovated; and every innovation is deviation. It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: So he, who does not follow my tradition in religion, is not from me (not one of my followers). Why do they dislike what I do? By Allah, I am the most knowledgeable about Allah and my fear of Allah is more than others. It is narrated from Sahih Tirmidhi and Abu Dawood in Jamiul Usul that the Prophet said: Keep away from innovations, because every innovation is heresy and every heresy is deviation. Some Ahle Sunnat scholars, in order to justify the deeds of Umar, have said that innovation is of five types, which is opposed to the clear tradition of the Sunni and Shia. It is obvious from declaration of Quran and traditions that every issue invented in Shariah, which is not mentioned in it generally or specially, is unlawful and an innovation. To deem anything as a worship act, which is not based on any Islamic law is innovation. Whether that act is independent or an attribute of worship, whose base is not on Shariah, like to perform an obligatory act as recommended act or vice versa, and to invent something in worship like performing the Tawaf in congregation or to fix a particular quantum of worship act at a particular time: like Post-breakfast Prayer, which is another innovation of Umar. All this is unlawful.
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Even if someone classifies innovations into five types, even then there is no doubt that the innovations of Umar are included in innovations, which are unlawful. Innovation Two: Spying
Umar initiated the practice of spying on people at night, although the Almighty Allah has prohibited it and said: ﻮا 235B ُ ﺴﱠﺴ َﺠَ ﺗ َ ﻻَ و 1118B“And do not spy.” (Surah Hujurat 49:12) 3740BIbne Abil Hadid etc. have narrated that one night Umar came out to learn about the circumstances of people and heard a sound coming for a house. He climbed over the wall and saw a couple with a bag of wine before them. Umar said: O enemy of God, do you think that the Almighty Allah would keep your defect concealed, although you are engrossed in His disobedience? That man replied: Don’t make haste; if I have committed one mistake you have committed three: the Almighty Allah said: ﻮا 236B ُ ﺴﱠﺴ َﺠَ ﺗ َ ﻻَ و 1119B“And do not spy.” (Surah Hujurat 49:12) 3741B…and you have spied. And He said: ﺎ 237B َ ﻬِاﺑَ ﻮْ ﺑـَ أْ ﻦِ ﻣَﻮتُ ﻴُ ﻮا اﻟْﺒـُ ﺗْ أَ و 1120B“And go into the houses by their doors.” (Surah Baqarah 2:189) 3742B…and you have jumped over the wall. 3743BAnd He said:
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238B ْ ﻠَﺧَا دَذِ ﺈَﻓ ْ ﻢُ ﻜِ ﺴُ ﻔْ ﻧـَ أٰ ﻰَ ﻠَﻮا ﻋُ ﱢﻤ ﻠَ ﺴَﺎ ﻓًﻮﺗُ ﻴُ ﺑـْ ﻢُ ﺘ 1121B“So when you enter houses, greet your people with a salutation.” (Surah Nur 24:61) 3744BAnd you did not salute. 3745BUmar said: If I forgive your mistake, will you adopt good deeds? He replied: Yes, by Allah, I will never do this again. Umar said: I have forgiven you. 7994BInnovation Three: Three Divorces
3746BDuring the lifetime of the Prophet and period of Abu Bakr, three divorces, one after other were considered as one divorce without reconciliation, but Umar, three years after his Caliphate, declared that it should be considered as three divorces. 3747BThe author of Jamiul Usul has narrated from Sahih Abu Dawood and Nasai through a number of channels from Ibne Abbas that the excuse he presented was that people may not divorce excessively. But if this were to promote excess divorces, the Almighty Allah, whose knowledge encompasses everything, would have promulgated this rule. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) used to wait for divine revelation and he never issued any order on the basis of his personal view. How can Umar dare to modify divine laws on the basis of his personal whims? 7995BInnovation Four: Changing the Place of Ibrahim
3748BIt is narrated from Ahle Bayt (a.s.) through numerous and reliable chains of narrators that during the time of Prophet Ibrahim (a.s.) and after that also, the Place of Ibrahim (Maqam Ibrahim) was joined to the wall of the Kaaba, till the idolaters of Quraish, during the period of ignorance changed it to the present location. When the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) conquered
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Mecca, he returned the Place of Ibrahim (Maqam Ibrahim) to its original place and it remained there till Umar usurped the Caliphate and when he went to Hajj, he asked: Who can tell us the location of the Place of Ibrahim (Maqam Ibrahim) during the period of Jahiliyya? Another hypocrite said: I have kept its measurement calculated with a belt with me. Umar called for it and after finding the measurements, he changed the location of the Place of Ibrahim (Maqam Ibrahim) to the location of Jahiliyya. Till date the Place of Ibrahim (Maqam Ibrahim) is present in this location only and the Master of the Affair will change it to its original place. This incident is among the well known facts; rather it is among the widely related ones. They have now, housed pigeons at the original location of the Place of Ibrahim (Maqam Ibrahim) and they call it Place of Jibraeel (Maqam Jibraeel). The author of Kashaf has also hinted at the change of Place and said: Umar asked Muttalib bin Abi Dawaa-a: Do you know the location of the Place of Ibrahim (Maqam Ibrahim) during the period of Jahiliyya? He replied: Yes, and informed him of the same spot. Ibne Abil Hadid says that historians have said that Umar, first of all, deemed that Nafila Prayers during the month of Ramadhan should be recited in congregation and he had it proclaimed in all areas that this rule should be followed. It was him that burnt down the house of Ruwisad Thaqafi, who sold wine. He initiated the practice of spying and night patrols. He initiated the practice of using a lash to discipline people. People said that the lash of Umar was more terrifying than the sword of Hajjaj. He was the first one to fine scholars and he confiscated half their wealth. He was first to demolish the Mosque of the Prophet and expand it; and the area, which he included in the Mosque also contained the house of Abbas. He changed the Place of Ibrahim (Maqam Ibrahim) to its present location and previously it was adjacent to the Holy Kaaba.
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Thus, it is clear that nothing else can be a greater evidence of enmity to the Prophet. That the Sunnah of the Prophet should be destroyed knowingly and in its place innovation, ignorance and infidelity should be adopted. Innovation Five: Enmity to Persians
Since he had heard the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) say: Our devotees and helpers shall be from the Persians, he bore great enmity to them and did not allow them the rights, which Islam had bestowed on them. He ruled that Quraish should not marry any Arab or Persian ladies. In the same way, Quraish should not give their daughters in marriage to other Arabs and non-Arabs and other Arabs should not give their daughters in marriage to non-Arabs. Thus, he deemed all Arabs in relation to Quraish and all non-Arabs in relation to Arabs as Christians and Jews, although the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: All Muslims are equal. It is quoted in Jamiul Usul from Muwattah Malik that Umar prohibited that the non-Arabs to inherit from Arabs, except the non-Arab born among Arabs, and this command is clearly opposed to the laws of inheritance revealed by the Almighty Allah in the Holy Quran. Innovation Six: Awl He innovated Awl1 in inheritance, which is in contradiction of Quran and Sunnah. Its explanation is very long and there is no scope of it in this treatise.
1 Reducing the shares of heirs.
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Innovation Seven: ‘The Prayer is better than sleep’
He added the words of ‘The Prayer is better than sleep’ in the Morning Adhan as mentioned in Jamiul Usul narrating from Muwattah Malik. Ninth Indictment: Unequal Distribution of Stipends
During the period of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and Abu Bakr, stipends from the Public Treasury and war spoils were distributed equally among Muslims, but Umar turned this principle upside down and gave more to the wives of Prophet. He fixed twelve thousand dirhams annually for Ayesha and the other wives got ten thousand dirhams each. The fighters of Badr from Muhajireen were sanctioned 5000 dirhams and Ansar only 4000 dirhams. In the same way, he distributed allowances in a disproportionate way. It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) used to tell the Ansar with affection: After me, they will give precedence to others; but you remain patient, till you meet me at the Pool of Kauthar. Ibne Abil Hadid etc. have confessed that Umar was the first to start this innovation and he changed the principle of equitable distribution. It is clear and proved that this distribution was oppression on those, whose share was reduced. During the Caliphate of Imam Ali (a.s.) most of the mischiefs arose due to this innovation only, because Ali (a.s.) wanted to apply the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), but senior companions of the Prophet, like Talha and Zubair did not agree and that is why the Battle of Basra took place. After that other mischiefs appeared and if it was lawful to give anyone more in distribution, Imam Ali (a.s.) would have definitely
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warded off those mischiefs by it, to assure that the foundations of his Caliphate may not weaken and strengthen the rule of Muawiyah etc. Ibne Abil Hadid says in Sharh Nahjul Balagha: If someone says that Abu Bakr also distributed like Ali (a.s.), but no one refused from Abu Bakr as they did from Imam Ali (a.s.). We would reply that the period of Abu Bakr was just after the period of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.); that is why no one objected to him, but when Umar became the Caliph, he established the system of unequal allowance and people became used to it and forgot the first distribution. The period of Caliphate was long and the love of wealth and excess of allowances took root in the people. Those who were deprived also became used to that deprivation and they remained content on that much. After that when Uthman became the Caliph, he continued the system established by Umar. That is why the habits of people became firmer. When Caliphate reached Imam Ali (a.s.), he tried to turn back the people to the practice of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) after they had become accustomed to other things and had forgotten that practice, that is why its acceptance was so difficult for them that they broke the incumbent allegiance and staged an uprising against the Imam and also gained the support of those who were bestowed more by Umar. They criticized the practice of Imam Ali (a.s.) and praised the innovations of Umar, till they made disenchanted most people with the Imam. The author says: If one ponders on this well, it would become clear that all mischiefs that appeared in Islam and all oppressions that befell the Ahle Bayt (a.s.) are as a result of his innovations, mischiefs and conspiracies; as on the day of Saqifah, he sowed the seeds of mischief and corruption and by practicing discrimination in distribution, he watered that plant and made it fruitful through Shura committee.
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Till the time of the reappearance of His Eminence, Qaim Aale Muhammad (a.s.) all oppressions and injustice, which befalls Ahle Bayt (a.s.) and their Shia are fruits of this accursed tree. Curse of Allah be on one, who sowed its seed, watered it, perfected it and armed it. Tenth Indictment: Shura Committee
Formation of the Shura committee is the most terrible act and the most condemnable event in the history of Islam. In brief, its story, as Ibne Abil Hadid, Ibne Athir and most Ahle Sunnat have narrated, is that when Abu Lulu injured Umar and he became certain that his end was near, he did not remain content with the acts he had committed during his lifetime; that is to keep away Ahle Bayt (a.s.) from Caliphate and to diminish their position; on the contrary, he took such steps that even after him, the Caliphate should never go to Ahle Bayt (a.s.); at the same time, his plan should seem nice and no one should even suspect any shortcoming or ulterior motive of Umar in that regard and think that it was a selfless step. So first he took the advice of his companions. Some of them said by way of sycophancy that he should appoint his son, Abdullah as Caliph. Umar refused, not only because they should not regard him as selfish, but also because he knew well that if Abdullah becomes the Caliph, he would not be able to fulfill the functions of that post in the right way and very soon the right will go back to its rightful owner. He said: No, by Allah, two persons cannot take up this office from the family of Khattab. Whatever I have done is sufficient. I will not hoard the Caliphate for my descendants and will not take up this responsibility in my life and death. Then he said: Indeed, when the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) passed away from the world, he was pleased with six persons: Ali, Uthman, Talha, Zubair, Saad Ibne Abi Waqqas and Abdur Rahman bin Auf. I think that I should form a committee of these men, so that they may choose a Caliph from among themselves.
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Then he summoned them and remarked: Each has come hoping to get Caliphate. According the report of Ibne Abil Hadid, he said: Are you greedy for Caliphate after me? When he repeated this, Zubair replied: What can prevent us? You ruled as the Caliph and we, in Quraish, are neither lesser than you in excellence nor in relationship to the Prophet. Umar asked: Shall I tell you what type of persons you are? All said: Yes, and even if we say don’t, you will still do it. Umar said: “As for you, O Zubair, you are quick tempered and an angry man. When you are pleased, you are a believer and when you are angry, you are an infidel. One day you are a human being and another day you are a Satan. If you obtain the caliphate, you would spend a day in Mecca in arguing over a measure of barley. I don’t know what the condition of people would be if you come to power and the Allah Almighty Allah shall not endow you with caliphate, while you are having these defects.” Then Umar turned to Talha and asked, “Shall I say it or remain quiet?” Talha became angry and said, “You are not saying anything about the good qualities.” Umar said, “Indeed I know you very well, from the day your finger was cut off in the Battle of Uhad. You were angry due to the pain you suffered and the Prophet departed from this world, while he was displeased with you, because of what you said on the occasion of the revelation of the verse of Hijab.” O Talha, did you not say that ‘If the Prophet passes away, I would marry his widows?’ The Almighty Allah has not considered Muhammad better than us for marrying our cousins and the Almighty Allah has revealed for you: “…and it does not behove you that you should give trouble to the Apostle of Allah, nor that you should marry his wives after him ever…” Then Umar turned to Saad bin Abi Waqqas and said, “Indeed, you are the owner of a herd of horses, with which you fight in the battles. And you are a hunter with bows and arrows.
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What does the tribe of Zuhra has to do with caliphate and community affairs?” Saad was a warrior and except for martial affairs, he did not have any capability in administrative and community matters. Then why did Umar nominate him as a candidate for caliphate? In the same way, he described the ineligibility of the tribe of Saad for Caliphate and Umar criticized it in this regard. When he turned to Abdur Rahman Ibne Auf, he said, “As for you, O Abdur Rahman, if half of the faith of the Muslims is compared to your faith, your faith would prevail. However, it is not suitable for this matter to be entrusted to a person having a defect that you possess. Where is ‘Zohra’ (a type of weak person) and where is this matter? Then he turned to Uthman, a senior member of the Umayyad clan. It was a clan that had always confronted Islam. Umar said, “Yes! The rulership shall indeed come to you! As if I can see the Quraish handing it to you on the basis of their friendship to you and you have imposed Bani Umayyad and Bani Abu Muit on the people and preferred them for showering gifts. Then a group of wolves of Arabs would rush to you and behead you in your bed. By Allah, if you do so and you would do it – they would also do the same.” Then he put his hand on his forehead and said, “Thus, if it happens in this way, remember what I said…” After that Umar glanced at Amirul Momineen (a.s.) and said, “By Allah if you become the caliph! If only you hadn’t a joking nature! If you rule over them, you shall take them towards truth and the right path.” When was the Imam (a.s.) resorting to jest? Rather the Imam (a.s.) always lived a life of seriousness and had a farsighted disposition, which became obvious in his words and deeds. How could it be possible for a person of a joking nature to take the Muslims to the right path and truth? As Umar says: This position is not suitable for one, having a joking disposition; as it is a weakness and defect in personality.”
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Ali arose and departed from there. Umar then addressed the audience and said, “I recognize the status of a person that if you entrust him with your affairs, he would bring you on an illuminated path.” They asked, “Who is it?” He replied, “It is the same who is going from before you.” They asked, “What prevented you from this?” He replied, “There is no option.” According to another report, on the morning of Shura or some other time Umar remarked: I do not bunch prophethood and Caliphate for Bani Hashim. According to another report, he said: He is too young. After that Umar said: Ah, ah, if Abu Ubaidah Jarrah or Saalim, the freed slave of Huzaifah, had been alive, there was no doubt that they were suitable for Caliphate. Then Umar summoned Abu Talha Ansar and said: Take fifty men from Ansar and collect these six persons in a house; but you stand with naked swords outside that place and hasten in this matter and do not give them respite of more than three days; so that they may, after mutual consultations, choose a Caliph. If five agree on one person and one opposes, kill him. If four agree and two oppose, kill the two. If three agree on one person and Abdur Rahman is among them, approve his choice and if the other three oppose, eliminate all three. If three days pass and they don’t reach any conclusion, eliminate all of them, leaving the Muslims to choose whoever they like. Thus, after burying Umar, Abu Talha came with fifty men and all stood with naked swords at the door. According to Shia and Sunni reporters, Imam Ali (a.s.) reminded them of around one hundred of his excellences and virtues and all admitted to his veracity. Then they consulted among themselves and said: If the Caliphate is given to him, no one will get precedence or be oppressed and he will consider all Muslims as equal. So they did not agree at the Caliphate of Imam Ali (a.s.). When Talha despaired of his Caliphate and realized that except for Ali or Uthman, no one will get the Caliphate and since he was inimical to Bani Hashim, he said: I support Uthman. Since Zubair was the son of the paternal aunt of Imam
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Ali (a.s.), due to family ties, he declared his support for him. When Saad bin Abi Waqqas became certain that Caliphate cannot come to him, he said: I support my cousin, Abdur Rahman; as both were from Bani Zohra. Abdur Rahman said: I surrender my share for Ali and Uthman. Then Abdur Rahman said to Ali (a.s.): I give allegiance to you on the Book of Allah, Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and practice of Abu Bakr and Umar. Imam Ali (a.s.) said: I agree to accept on the basis of the Book of Allah and Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and then act according to my view. After that Abdur Rahman made the same offer to Uthman. Uthman replied: I accept all the conditions. Abdur Rahman repeated the offer thrice to Ali and Uthman and each time Uthman accepted it and Ali (a.s.) rejected. When Abdur Rahman saw that Ali (a.s.) was not agreeing to follow the practice of Abu Bakr and Umar, he placed his hand on the hands of Uthman and said: Peaceon you, O chief of believers. Imam Ali (a.s.) said: You have not pledged allegiance to him, but on the same hope, on which Umar paid allegiance to Abu Bakr. May the Almighty Allah create enmity between you. As most reporters have said, the prayer of Imam Ali (a.s.) was answered and such a severe enmity ensued between them that they did not speak to each other till death separated them. Such were the details of this incident as mentioned by Sunni and Shia historians and both consider it to be valid proofs of the correctness of their respective stances; but it is clear to all sane persons that this incident includes many indictments, disbelief and deviation of Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman due to many reasons. First Reason
He said: What Umar had done is sufficient for me and I, in my life and death, do not find myself worthy of it. If this was according to truth, under commands of Allah and His Messenger
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and in accordance to their obedience, why he was avoiding it and why he should flee from its performance? If it was only a mistake and a falsehood and in opposition to commands of Allah and Prophet, then why did he do that during his lifetime? Why, in spite of being aware of the proof of Allah and Prophet first he supported the candidature of Abu Bakr and then took over the Caliphate himself, depriving the one, most rightful for it? Second Reason
First he said: The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was pleased by these six persons, so they are suitable for Caliphate. After that he mentioned one defect of each of them, which in his view made them unsuitable for Caliphate, and most of their defects are such that even if they are not disbelief, they are definitely sins. In spite of those defects, why did he choose them for Caliphate? How was the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) pleased with them? Ibne Abil Hadid has narrated from Jahiz that someone should have asked Umar that first you said that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was pleased with these six; now why you are saying to Talha: When the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) passed away, he was angry at you? However, there was no one, who could dare to say even something lesser than this. Third Reason
Umar alleged that the defect of Imam Ali (a.s.) was his humor. However, it is one of the praiseworthy qualities of the prophets and saints and is a part of good nature and the Almighty Allah has praised His Messenger for this quality and has refuted and condemned its opposite. As He said: 239B َ ﻚِ ﻟْ ﻮَ ﺣْ ﻦِ ﻀﱡﻮا ﻣ َ ﻔْ ﻧـَ ﻻِ ﺐْ ﻠَ اﻟْﻘَﻴﻆِ ﻠَﺎ ﻏّﻈَ ﻓَﺖْ ﻨُ ﻛْ ﻮَ ﻟَ و
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“And had you been rough, hard hearted, they would certainly have dispersed from around you.” (Surah Aale Imran 3:159) If by humor, he implied what is a opposed to dignity and respect, and which includes vain discourse, then it is clear to all that Imam Ali (a.s.) was not having such a quality; and: 240B ِ ﻋَ أَﻴﻦِ ﻨِ ﻣْ ﺆُﻰ اﻟْﻤَ ﻠَ ﻋٍ ﱠﺔ ﻟِ ذَ أ َ ﻳﻦِ ﺮِﺎﻓَﻰ اﻟْﻜَ ﻠَ ﻋٍ ﱠة ﺰ 1123B“Lowly before the believers, mighty against the unbelievers.” (Surah Maidah 5:54) 3794BThe awe of Imam Ali (a.s.) in the hearts of infidels and Muslims was such that when they heard his name, they shivered in their pants and that is why they did not accept his Caliphate. On the contrary, Umar himself also alleged that Ali was too proud and arrogant. It is narrated from Ibne Abbas that when Imam Ali (a.s.) remained quiet, we could not dare to speak up. 3795BIbne Abil Hadid has narrated from Zubair bin Bakkar that Umar said to Ibne Abbas: If your companion, that is Imam Ali (a.s.), is able to become the Caliph, the arrogance, which he is having would lead him astray. It is narrated from Ibne Anbari that Ali (a.s.) came to the Masjid and sat near Umar. Other people were also seated with him. When Ali (a.s.) arose, someone attributed pride to him. Umar said: One, who is like him, deserves to feel proud. If his sword had not been there, Islam would not have become established; and he is the most learned of all in jurisprudence and the precedence and nobility of this Ummah is in his favor only. 3796BSomeone asked: When he is as such, why do you not appoint him as Caliph? He replied: We despise his Caliphate, because he is young in age and he likes the descendants of Abdul Muttalib. 3797BMoreover, it is narrated that Umar said to Abbas: You are the family members of the Prophet and his cousins, then why he did not leave the Caliphate among you? Ibne Abbas said: We
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don’t know and we have never thought about him, except good. Umar said: Your people did not like that prophethood and Caliphate should both fall into your share and that you become extremely arrogant. Perhaps you will say that the first to keep you away from Caliphate was Abu Bakr. But his aim was not this; it was other than it and there was no other choice. Otherwise the opinion of Abu Bakr was in my favor. In any case, he would have kept a share for you in Caliphate and if he had done that, it would not have been agreeable to you, because the people of your community look at in such a way, as a cow glances at the butcher, who slaughters it. Then Ibne Abil Hadid has narrated from Abdullah bin Umar that one day his father asked Abdullah bin Abbas: Do you know what prevented the people from giving Caliphate to you? He replied: No. Umar said: I know the reason. He asked: What is it? He replied: The Quraish hated that prophethood and Caliphate should both come to you and you may crush the people once and for all. Thus, Quraish devised a plot and chose a Caliph for themselves; got divine help and chose the right path. Ibne Abbas said: Will the Caliph guarantee me against his anger, so that he may hear the reply to this? Umar said: Say what you like. Ibne Abbas said: As for the statement that Quraish chose a Caliph for themselves; the Almighty Allah says: 241B ُ ﺎرَ ﺘْ ﺨَ ﻳَ وُﺎءَﺸَﺎ ﻳَ ﻣُ ﻖُ ﻠْﺨَ ﻳَ ﱡﻚ ﺑَ رَ ۗ و ◌ ُ ةَ ﺮَ ﻴـِ اﻟْﺨُ ﻢُ ﻬَ ﻟَﺎنَﺎ ﻛَ ﻣ 1124B“And your Lord creates and chooses whom He pleases; to choose is not theirs.” (Surah Qasas 28:68) 3800BYou know well that the Almighty Allah chose for Caliph one, He chose. If Quraish chose one for themselves, whom the Almighty Allah had chosen, then it is right, otherwise it is invalid. As for your saying that Quraish did not like prophethood and Caliphate to gather among us; the Almighty Allah has described the conditions of such people:
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242B ْ ﻢُ ﻬَﺎﻟَ ﻤْﻋَ أَﻂَ ﺒْ ﺣَ ﺄَ ﻓُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ لَ ﺰْ ﻧـَﺎ أَﻮا ﻣُ ﻫِ ﺮَ ﻛْ ﻢُ ﱠﻬ ﻧـَ ﺄِ ﺑَ ﻚِ ﴾٩﴿ ﻟٰذ 1125B“That is, because they hated what Allah revealed, so He rendered their deeds null.” (Surah Muhammad 47:9) 3801BAs for your saying: If it had been as such, you would have oppressed others; thus, if we had oppressed others due to Caliphate we can still do so as a result of our relationship to the Prophet, but only goodness is derived from the manners of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), regarding whom Almighty Allah said: 243B َ ﻌَ ﻟَ ﱠﻚ ﻧِ إَ و ٍ ﻴﻢِ ﻈَ ﻋٍ ﻖُ ﻠُ ﺧٰ ﻰَ ﴾٤﴿ ﻠ 1126B“And most surely you conform (yourself) to sublime morality.” (Surah Qalam 68:4) 3802BMoreover, He has addressed him as follows: 244B َ ﻴﻦِ ﻨِ ﻣْ ﺆُ اﻟْﻤَ ﻦِ ﻣَ ﻚَ ﻌَ اﺗـﱠﺒـ ِ ﻦَ ﻤِ ﻟَ ﻚَﺎﺣَ ﻨَ ﺟْﺾِ ﻔْاﺧَ ﴾٢١٥﴿ و 1127B“And be kind to him who follows you of the believers.” (Surah Shoara 26:215) 3803BUmar said: O Ibne Abbas, be gentle and nice; in the matter of Quraish, your hearts are full of a deceit and fraud that never recedes and with a malice, which never changes. Ibne Abbas said: O ruler of believers and hypocrites; tread the way slowly and don’t attribute fraud and deceit to the hearts of Bani Hashim. Indeed, their hearts are from the heart of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), which the Almighty Allah has purified from all defects and evils and they belong to the family, in whose honor the Almighty Allah has revealed the Verse of Purification. As for your saying that there is malice in our hearts regarding you, thus, why that one should not have malice, whose rights are usurped? 3804BUmar said: O Abdullah, I have learnt about a statement of yours and I don’t want to mention it to you lest the respect, I
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have for you is no more. Ibne Abbas said: Tell me what it is? If it is false, I will display its opposite and if it is true, you must not be aggrieved of our rights. Umar said: I heard that you repeatedly say that Caliphate was usurped from you by force and jealousy? Ibne Abbas said: As for jealousy, Shaitan was jealous and he got Adam (a.s.) expelled from Paradise. We are also sons of Adam and people are very jealous to us; and you know well who is more deserving of this. Then he continued: O Caliph, do the Arabs not argue against non-Arabs that the Prophet is from us, and we are better than you? Do the Quraish not claim superiority over all Arabs saying that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) is from us? Thus, we have the same argument against everyone else. Umar said: Now, get up and go home. When he arose and set out, Umar called out: O one, who is going, indeed, despite all what you have said, I will not give up being nice with you. Ibne Abbas turned and said: I have great right upon you and all Muslims due to the relationship with the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.); one, who honors that right, has secured that share and if he wastes it, has made his share invalid. Ibne Abbas said this and went away and Umar said to the people present in the gathering: Kudos to Ibne Abbas, I never saw him argue with anyone without emerging victorious. The author says: From these contradictory reports, it is clear from every wise and sane person that Umar knew that Caliphate was the right of Imam Ali (a.s.), but he tried to invalidate this right through intrigue; and in each of his statement the proof of his disbelief and hypocrisy is clear. As he said: I don’t like that I should bear this responsibility during my life and after death. He should be asked that when Imam Ali (a.s.) is rightful for it and if he becomes the Caliph, he would take the people on the divine path; and he always repeated: If Ali was not there, Umar would have perished. Thus, why don’t you give the Caliphate to him after your death, so that perhaps it may serve as recompense
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of some of your sins? And if you really did not want to take that responsibility, why did you devise a plot so that the Caliphate should be seized from one, who in your view is more rightful and suitable for it? Then you transferred it to such a person, who in your view, and in fact also, had great nepotism; and that he would be slain with utmost degradation? As for his saying: I don’t think that prophethood and Caliphate should gather in one person; its convincing reply was given by Ibne Abbas and the Almighty Allah says: 245B ِ ﱠﻪ ﻠِ ﻟُ ﱠﻪ ﻠُ ﻛَ ﺮْ ﻣَْ ﱠ اﻷ نِ إ 1128B“Surely the affair is wholly (in the hands) of Allah.” (Surah Aale Imran 3:154) 3811BAnd He said: 246B ِ ﻪِﻮﻟُ ﺳَ رَ وِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ِ يَ ﺪَ ﻳَ ﻦْ ﻴَ ﻮا ﺑـُ ﱢﻣ ﺪَ ﻘُ ﺗـَ ﻻ 1129B“Be not forward in the presence of Allah and His Apostle.” (Surah Hujurat 49:1) 3812BNumerous verses and traditions were mentioned in this regard. What was the shortcoming of Bani Hashim that they were not capable of Imamate and Caliphate, except for the fact that they were source of prophethood, gates of knowledge and wisdom, standards of guidance, minarets of piety and guides to the divine path? Why the prophethood of all prophets, like Nuh, Ibrahim, Ismail, Ishaq, Yaqub, Dawood etc. did not become a hurdle for the Caliphate of their family members? 3813BAnd for the Prophet of the last age, who is the greatest prophet it should be an obstacle? And to say that if prophethood and Caliphate is for you, then nothing else remains for us. This is only enmity, jealousy, love of position and rulership, because in the form, in which the Almighty Allah had liked Caliphate for them and has not considered you worthy of it, in this there is no
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shortcoming of anyone, but to present the excuse of young age whereas young age could not be an obstacle for prophethood for Prophet Yusuf, Yahya, Isa and Sulaiman etc. How it can be an obstacle for Imam Ali (a.s.)? Then why for the Caliphate of Imam Ali (a.s.), the age of forty years was insufficient? Moreover, in conveying the Surah Baraat and being in the position of Prophet Harun (a.s.) in the Battle of Tabuk, which occurred many years before that, the age of Imam Ali (a.s.) was not less and after the passing away of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), when years had passed after that, the age of Imam Ali (a.s.) was less? As for his excuse that Ali had excessive love for his relatives; if it was only for the sake of Allah and the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), how it can be a deficiency? Thus it is clear that this indictment includes many indictments. Fourth Reason
Those hypocrites have themselves narrated that the Imams should be from Quraish and due to this, the Ansar surrendered to them, but on the day of Shura, Umar said: If Saalim, the freed slave of Huzaifah had been there, I would not have had any doubt in his Caliphate, although he was definitely not from Quraish and it is clearly against textual declaration and consensus, yet it was the intention of Umar that if Saalim were alive, I would have given the Caliphate to him. Ibne Athir has, in Kamil, narrated from Amr bin Maimoon that when Umar was injured, people told him: If you appoint someone as Caliph, the discord and mischief would be dispelled. He said: If Ubaidah had been alive, I would have appointed him as Caliph and if the Almighty Allah has asked me about it, I would have replied that I heard Your prophet say that he is the trustworthy one of this Ummah. If Saalim had been alive, I would have appointed him as Caliph and if the Almighty Allah had asked me about it, I would have replied: I heard Your Prophet say: Saalim’s love for Allah is very intense.
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Sayyid Murtada has narrated that people asked Umar to appoint someone as Caliph. He replied: I can see excessive greed for Caliphate in my companions, so I leave this matter on these six persons. When the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) passed away, he was pleased with them. After that he said: If I had one of the two: Saalim or Abu Ubaidah, I would have left Caliphate for them and had trusted them. The Chief Judge has also narrated this report and there is no indictment in this, but as for the second preface: that is the Imams should be from Quraish: In Jamiul Usul, it is narrated from Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Huraira that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: People are in the obedience of Quraish and in this matter their Muslims are in the obedience of Muslims of Quraish and their disbelievers are in obedience of the disbelievers of Quraish. Moreover, both have narrated from Ibne Umar that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: This matter will remain in Quraish till two persons from them survive. Bukhari has narrated from Muawiyah that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: This matter will remain in Quraish and no one will be inimical to them till they keep the religion established, except that the Almighty Allah will throw him headlong into Hell. Tirmidhi has narrated from Amr bin Aas that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Quraish are the rulers of people till Judgment Day in good circumstances and bad. The Chief Judge has reported this tradition in Mughni that on Saqifah day no one rejected this, on the contrary, all testified in its favor and this report is mentioned continuously. Thus, it is concluded that in having this hope and regarding Saalim to be worthy of Caliphate he had acted against his belief and against definite textual declarations. Moreover, the excuse, which he had put forth for the Caliphate of Saalim, in addition to being unknown, it is also full of mistakes, because the intensity of faith is not something, which could arm one with all the qualifications of Imamate and to bear the heavy responsibilities of Caliphate and if this
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tradition, favoring Saalim could remove the excuse, then why the tradition of the roasted fowl, which is widely narrated, in which Imam Ali (a.s.) is described to be the most beloved creature of the Almighty Allah, should not be regarded as a definite proof of his Imamate, in spite of the fact that being a beloved of Allah is higher than being liked by Allah? And the severity of love does not necessarily make one the most excellent among the people. On the contrary, it makes one most popular. Then how he did not appoint Imam Ali (a.s.) and disregarded other widely related traditions and numerous verses of Quran? Some scholars have said that it is a clear proof of what the Shia narrate that Abu Bakr, Umar, Ubaidah and Saalim made a pact not to allow the Caliphate for Bani Hashim and if it were not the reason, what was the motivation of wishing that they were alive; when they were not famous for any excellence; especially when the senior most companions of the Prophet, having the virtuous qualities were present? Fifth Reason
He swore that after my death I will not be responsible for this matter; but after that he did take up the responsibility and referred to Shura. But what is the proof that Shura can be the source of greater Caliphate? Its ultimate stage is only that it lawfulness should be based on Ijtihad. Even if we accept it, how the Ijtihad of some was given precedence to the Ijtihad of others? Moreover, he that considered himself as Caliph, why he did not do Ijtihad and appoint one person as Caliph and referred to the Ijtihad of others in a matter, which apparently even had the possibility of being condemned to death and contained threats and warnings; and not to be content on his personal Ijtihad, like Abu Bakr, although he was safer than Abu Bakr from mischief and trouble?
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In fact, the root cause of the Battle of Jamal, Siffeen and Nahrawan was nothing, but the Shura; as Ibne Abil Hadid has narrated from Muawiyah that nothing destroyed the unity of Muslims, but that Shura, which Umar has formed comprising of six members, because it encouraged each of them to claim Caliphate and their people also wished it. If Umar had appointed one person as Caliph, like Abu Bakr had done, this difference would not have appeared and he also enabled those capable for mischief-making, like Muawiyah and Amr bin Aas, greedy for Caliphate, because he appointed Muawiyah as governor of Shaam and Amr as governor of Egypt, only because he was aware of their enmity to Imam Ali (a.s.). He gave governorships to them with the view that if Caliphate ever came to Imam Ali (a.s.), they will never obey him. And when he was fatally injured and no hope remained for him, he said: O companions of Muhammad, be well wishers of each other and if you do not, Amr and Muawiyah will dominate you in Caliphate. When they heard this, the aspiration of Caliphate was created in their minds and it raised its head during the period of Imam Ali (a.s.). Moreover, Ibne Abil Hadid has narrated from Ja’far bin Makki Hajib that Muhammad bin Sulaiman Hajibul Hujjab was an intelligent writer and was also well versed with the science of philosophy. He was not prejudiced in favor of any particular school of thought. I asked him about the circumstances of Ali and Uthman. He replied: This enmity between Bani Hashim and Bani Abde Shams was age old. Then after talking a great deal about this issue, he said: Another reason in the issue of Caliphate was that Umar left the decision of Caliphate to the Shura and did not appoint one person as Caliph. Thus, each member thought that he was worthy of Caliphate and rulership, and this remained concealed in their hearts forever and they waited for an opportunity till dispute intensified between Uthman and Ali and Uthman was slain. The main cause of his killing was Talha and he (Talha) did not doubt
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that after Uthman, the Caliphate will come to him due to his past record and also because he was the cousin of Abu Bakr, because in the hearts of the people of that period, Abu Bakr was highly esteemed and Talha was also a generous and charitable man. He had even disputed with Umar during the lifetime of Abu Bakr with regard to Caliphate. That is why he was always in the forefront to get rid of Uthman and to instigate the people against him, till he disaffected from Uthman, hearts of the people of Medina and Bedouins. Zubair also supported him in this matter and he desired Caliphate for himself. In Caliphate, the hope of both of them was not lesser than the hope of Imam Ali (a.s.); on the contrary, their greed was more, because Ali had been relegated to the sidelines and Umar and Abu Bakr had reduced his value in view of people; on the contrary, people had forgotten about him completely. Most of those who had seen and heard his excellence and merits during the lifetime of the Prophet were not alive and others, who came in their place, did not recognize him. On the contrary, they thought that he was any ordinary Muslim. None of his excellence was famous among the people, except that he was the cousin of the Prophet, husband of Lady Fatima Zahra (s.a.) and father of Hasan and Husain. His other excellence and merits were forgotten. Moreover, the malice and deviation of Quraish was so apparent that it was not shown for anyone else. Talha and Zubair were loyal to Quraish, because they did not have those qualities, due to which the Quraish were inimical to Ali (a.s.). On the contrary, during the last days of Uthman, they sought the support of Quraish and promised rewards to them. Among their people they were known as virtual or rather actual Caliphs, because Umar has appointed them and chosen them for Caliphate. Umar was such that his command was effective during his lifetime as well after his death and people liked his words and deeds. When Uthman was slain, Talha decided to take over the Caliphate and he was very greedy for it. If Ashtar and the Arab
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stalwarts with him had not fixed the Caliphate for Ali (a.s.), he would never have become the Caliph. When Talha and Zubair failed to get the Caliphate, during the Caliphate of Imam Ali (a.s.), they created such a great rift that they took Ayesha to Iraq, as a result of which, the mischief of the Battle of Jamal occurred. The Battle of Jamal was a preface to the Battle of Siffeen, because if the Battle of Basra had not taken place, Muawiyah would not have dared to oppose Imam Ali (a.s.). He deceived the people of Shaam that Ali has become a transgressor, because he fought against Ayesha and he killed Talha and Zubair, even though they were from the people of Paradise. Thus, it is known that the mischief of Siffeen was also a side effect of the Battle of Jamal. Through the mischief of Siffeen and deviation of Muawiyah arose all the mischiefs and evils that occurred during the reign of Umayyads. Rather the mischief of Abdullah Ibne Zubair was also a branch of the killing of Uthman, because Abdullah had claimed that when Uthman became sure of his death, he appointed him as Caliph and Marwan bin Hakam and others are witnesses to it. Just see that how these issues are linked to each other and how all of them are from one and the same root? All these end at the accursed tree; that is the Shura, which Umar had sown in mischief and deviation. After that Hajibul Hujjab said: More surprising is that people told Umar that you have appointed Saeed bin Aas, Muawiyah and most hypocrites as governors, who were included among the Muallifa Quloob (whose hearts were made to incline to Islam through monetary gifts1), but did not give any rulership to Ali, Abbas, Zubair and Talha? He replied: As for Ali, his arrogance more than that he should accept rulership from me. As
1 They were taken prisoners of war and they and their children embraced Islam under compulsion.
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for the others, I fear that they would spread mischief and rebellion in the lands. The author says: If Umar feared that on getting power, they will create mischief and each would claim Caliphate for himself, why he deemed those six persons as equals in Caliphate? It is clear that all mischiefs and corruptions that appeared in Islam were rooted in that Shura and in the innovations of Abu Bakr and Umar. Sixth Reason
Why did he not include Salman, Abuzar, Miqdad and Ammar in this Shura, who are, through proven authentic reports, accepted by all sects? Who were more truthful than all the people of the world and according to command of Allah were favorites of the Prophet, devotees of Prophet and ardent supporters of Imam Ali (a.s.)? Also Abbas, who was the uncle of the Prophet? Why he appointed persons, who, according to his own admission, were having many defects and were unrighteous? Seventh Reason
Why in the matter of Fadak, he did not accept the testimony of four infallibles in the issue, which was related to Jizya and Diyat due to his vested interests. Those people were such that Allah and the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) had testified for their infallibility, purity and truthfulness. And with regard to Imamate, which includes all the issues of the world and the hereafter collectively. Why he left the matter at the discretion of those, who had vested interests in it and absolutely the intention of selfish interest did not prevent this?
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Eighth Reason
If though he apparently included Imam Ali (a.s.) in the Shura, but he planned it in such a way that the Caliphate should not come to him in any way and his malice, which is the clear proof of his infidelity, should become obvious, because Talha, was having malice to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), which even Umar had mentioned. He was related to Abu Bakr and was inimical to Imam Ali (a.s.) and Imam Ali (a.s.) had disputed with him regarding Caliphate. In the same way, Abdur Rahman, inspite of his relationship with Uthman and the relations that existed between them, would not have left the support of Uthman. Saad also, who was from Bani Zohra and Bani Umayyah, would not leave the support of Abdur Rahman and these people in the presence of Uthman, could never approve the Caliphate of Imam Ali (a.s.). Zubair, who according to the admission of Umar, was sometimes a human and sometimes a Satan, if he had also supported that group, Imam Ali (a.s.) would have been left alone; and if he supported Imam Ali (a.s.), they would be only two on one side. Even if Saad bin Abi Waqqas supported Imam Ali (a.s.) they would have been three persons; but Abdur Rahman and Talha could never approve Imam Ali (a.s.). Thus, Ali (a.s.) could never receive the Caliphate. Ibne Abil Hadid says: Shobi in Kitab Shura and Jauhari in Kitab Saqifah have narrated from Sahl bin Saad Ansari that he said: When Imam Ali (a.s.) and Abbas came of the meeting with Umar, after he had formed the Shura, I was walking behind these them. I heard Imam Ali (a.s.) say to Abbas: We have again lost the Caliphate as a result of this plan of Umar. Abbas asked: How can you say that? He replied: Did you not hear that he said: The side of Abdur Rahman is to have precedence; thus, Saad will not oppose Abdur Rahman, because he is his cousin and Abdur Rahman is the protégée and son-in-law of Uthman. Even if the
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other two support me, it would be of no use, although I don’t expect the support of even one of them. Umar’s aim was to show Abdur Rahman as superior to us. By Allah, when their first man, Abu Bakr, was not having excellence over us what is the worth of Abdur Rahman? By Allah, if Umar survives this attack, I will remind him of all that he has committed against us so far; and if he dies, and he will definitely die, they will unite to keep the Caliphate from us; and if they do this they will receive their recompense from me. By Allah, I do not have any inclination to rulership and I do not desire the world; but I want justice to be established among the people and that the laws of Quran should be revived again. If someone says: Why Imam Ali (a.s.) participated in Shura knowing that the Caliphate will not come to him? Its reply is that since Abu Bakr and Umar had on the first day claimed that prophethood and Caliphate cannot come together in one person and Umar also mentioned it often; and this view had taken root in the minds of people; if Imam Ali (a.s.) had not participated, people would never have considered the possibility of Caliphate for Bani Hashim and the right would never have come to him. When Imam Ali (a.s.) participated in the Shura, people learnt that the tradition of prophethood and Caliphate not coming to same person was fabricated. As Ibne Babawayh has narrated from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) that when Umar wrote the document of that Shura, the name of Uthman was first and the name of Ali was last. Abbas said to Imam Ali (a.s.): Umar has mentioned your name last of all; people will expel you. Listen to me and don’t participate in the Shura. Imam Ali (a.s.) did not reply. When people gave allegiance to Uthman, Abbas said: Did I not say that they would do this? Imam Ali (a.s.) replied: Uncle, my participation was having an aim, which was not known to you. Did Umar not announce that Almighty Allah will not gather prophethood and Caliphate for Bani Hashim? I wanted him to refute himself so that all know
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whatever he said before was false and we do have capability of Caliphate. Abbas fell silent. There are many exigencies in all issues of those lofty personalities, which our defective intellects cannot know. He also knew that if he had not participated in Shura, they would have demanded him to pay allegiance to one of them. It was possible for to think that Ali (a.s.) had paid allegiance to them, willingly surrendering Caliphate as opposed to that he took part in the Shura and demanded his right and exhausted the proof so that the misunderstanding be dispelled. As Tabari has narrated in this incident that Abdur Rahman said to Imam Ali (a.s.): O Ali, do not create circumstances that may lead to your killing. I have thought on this much and consulted the people, but they don’t consider anyone equal to Uthman. At that time Ali came out and said: Whatever has been decreed is bound to happen. In another report of Tabari, it is mentioned that when people paid allegiance to Uthman, Imam Ali (a.s.) avoided it. Uthman again recited the verse, which was revealed in his regard and the regard of those like him, who had broken the pledge made to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). ﺎ 247B َ ﱠﻤ ﻧِ ﺈَ ﻓَﺚَ ﻜَ ﻧْ ﻦَ ﻤَ ﻓ ِ ﻪِ ﺴْ ﻔَ ﻧـٰ ﻰَ ﻠَ ﻋُﺚُ ﻜْ ﻨَ ﻳـ 1130B“Therefore, whoever breaks (his faith), he breaks it only to the injury of his own soul.” (Surah Fath 48:10) 3852BWhen Imam Ali (a.s.) heard this threat, he came and gave allegiance and he used to say: They deceived and what a strange deception they enacted. Sayyid Murtada has narrated from Balazari, the most reliable historian of Ahle Sunnat, that when Abdur Rahman gave allegiance to Uthman, Imam Ali (a.s.) was standing and then he sat down. Abdur Rahman said: Give allegiance or I will kill you. At that time, except for him, no one had any sword. Imam Ali (a.s.) came out of there in anger. The members of Shura hastened after him and said: Give the allegiance or we will do Jihad with you. They brought Ali back till he gave allegiance.
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Thus, by these circumstances it became clear that allegiance of the Imam was not willing and consensus was not established regarding this Caliphate. How it could even slightly have the aspect of willingness when threats of killing are made? Sayyid Razi (r.a.) says: The first trick Abdur Rahman played was that he himself quit from the candidature, so that people may regard him as selfless and that they may accept whatever he suggests. Another trick was that he offered Caliphate to Imam Ali (a.s.), but imposed conditions he knew that Ali (a.s.) would not accept; that is to act on the practice of Abu Bakr and Umar. He knew well that Ali considered the practice of both of them as invalid and innovative and he will not accept this condition, but Ali (a.s.) could not have mentioned it openly as they will get a pretext to condemn him. Finally, it was also an impossible thing, because their practice was mutually contradictory. Thus, they succeeded in conducting the procedure of Shura according to their original plan. Ninth Reason
Umar ordered killing in four circumstances; two of which are as follows: (1) Opposition of Abdur Rahman or all supporters of Uthman. (2) No consensus on any matter. Now, what was their sin, which made them liable for execution? And how his view, view of Abdur Rahman and others can be decisive proof, and which command of Allah and Prophet supported the obligation of obeying them in such a way that opposition to them should lead to execution of some Muslims, whose killing according to command of Quran is unlawful and one of the greatest sins?
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Tenth Reason
He also ordered the execution of Ali (a.s.); on the contrary, it was not an order, it was a conspiracy to get him eliminated as is clear from its division; in spite of the fact that it is proved through authentic traditions of Ahle Sunnat and Shia that love for Ali is faith and enmity to him is disbelief. Fighting him is fighting the Prophet and making peace with him is making peace with the Prophet. Eleventh Reason
Even if we accept that it was obligatory to obey them and to oppose them would make one liable for execution; why Muslims should be instruments of killing of that infallibility personality and what proves the correctness of the time period that if three days pass and they do not reach a decision, all of them should be executed? Twelfth Reason
In spite of the fact Ali (a.s.) was having those excellence and merits, which are proved from the reports of their own Sihah books and most were mentioned above; like Ali does not separate from truth and Quran; he is the gate of the city of knowledge. He is the rightful Imam and is the decisive proof on all the people; Umar decreed that he should obey Abdur Rahman, who was lacking all this and Umar himself knew that he would never leave the support of Uthman, his cousin and sonin-law; and according to his own confession, he lacked determination, was prejudiced against relatives and not worthy of Caliphate. Then why his opinion was given precedence over the opinion of Imam Ali (a.s.) and his obedience was made obligatory on Imam Ali (a.s.) to such an extent that if he
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disobeyed, he should be killed. No infidelity, enmity, hypocrisy and deviation is more than this. Thirteenth Reason
Even though through the consensus of Ahle Sunnat and Shia, Imam Ali (a.s.) is proximate to the Book of Allah and he never separates from truth and he is the Ark of Salvation and the most learned of the Ummah, when he did not agree to follow the practice of Abu Bakr and Umar and as a result of this, he surrendered Caliphate, which was his exclusive right. Thus, no other proof can be clearer of the deviation and falsehood of those two and the invalidity of their practice, because if their practice had been according to the Book of Allah and Sunnah of Prophet, why Imam Ali (a.s.) did not accept, in spite of the fact that he had accepted the Quran and Sunnah? Why Abdur Rahman, as a result of his non-acceptance, did not approve the Caliphate of Imam Ali (a.s.). And if it was opposed to Quran and Sunnah, opposition of Quran and Sunnah is infidelity personified! Fourteenth Reason
When Uthman agreed on the condition, his deviation and invalidity of his Caliphate also became apparent like that of those two. Even if we accept the correctness of Ijtihad, if Ali and Uthman were not Mujtahids, they were not worthy of Caliphate according to the religion of Ahle Sunnat, because in their view an important condition of Caliphate is Ijtihad. Then why Umar included them in the counseling of Caliphate and Abdur Rahman made pledge of allegiance obligatory? If they were Mujtahid, why Abdur Rahman laid the condition that he should not act on his Ijtihad and that he shouldn’t oppose the Ijtihad of Abu Bakr and Umar? Why Uthman accepted this condition every time and if such a
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condition is lawful, what is the use of Ijtihad being a condition of Caliphate? Moreover, when opposition to Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), following whom is obligatory according to declaration of Quran, it should be lawful on the basis of Ijtihad as Ahle Sunnat suggest and they attribute the mistakes of Abu Bakr and Umar to that same Ijtihad. Then why opposition to them and falsehood should not be lawful? There are other mistakes as well in this Shura, but it would prolong the discussion if we mentioned all the points. Hence, as much was discussed so far is sufficient for the intelligent. Eleventh Indictment: Burying Abu Bakr in Prophet’s Chamber
He buried Abu Bakr in the room of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and willed that he should also be buried there, although it was not lawful due to many reasons: First Reason
It is not allowed use the property of anyone else, without legal justification. Second Reason
The Almighty Allah has ruled that no one should enter the house of anyone else, without his permission. Third Reason
They used a pick axe to dig next to the grave of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), although Almighty Allah has prohibited the raising of voices before the Prophet and the honor of the believer is same in life as well as death.
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The ultimate statement in this regard is that the location of the grave of the Prophet is not without two possibilities; either it was a property of His Eminence at the time of his passing away; or that during his lifetime, its ownership was transferred to Ayesha, as some Ahle Sunnat explain. According to the first possibility either that house reached to others as inheritance, or it was a Sadaqah. If it was inherited, it was not allowed for Abu Bakr and Umar to be buried there, except after taking permission of the heirs. It is not mentioned in any report that the permission of the heirs was taken or that it was purchased from them. If it was charity, it is necessary that they should have purchased it from Muslims or should have taken permission from them and if it were transferred during the lifetime, in that case, it was necessary that they should have demanded some proof or witness from Ayesha and they sent someone to Ayesha and got her permission only to deceive people. In any case, it is clear to every intelligent person that the permission of Ayesha is of no use, because if it was charity, all the rightful ones were included in it and taking permission from Ayesha was of no use. If it was inheritance, it was unlawful to use it without the permission of all heirs and before the division of inheritance. The permission of Ayesha alone was of no use. It is narrated that one day Faddal bin Hasan passed through a gathering, where Abu Hanifah was teaching a large number of his students. Faddal said to his companion: By Allah, as long as I don’t embarrass Abu Hanifah I will not go on. He came to Abu Hanifah and after greeting him, said: I have a brother, who says that after the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), Ali is the best of the creatures and I say that Abu Bakr is the best after the Prophet and after that Umar; thus, you teach me a reasoning, so that I may exhaust the proof on him. Abu Hanifah thought for sometime and then said: Only this much is sufficient for their excellence that they are buried in the same room and what reasoning can be clearer than this? Faddal
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said: I mentioned this to my brother and he replied: If that was the property of Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), they committed injustice; that is they are buried in a place, where they had no right and if it was their property and they had gifted it to the Prophet, it was also wrong as they took back something they had gifted to him previously and broke their oath. Abu Hanifah pondered for sometime and then said: It was due to the dower of their daughters that these two were buried there. Faddal said: I mentioned this also to my brother and he says: As long as the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was not paying the dower of his wives they did not become lawful for them as the Almighty Allah has said: 248B َ ﻮرُ ﺟُ أَﺖْ ﻴَ ﻲ آﺗـِ ﱠﺗ اﻟﻼَ ﻚَاﺟَ وْ زَ أَ ﻚَﺎ ﻟَ ﻨْ ﻠَ ﻠْ ﺣَ ﱠﺎ أ ﻧِ إ ﱠ ﻦُ ﻫ 1131B“Surely We have made lawful to you your wives whom you have given their dowries.” (Surah Ahzab 33:50) 3881BAbu Hanifah said: Tell him that they were buried through the inheritance of their daughters. Faddal said: I told him this, he replies: When the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) passed away, he was having nine wives and all were eligible to receive one-eights of that house; thus each lady was eligible for ninth part of eighth part, which is not even one hand span in area; then how a body was buried there? 3882BMoreover, he says: They did not give inheritance to Lady Fatima (s.a.) and said that the Prophet left no inheritance. Then how Ayesha and Hafasa received inheritance? When the discussion reached this stage Abu Hanifah said: Expel him from here as he is a Rafidi and he has no brother. 3883BThere is no scope in this treatise to quote whatever is mentioned in wide-ranging books with regard to the lineage of Umar, his birth and his being illegitimate.
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Part Three: Indictments of Uthman
His wrongful deeds are so well known that they are hardly needful of interpretation and explanation, but we shall mention some of them in this treatise. First Indictment: Nepotism
He appointed some of his relatives, who were disbelievers and transgressors, having no capability at all, as governors and rulers of Muslims and gave to them control on the life, property and honor of Muslims; like he appointed his maternal brother, Walid, as governor of Kufa, who committed all sorts of sins and transgressions. Walid was well known for his fondness of wine. Ibne Abde Barr in Istiab and most tradition scholars and historians have written that one day Walid came to the Masjid highly intoxicated and in rapture and recited four units during Morning Prayer and then said: If you like, I can recite more. The author of Istiab states that this incident is well known and reliable scholars of traditions have mentioned it. Then he says: In the interpretation of the verse of: 249B ُ ﻴﺒِﺼُ ﺗْ نَﻮا أُ ﱠﻨ ﻴـَ ﺒـَ ﺘَ ﻓـٍ ﺈَ ﺒَ ﻨِ ﺑٌ ﻖِﺎﺳَ ﻓْ ﻢُ ﻛ َ ﺎءَ ﺟْ نِﻮا إُ ﻨَ آﻣَﻳﻦِ ﺎ اﻟﱠﺬ َ ﱡﻬ ﻳـَﺎ أَ ﻳ ﻮا َ ﻴﻦِ ﻣِﺎدَ ﻧْ ﻢُ ﺘْ ﻠَ ﻌَﺎ ﻓـَ ﻣٰ ﻰَ ﻠَﻮا ﻋُﺤِ ﺒْ ﺼُ ﺘَ ﻓـٍ ﺔَﺎﻟَ ﻬَﺠِﺎ ﺑً ﻣْ ﻮَ ﴾٦﴿ ﻗـ 1132B“O you who believe! If an evil-doer comes to you with a report, look carefully into it, lest you harm a people in ignorance, then be sorry for what you have done.” (Surah Hujurat 49:6) 3887BThere is no difference of opinion among scholars of exegesis that it was revealed for Walid and Almighty Allah called him a transgressor. The author of Murujuz Zahab etc. have narrated that his sinfulness was so famous that people
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stoned him on top of the pulpit and when they brought him to Medina, Imam Ali (a.s.) awarded him the punishment for drinking wine, although Uthman did not approve it. Moreover, Uthman allowed Marwan to interfere in his Caliphate and he committed whatever oppression and injustice he liked. In the same way, Uthman appointed Abdullah bin Ibne Sarah as governor of Egypt and when people complained about him, he appointed Muhammad bin Abi Bakr as governor and sent them back and surreptiously wrote to Abdullah that when they come to Egypt, he should shave off the beards of some of them and throw them into prison and impale some of them on the stakes. However, the people of Egypt confiscated the letter from the messenger and returned to Medina. Uthman was assassinated for this. Second Indictment: Recalling Hakam bin Abil Aas
The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) had exiled Hakam bin Abil Aas from Medina due to his infidelity and hypocrisy and because the Prophet was harassed a great deal by him and as long as His Eminence remained in Medina, he did not allow him to enter Medina, but when His Eminence passed away, due to the relationship that he had with Uthman, and also because of their commonality in infidelity and hypocrisy, Uthman interceded on his behalf with Abu Bakr to allow him to return to Medina, but Abu Bakr did not relent. When Umar became the Caliph, Uthman repeated his request and Umar also did not concede. When Uthman became the Caliph, he brought him and others like him back to Medina. All companions like Imam Ali (a.s.), Talha, Zubair, Saad, Abdur Rahman and Ammar etc. objected to Uthman, but it did not serve any purpose, even though it was clear opposition to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and also opposed to the style of Abu Bakr and Umar, which was a condition he had accepted. Waqidi
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and Ibne Barr have reported these issues through numerous channels. Third Indictment: Oppressing Abuzar Ghiffari
Abuzar Ghiffari, in whose excellence, no one from Ahle Sunnat and Shia doubts and Ahle Sunnat have mentioned many traditions of his excellence in their Sihah books. He was always criticizing Uthman for his oppressions, innovations and its fruits. He roamed the streets of Medina and say: 250B ٍ ﻴﻢِ ﻟَ أٍابَ ﺬَ ﻌِوا ﺑُ ﺮَ ﻔَ ﻛَﻳﻦِ اﻟﱠﺬ ِ ﺸﱢﺮ َ ﺑَ ﴾٣﴿ و 1133B“And announce painful punishment to those who disbelieve.” (Surah Taubah 9:3) 3892BUthman expelled him from Medina and sent him to Syria. There also, when Abuzar observed the innovations and oppressions of Muawiyah he condemned him and narrated the excellence of Imam Ali (a.s.). Muawiyah sought his approval through offers of wealth, but he did not accept, till he was on the verge of making the people disaffected from him. At that time Muawiyah wrote to Uthman: If you are in need of Syria, recall Abuzar. Uthman replied: Send him to me mounted on a badtempered camel. Muawiyah sent that noble soul on the bare back of a bad-tempered camel along with a nasty driver, who was instructed to drive the camel day and night and not allow Abuzar to sleep or rest. 3893BWhen he brought Abuzar to Medina in such cruel way, the thighs of Abuzar were injured and the flesh fell off from them. When he met Uthman, at that time also, he did not refrain from criticism of his evil deeds. He narrated before him all traditions he had heard in his and his relatives’ condemnation. Uthman falsified him and Imam Ali (a.s.) said: Abuzar is not a liar, because I heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) say: The sky has not shaded and the earth has not carried any speaker, who is more truthful than Abuzar.
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All companions present there witnessed that Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) had said thus regarding Abuzar. Uthman asked: What should I do about this liar? Should I beat him, kill him or exile him? He wants to destroy the unity of Muslims. Imam Ali (a.s.) said: I say what the believer of the people of Firon said in favor of Musa (a.s.). Then he recited that verse, which said: If he is a liar, his falsehood is his sin and if he is truthful, you will receive what he is promising you. Indeed the Almighty Allah does not guide one, who is sinful and a liar. Uthman said: Dust in your mouth. Imam Ali (a.s.) said: Rather it would be in your mouth. It is narrated that after the killing of Uthman, it was observed that his mouth was full of dust. It was a miracle of Imam Ali (a.s.). Uthman proclaimed that no one should interact with Abuzar or speak to him. After some days he summoned him again and ordered him to leave Medina. Abuzar said: Send me back to Syria, so that I may fight the infidels. He said: I recalled you from Syria, because you created mischief there. Abuzar said: Send me to Iraq. He said: Do you want to go among people having uncertain faith and they also indict the imams? Abuzar said: Send me to Egypt, but he did not agree. He finally sent him to Rabdha, which Abuzar hated the most. Uthman also prohibited the people to interact with him. In that loneliness and in spite of great difficulties Abuzar remained engrossed in the worship of Allah till he was admitted into Divine Mercy. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) had already prophesied about those oppressions and said to Abuzar: You will live alone, die alone, be raised alone and enter Paradise alone. Some people of Iraq will perform your final rites. When it was time of the passing away of Abuzar Ghiffari, there was no one besides him, except his daughter. She said: How will I perform your last rites? He replied: The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) informed me that a caravan of Iraqi Hajj pilgrims would perform my final rites. When my soul leaves the body, cover my face and wait on the route of Hajj pilgrims. When they
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arrive, inform them about my demise. She came to the road and a caravan of Iraq reached there. Abdullah bin Masud and Malik bin Ashtar were among them. The daughter of Abuzar informed them of his demise and they were shattered at the news. Then they performed his final rites with full decorum. After burying Abuzar, they wept much and invoked curse on one, who had expelled him from Medina in an unjust way. One of the reasons, why Uthman beat up and humiliated Ibne Masud was this only, as will be explained after this. At the time of Abuzar’s expulsion, Uthman and his companions condemned Imam Ali (a.s.) a great deal, because the Imam had gone to say farewell to him. Abuzar was a great companion and he commanded precedence, regarding whom Tirmidhi has narrated that under the sky and over the earth there is no one more truthful than him and he is the similitude of Isa Ibne Maryam, in spite of his other numerous merits, which Ahle Sunnat have narrated in their Sihah, Uthman continued to oppress and harass him due to his loyalties to Ahle Bayt of prophethood. Thus, one, who insults the Ahle Bayt (a.s.) and their supporters, how he can be eligible for Caliphate? Fourth Indictment: Cruelty to Abdullah bin Masud
Abdullah bin Masud was one of the most senior companions of the Prophet and there are more traditions in his excellence than in favor of Uthman. Uthman stopped his allowance and beat him up twice. Once, because he recited prayer on the bier of Abuzar; he was given forty lashes for that and second time, because when told to bring the copy of his Quran to compare it with his Uthman’s copy, which was interpolated, he refused. He was beaten up so much that his ribs were fractured and he died after three days.
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Ibne Abil Hadid has narrated that during his last moments Uthman visited him and asked: What do you complain about? He replied: About my sins. He asked: What do you desire? He replied: Divine mercy. He asked: Shall we summon the physician for you? He replied: The physician has made me ill. He asked: Shall I restart the allowance I had stopped? He replied: When I was in need, you stopped my allowance and now, that I am needless, you want to start it? Uthman said: It will continue for your children. He replied: The Almighty Allah sustains them. Uthman said: Seek forgiveness from me from Allah. He replied: I beseech the Almighty Allah to recover my rights from you. Ibne Masud also made a bequest that Uthman should not recite prayer on his bier. Shahristani in Al-Milal wan Nihal, author of Rauzatul Ahbab and writer of Kashaf have mentioned in Lataiful Maarif; and the commentators of Maqasid have also mentioned and admitted to the beating, which Uthman gave to Ibne Masud. Fifth Indictment: Unkindness to Ammar
Uthman beat Ammar as well. He was one of the senior most companions and tradition books of Shia and Sunni are full of his praises as Ibne Abde Barr has narrated in Istiab that Ayesha used to say: There is no companion of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), but that if I want I should say something about him; except for Ammar bin Yasir as I heard from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) that Ammar is full of faith, even upto his heels. According to another traditional report: ‘from his heels upto his head’. It is narrated from Khalid bin Walid that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: May Allah take as His enemy one, who is inimical to Ammar. Khalid says: Since I heard this from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), I became devoted to him. It is narrated from Anas that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Paradise is eager for Ali, Ammar, Salman and Bilal.
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In Sahih Tirmidhi, it is narrated from Anas that Paradise is eager for three persons: Ali, Ammar and Salman. It is narrated from Ayesha that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: Ammar never encountered two choices, but that he chose one most troublesome to his body. In Mishkat, it is narrated from Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal from Khalid bin Walid that he said: There was a severe dispute between me and Ammar. I spoke harshly to him and he complained to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and I also met the Prophet and complained about Ammar and was also harsh on him, while the Prophet was silent. Ammar began to weep. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: May Allah be inimical to one, who is inimical to Ammar. Khalid says: I came out from there and tried to make amends with Ammar and pleased him. In Jamiul Usul, it is narrated from Sahih Bukhari from Abu Saeed Khudri that when the Masjid of the Prophet was under construction, all of us carried a brick each and Ammar carried two bricks. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) dusted his head and remarked: Poor Ammar; he would be calling them to Paradise and they would be calling him to Hell. Ammar said: I seek the refuge of Allah from mischief. However, the account of the beating of Ammar is as Asim Kufi has written in his Futuh and the author of Rauzatul Ahbab has also described it; other scholars also present it as follows: Some companions of the Prophet collectively wrote to Uthman that if he did not desist from his acts, they would stage an uprising against him. Then they gave this document to Ammar to convey it to Uthman. Uthman read one line and threw it away. Ammar said: It is a letter from the companions of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.); read it and think upon it and know that it is for your own good. Uthman ordered his servants to throw down Ammar so hard that he was unable to move. After that he kicked in his stomach and genitals many times with shoes on. Ammar suffered hernia and remained unconscious till midnight. He missed his Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha prayers.
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When he regained consciousness, he performed the Wudhu and recited lapsed (Qadha) prayers. Moreover, Asim Kufi has narrated in Tarikh that when Uthman learnt of the passing away of Abuzar, he said: May Allah have mercy on Abuzar. Ammar was present there. He said: May Allah have mercy on Abuzar; and we say this with sincerity. Uthman said: Do you think I regret having expelled Abuzar? He replied: No, by Allah, I don’t think so. Uthman was infuriated and he ordered: Expel him from Medina to the place, where Abuzar resided and as long as I am alive, he should not enter Medina again. Ammar said: By Allah, I prefer to live with dogs and wolves than to live in your neighborhood. Then he arose and departed from there. Uthman made a firm decision to expel him. Bani Makhzum, who were related to Ammar, joined hands and said to Imam Ali (a.s.): Uthman beat up Ammar, but we were patient, now he has ordered his expulsion. We will also take such steps, which would make us and him regret. The Imam assured them and asked them to remain patient and said that he would meet Uthman to solve this matter. Imam Ali (a.s.) came to Uthman and said: You are hasty in some matters and don’t pay attention to the suggestions of well wishers. Previously you expelled Abuzar to Rabdha. He was a pious Muslim and most well informed of Muhajireen, and he passed away all alone. Muslims did not like this act of yours. Now, I hear that you have expelled the most righteous of Muslims and best of Muhajireen. Thus, fear Allah and refrain from Ammar and others. Uthman became infuriated and said: First of all I should expel you, as you are the main instigator of my critics. Imam Ali (a.s.) said: You cannot talk to me like this and act in this way, and even if you like, you will unable to do that. If you have the slightest doubt, just and you will learn. By Allah, the mischief of Ammar and others is due to you and it is no fault of theirs. You
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commit such vile acts that they cannot remain patient anymore and I do not like it. Then Imam Ali (a.s.) came out from there. Thus, one, who considers these reports, will realize that a person whom the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) praised so much and deemed enmity to him as enmity to Allah; to beat him in such a way and insult him; and regarding Imam Ali (a.s.) he said that love from him is religion and faith and malice to him, is disbelief and hypocrisy; if one speaks to him in such a way, one is not having any connection with Islam and faith. What is concluded from the authentic reports of Shia and Sunni is that the main reason of Uthman’s enmity to Ammar was his loyalty to Imam Ali (a.s.) as Ibne Abil Hadid has narrated from Ibne Abbas that he said: Uthman asked me what does the son of your uncle (father’s brother) and the son of my uncle (mother’s brother) want with me? I asked: Who do you imply? There are many sons of my uncle (father’s brother) and your uncle (mother’s brother)? He replied: I mean Ali. I said: By Allah, I have not seen, except good from him. He said: By Allah, he conceals from you, what he says to others. Meanwhile Ammar met them and asked: What are you discussing? I overheard some words. I said: It is same, which you heard. Ammar said: There are many victims, who do not know and there are many tyrants, who remain ignorant. Uthman said: You are from enemies and their followers. I swear by the might and glory of God, if I was bound to some matters, I would have given such a punishment, which would have recompensed for the past and served as prevention for future. Ammar said: As for my devotion for Imam Ali (a.s.), I don’t make any excuse for that; as for my punishment, you don’t have any argument against me, while I have argument against you; and I am a follower of the prophetic Sunnah. Uthman said: By Allah, you enjoin evil and forbid good. Ammar said: What I heard from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) is the opposite; when he had returned from Friday Prayer, you had
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met him and there was no one else there; I had kissed his chest, neck and face and he said: Indeed, you are devoted to us and we also love you; you certainly enjoin good and forbid evil. Uthman said: It was correct; but after that you changed your stance. Ammar raised his hands to the heavens and said: Ibne Abbas, say Amen. Then he said thrice: O Lord, distort one, who has distorted it. For many reasons this incident is proof of the injustice and transgression of Uthman; he harassed Ammar many times and Ammar condemned him thrice. Uthman compared the acts of Imam Ali (a.s.) to mischief and addressed him as a mischief maker. It also proved the hatred of Imam Ali (a.s.) to Uthman; as he has himself explained. Thus, if he has lied, it is a deadly sin like infidelity and if he said the truth, it is infidelity, because it is clearly proved that Imam Ali (a.s.) was never inimical to a believer or Muslim. In the same way, his malice to Imam Ali (a.s.), which is obvious from his statements, is infidelity and hypocrisy personified. Sixth Indictment: Distributing Khums to his Relatives
Uthman distributed Khums, which is exclusive for Ahle Bayt (a.s.), and other funds from Public Treasury, generously among his relatives and descendants. Four of them were his sons-in-law; he gave four hundred thousand dinars to each of them. He gave a hundred thousand dinars from the taxes of Africa to Marwan. According to the report of Kalabi and Shahristani, he gave two hundred thousand dinars to Marwan; according to Waqidi, he gave the total collections from Africa to Marwan. Waqidi narrates that Uthman remarked: Abu Bakr and Umar also distributed these funds among their kin and I do the same. Moreover, Waqidi has narrated that a large amount of taxes were brought from Basra; Uthman distributed trays filled with it among his family members.
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He also narrates that a large number of Zakat camels were brought to Medina; he gave them to Harith bin Hakam. He appointed Hakam bin Abil Aas in charge of the Zakat of Qaza-a. When three hundred thousand dinars were collected; he gave it all to him. He gave a hundred thousand dinars to Saeed bin Abil Aas and many people condemned him for that. It is narrated that Saad bin Abi Waqqas threw down the keys of the Public Treasury and said: I will not hold the post of treasurer any more. Uthman gave three hundred thousand dinars to one, expelled by the Prophet Abu Mikhnaf has narrated that Uthman wrote to the treasurer, Abdullah bin Arqam to hand over three hundred thousand dinars to Abdullah bin Khalid, a relative of Uthman and in the same way, three hundred thousand dinars to a one of his supporters. He returned that letter and did not release those funds. Uthman said: You are our appointee; you must do as we say. Abdullah said: I considered myself a treasurer of Muslims; your treasurer is a slave. Then he suspended the keys of the Public Treasury from the pulpit. According to another report, he threw them before Uthman and swore that he will never accept that post. Uthman gave those keys to his slave, Nabal. Waqidi has narrated that after this incident, he ordered Zaid bin Thabit to take three hundred thousand dirhams to Abdullah bin Arqam and say: The chief has sent this to you; you may spend it on your family. Abdullah said: I don’t need this money and I don’t serve at the Public Treasury to receive compensation from Uthman. By Allah, if this is from public funds, my service does not make me eligible for three hundred thousand dirhams; if it is from Uthman’s personal funds, I don’t want to cause loss to him. He can give from the Public Treasury to whoever he likes. Ibne Abil Hadid has narrated from Zuhri that a jewel from the treasury of the Emperor of Persia was brought to Umar; when the sun shone on it, it emitted a bright light. Umar asked the treasurer to distribute it among Muslims and mentioned that I
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think a great mischief will arise among Muslims due to this. The treasurer said: This one jewel cannot be distributed to all and there is no one, who can pay its price; perhaps next year Allah will bestow a victory to Muslims and someone may be empowered to purchase it. Umar said: Keep it in the treasury. After that it remained in Public Treasury till Umar was murdered. Uthman gifted that jewel to his daughters. Ibne Abil Hadid has narrated that a person came to Imam Ali (a.s.) and said: Please take some money from Uthman for me. He said: He is a carrier of mistake; I will never approach him for intercession. The author of Istiab etc., have reported that Uthman was survived by three widows; some say that they were four. Thus, from the eighth of his inheritance, each got 83000 dinars as the share of those females comes to 249000 dinars or 332000 dinars. Many reports are recorded in this regard, but to mention them is beyond the scope of this book. One, who misappropriates for his relatives public funds to this extent, especially Khums, which is the share of the near kindred of the Prophet and they squander it in their sins and transgression and for their luxuries and that the poor remain in dire straits; how can that person be eligible for general Caliphate of the people? It was also against the conditions, which he had, in the beginning, agreed to fulfill, that he would act on the practice of Abu Bakr and Umar, although it is among the innovations of Umar to give preference to one over others in distribution of public funds, but he acted in such a way that no was able to lay any blame on him. In addition to this, he spent some funds on those, who really deserved it; and took very little for himself, but Uthman was so blatant that his embezzlement and harshness became clear to all and at last resulted in his assassination.
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Seventh Indictment: Partiality to Zaid bin Thabit
He only approved the recitation of Zaid bin Thabit, because he was a supporter of Uthman and inimical to Imam Ali (a.s.). When Uthman decided to remove the praises of Ahle Bayt (a.s.) and condemnation of their enemies from Quran, he chose Zaid bin Thabit for this job. That is why they did not accept the Quran, which Imam Ali (a.s.) has compiled after the passing away of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), in spite of the fact that he was most learned of Quran and Sunnah. When Umar became the Caliph, he demanded that Quran from Imam Ali (a.s.) on the condition that he will take whatever he wanted from it and render as invalid, whatever he liked. Imam Ali (a.s.) did not give it to him and said: None touch this Quran, except the purified ones from my descendants and this Quran will not become public, till the Qaim from my family appears and commands people to read and act on it. When Uthman decided to compile the Quran, he appointed Zaid for this job; and he took and put to flames other copies of Quran, that existed with Abdullah Ibne Masud and others. Some say that first he boiled them in a huge cooking pot and then burnt them, so that no one may know what was mentioned in them. It was a reason of the killing of Abdullah Ibne Masud, because he refused to surrender his copy. At last it was confiscated from him with absolute humiliation. The existing version of Quran is called as Mushaf Uthman; a copy of what he got compiled. When Ayesha learnt about it, she said: Kill the one, who burnt copies of Quran in excess. This act proves lawfulness of indicting and cursing Uthman, for a number of reasons:
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First reason
He rejected the words of Allah and it is infidelity, as the Almighty Allah has said: 251B ٍ ﺾْ ﻌَ ﺒـِ ﺑَونُ ﺮُ ﻔْ ﻜَ ﺗَ وِﺎبَ ﺘِ اﻟْﻜِﺾْ ﻌَ ﺒـِ ﺑَﻮنُ ﻨِ ﻣْ ﺆُ ﺘـَ ﻓـَ ۚ أ ◌ ْ ﻦَ ﻣُاءَ ﺰَﺎ ﺟَ ﻤَ ﻓ ﺎَ ﻴْ ﱡﻧـ اﻟﺪِﺎةَ ﻴَ ﻲ اﻟْﺤِ ﻓٌيْ ﺰِ ﱠ ﺧ ﻻِ إْ ﻢُ ﻜْ ﻨِ ﻣَ ﻚِ ﻟٰ َ ذُﻞَ ﻌْ ﻔَ ۖ ﻳـ ◌ ِ ﺔَﺎﻣَ ﻴِ اﻟْﻘَ مْ ﻮَ ﻳـَ و ِ ابَ ﺬَ ﱢ اﻟْﻌ ﺪَ ﺷَ أٰ ﻰَ ﻟِ إَ ﱡون دَ ﺮُ ﻳـ 1134B“Do you then believe in a part of the Book and disbelieve in the other? What then is the reward of such among you as do this, but disgrace in the life of this world, and on the day of resurrection they shall be sent back to the most grievous chastisement?” (Surah Baqarah 2:85) 3940BThis verse fits him perfectly: In the world he was killed in humiliation and in the end, he got a great chastisement. Moreover, he despised the revelation of some verses of Quran, which he omitted and this destroyed all his deeds, as the Almighty Allah says: 252B ْ ﻢُ ﻬَﺎﻟَ ﻤْﻋَ أَﻂَ ﺒْ ﺣَ ﺄَ ﻓُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ لَ ﺰْ ﻧـَﺎ أَﻮا ﻣُ ﻫِ ﺮَ ﻛْ ﻢُ ﱠﻬ ﻧـَ ﺄِ ﺑَ ﻚِ ﻟٰ َ ﴾٩﴿ ذ 1135B“That is, because they hated what Allah revealed, so He rendered their deeds null.” (Surah Muhammad 47:9) 8027BSecond reason
3941BHe concealed the words of Allah and the Holy Quran to a great extent, as he burned so many copies and no concealment is worse than this.
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Third reason
He accorded precedence to the recitation of Zaid bin Thabit over the recitations of all reciters of Quran, which is giving preference to inferior and is also opposing the commands of Prophet, because Ahle Sunnat have mentioned a large number of traditions about it in their Sihah books, that Quran was revealed on seven words and the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) did not restrain people from different styles of recitation. As narrated from Ibne Abbas in Sahih Bukhari, the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: Jibraeel recited the Quran on one letter and I always sought increase from him and he increased it; till it reached upto seven letters. In Jamiul Usul, it is narrated from Bukhari, Muslim, Malik, Abu Dawood and Nasai, through their authorities, quoting Umar bin Khattab that he said: During lifetime of Prophet, I heard Hisham bin Hakam reciting a chapter of Quran; so I stopped to hear it. He recited many words, which I had not heard from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). I was on the verge of objecting to him during the Prayer, but I waited till the end. After that I wrapped his sheet around his neck and asked: From who have you heard this recital? He replied: From the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). I said that he was lying and I have heard it in another way from the Prophet. I dragged him to the Prophet and said: I heard from him a Surah of Quran, which he recited against the recitation I heard from you. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: Leave him alone. Then he said: Recite it to me, Hisham. Hisham recited it like I had heard from him. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: It is revealed in this way only and you recite from Quran as much as you can. Tirmidhi has said that this tradition is authentic. Moreover, in Jamiul Usul, a similar report is narrated from all five Sihah books mentioned above from Ubayy bin Kaab. Many other traditions are also recorded meaning the same; to
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mention them all, would prolong the discussion. Thus, to compel all the people on one recitation and to forbid them from other recitations according to their admission is opposed to the command of Prophet and a heresy. And if they say that it implies these same seven different recitations; it is false, because according to consensus of all Qaris, differences have occurred in reciting the Mushaf of Uthman and he made seven copies of his version. One was placed in Medina and six were dispatched to different areas. Since those Qurans were written according to the prevalent script and ‘Alif’ was deleted from their words; that is why differences arose in recitation of the Mushaf of Uthman. The difference, which has appeared in their reports, cannot be interpreted to be this difference. Author of Kitabe Nashr, who is the Imam of Qaris, has clarified that these seven recitations are not the seven letters mentioned in traditional reports; on the contrary, some ignorant persons, as result of the word of ‘seven’ being common in them, have thought so. We only say this to indict them according to traditions recorded in their Sihah books and they cannot reject them. Though it is clear from the traditions of our Holy Imams (a.s.) that Quran is a single letter and it is revealed by One God. It is the same Quran that Imam Ali (a.s.) brought and which they did not accept. They fabricated those traditions so as not to be bound to accept the Quran of Imam Ali (a.s.). Or they imply that since the Quran was not compiled and was in dispersed form, only the Surahs and verses, which they know, should be recited in the prayers etc., preferring the inferior. But traditions of their Sihah books prove that the recitation of Ibne Masud is superior to that of Zaid; rather they prove that it is obligatory to follow the recitation of Ibne Masud and it is not allowed to abandon it. As the author of Istiab has narrated that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Learn Quran from four persons: Ibne Masud,
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Maaz bin Jabal, Ubayy bin Kaab and Salim, the freed slave of Huzaifah. Then he said: One, who wants to recite the Quran in a nice and better way, as it is revealed; he should recite it according to the recitation of Ibne Umme Abd that is Ibne Masud. It is narrated from Abu Wael that he said: I heard from Ibne Masud that he said: I am the most learned of Quran in this Ummah; but I am not the best of the Ummah. There is no Surah or Verse of Quran, about which I don’t know regarding what it was revealed and when it was revealed. Abu Wael said: I didn’t find anyone refuting this. It is narrated from Abu Zabyan that he said: Ibne Abbas asked me: According to which of the two recitations do you recite the Quran? I replied: According the first – that is the recitation of Ibne Masud. Ibne Abbas said: Rather it is the last. Every year Jibraeel recited Quran once before the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.); and in the year His Eminence passed away, he recited it twice. Ibne Masud was also present there. Thus, he became aware of whatever changes had appeared in Quran and whatever was abrogated from it. Moreover, when people asked Imam Ali (a.s.) about Ibne Masud, he replied: He recited the Quran and became aware of the Sunnah and this is sufficient for him. It is narrated from Shafiq that Abu Wael used to say: When Uthman issued his order regarding Quran, Ibne Masud arose and delivered a sermon and said: They order me to recite the Quran according to the recitation of Zaid bin Thabit. By the one, in whose hands my life is, I have learnt seventy Surahs directly from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.); at that time Zaid sported locks and played with kids. By Allah, no verse of Quran was revealed, except that I know regarding what it is revealed. No one is more learned about Quran than me; and if I knew of such a one, and could have reached him on my camel, I would have gone to him. Then Ibne Masud felt ashamed and said: I am not better than you. Shafiq says: Thus, I entered the circles of companions
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of the Prophet and did not hear anyone refuting this statement of Ibne Masud. Most of these traditions are quoted in Jamiul Usul also from their Sihah books. So to abandon and put to flames the Quran of Ibne Masud, in whose favor these traditional reports are mentioned and they command people to learn Quran from him and to order the people to recite it according to Zaid, in whose favor not even a tenth of these traditions are narrated; on the contrary, his criticism is mentioned. It is nothing, but preferring the inferior and rejection of the statement of the Prophet. And since it is mentioned in Istiab, Zaid was a supporter of Uthman and did not accompany the Ansar in any battles of Ali (a.s.); it shows that giving precedence to his Quran was in fact a blatant display of enmity to Imam Ali (a.s.), to remove from Quran the merits of Ahle Bayt (a.s.) and criticism of their enemies. Among the versions they rejected and put to flames, were the versions of Ubayy bin Kaab and Maaz bin Jabal also, in spite of the fact that it is commanded many a times in their Sihah books to learn Quran from them as some of these traditions were mentioned above. Eighth Indictment: All Companions reached consensus on his Infidelity
Greater than all indictments is that all senior companions according to the consensus of Ahle Sunnat were fair; and they consider their words and deeds binding proofs; they all declared Uthman to be a sinner and an infidel; like Ammar, as they narrate that he was often saying: Three verses of Quran testify to the infidelity of Uthman and I am the fourth of them. They are as follows: 253B َ ونُ ﺮِﺎﻓَ اﻟْﻜُ ﻢُ ﻫَ ﻚِ ﺌٰ َ وﻟُ ﺄَ ﻓُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ لَ ﺰْ ﻧـَﺎ أَ ﻤِ ﺑْ ﻢُ ﻜْﺤَ ﻳْ ﻢَ ﻟْ ﻦَ ﻣَ ﴾٤٤﴿ و
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“And whoever did not judge by what Allah revealed, those are they that are the unbelievers.” (Surah Maidah 5:44) In the second verse, Allah says: 254B َ ﺎ أَ ﻤِ ﺑْ ﻢُ ﻜْﺤَ ﻳْ ﻢَ ﻟْ ﻦَ ﻣَ و َ ﻮنُ ﻘِ ﺎﺳَ اﻟْﻔُ ﻢُ ﻫَ ﻚِ ﺌٰ َ وﻟُ ﺄَ ﻓُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ لَ ﺰْ ﴾٤٧﴿ ﻧـ 1137B“And whoever did not judge by what Allah revealed, those are they that are the transgressors.” (Surah Maidah 5:47) 3961BOn another occasion He says: 255B ُ ﻢُ ﻫَ ﻚِ ﺌٰ َ وﻟُ ﺄَ ﻓُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ لَ ﺰْ ﻧـَﺎ أَ ﻤِ ﺑْ ﻢُ ﻜْﺤَ ﻳْ ﻢَ ﻟْ ﻦَ ﻣَ و َ ﻮنُ ﴾٤٥﴿ ﻤِاﻟﻈﱠﺎﻟ 1138B“And whoever did not judge by what Allah revealed, those are they that are the unjust.” (Surah Maidah 5:45) 3962BI testify that Uthman ordered against what Allah has revealed. Abu Wael has narrated that Ammar used to remark: Uthman was not called anything, but infidel among the people till Muawiyah became the ruler. Asim Kufi has narrated in Futuh that Amr bin Aas asked Ammar who killed Uthman? He replied: The Almighty Allah. 3963BIbne Abil Hadid has narrated that Amr asked Ammar, whether Ali had eliminated Uthman. He replied: Ali (the High), the God killed him and Ali was with him. He asked if he was also among his killers. He replied: Yes, and I fight them even today. He asked: Why did you slay him? He replied: Because he distorted our religion. In the same way, Abuzar and Ibne Masud also declared Uthman to be an apostate, as was mentioned above. Huzaifah used to say: Praise be to Allah, I have no doubt in the infidelity of Uthman bin Affan; but the doubt that I harbor is that whether his killer was an infidel, who killed a disbeliever or a believer whose faith is superior to all, and he eliminated him with a sincere intention. 3964BHuzaifah also remarked: One, who believes that Uthman was killed oppressed, on Judgment Day his sin will be greater then the sin of those who worshipped the Calf. People asked
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Zaid bin Arqam: Why do you believe that Uthman was a disbeliever? He replied: For three reasons: First Reason
He bestowed public funds to the wealthy. Second Reason
He dealt with the Muhajireen companions of the Prophet as criminals. Third Reason
He acted against Quran. Ayesha picked up the garment of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and said: O Uthman, this garment has not become old and you have discarded the religion of Prophet. Moreover, all companions from Muhajireen and Ansar and people of all other areas, who had come to Medina, reached consensus to eliminate him. After they accomplished it, some helped, some approved it and did not prevent it and they did not help Uthman; but many were his partners in his excesses and innovations. Thus, Ahle Sunnat, who prove the Caliphate of Abu Bakr according to consensus; should also approve the killing of Uthman, which proves his sinfulness and transgression, which led to his killing. It is obvious that these issues negate the qualities making one eligible for Caliphate. The Caliph, who becomes deserving of death, is invalid. Or they should admit to the invalidity of consensus on the Caliphate of Abu Bakr, because most members of that consensus were included in this and according to various versions, their number reached upto 10000, 15000 or 25000; many times more than those, who reached consensus on the Caliphate of Abu
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Bakr. On the contrary, all Muslims, since they either approved his killing or did not help him; even Ayesha and Muawiyah. As mentioned in Tarikh Asim Kufi and in all their books; inspite of the fact these two, due to the enmity of Imam Ali (a.s.) on the pretext of the killing of Uthman, created havoc in the world of Islam, but when Muslims had decided to eliminate Uthman, Ayesha set out for Hajj. Marwan tried to convince her to delay her journey and restrain people from rising up against Uthman, but she refused and said: I want Uthman to be tied up in a net and thrown into the sea, so that he may drown. Ayesha labeled him as Nathal (long bearded fool or a Jew) in derogation. The author of Nihaya and all historians and language scholars have narrated that Ayesha often said: Kill this old fool! Or: Kill this Jew! May Allah kill Nathal. Ibne Abil Hadid has narrated from his teacher, Abu Yaqub Mutazali that: Ayesha was in the forefront of those who desired and instigated the killing of Uthman. When Uthman sought Muawiyah’s help, he replied: As long as he obeyed Allah, Allah also helped him; but when he distorted His teachings and did not observe the sanctity of the religion of Allah, Allah also abandoned him. I do not help one, who is not supported by Allah. This simile proves true. Abuzar, Ammar and other senior companions were also included in this consensus, who had opposed that consensus (on Abu Bakr); even Imam Ali (a.s.); as was seen previously that he did not pay allegiance to him, except after six months and that also under duress. Here, according to the view of most Ahle Sunnat, he issued the decree of killing Uthman and according to the view of others he did not disapprove his killing and instead remarked: Allah killed him and I was with Him. Moreover, those who reached consensus on the killing of Uthman and who carried it out, after concluding that reached consensus on the Caliphate of Imam Ali (a.s.) and paid allegiance to him. Ahle Sunnat consider Imam Ali (a.s.) to be a Caliph by consensus, who is necessarily to be obeyed. Then how their consensus can valid here and not valid in the killing of
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Uthman? This indictment comprises of a number of indictments; but for the sake of brevity we have combined them. Ninth Indictment: Ali testified to his Injustice and Apostasy
Imam Ali (a.s.), who is companion of truth, the nearest one to Quran and gateway to the city of knowledge; who is accepted as authority on both sects; he has testified to the injustice and apostasy of Uthman, as mentioned in his Sermon of Shiqshiqya and his other sermons and sayings that are widely related and clear, all prove it. To mention all of them here will prolong the discussion. Testimony of Imam Ali (a.s.) regarding lawfulness of killing Uthman and not disapproving it, is a proof of Uthman’s infidelity and evil and there is no need of a consensus for it. As Ibne Abil Hadid has written: After the killing of Uthman, Imam Ali (a.s.) said: I neither liked nor disliked this. Moreover, people asked: Did you approve of his killing? He replied: No. They asked: Were you disappointed by it? He replied: No. Ibne Abil Hadid, after narrating many traditional reports of this kind, said: It is clear from these traditional reports that Imam Ali (a.s.) neither ordered his killing nor forbid it. Thus, his blood was lawful to be shed in the view of Ali (a.s.) and it being lawful in his view proves his infidelity, injustice and such a great transgression, which became a cause of his killing and not being pleased with his killing does not prove the validity of his Islam and faith; on the contrary, it was, because the Imam knew that his killing will open a Pandora of great mischiefs, killings and apostasy of thousands in Jamal, Siffeen and Naharwan. It is obvious that when the killing of a disbeliever should lead to great mischiefs, killings and apostasy of thousands; he cannot approve it. Thus, is spite of this, the lack of disappointment of Ali (a.s.) on his killing, is definite proof that
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his infidelity, injustice and excessive rebellion had reached to such a level that it was equal to all those mischiefs. Rather, Imam Ali (a.s.), more than being disappointed at his killing displayed pleasure, as Ahle Sunnat have narrated that Imam Ali (a.s.) after the killing of Uthman and after becoming the Caliph recited a sermon, in which he said: The sun of Caliphate arose from horizon of Wilayat and the moon of Imamate shone from the constellation of truth. Star of rulership began to shine on the heavens of successorship. All issues inclined to falsehood came on the straight path. The Almighty Allah replaced one people with another and brought the time of truth instead of the time of falsehood. We were awaiting the downfall of the kingdom of falsehood like during the years of drought, people wait for rain. Imams of Ahle Bayt of prophethood and leaders of the religion of God are about to take over the reins of the affairs of people and recognizers of servants of Allah and they are appointed on them. No one enters Paradise, but one, who recognizes them with Imamate and they should recognize him as faithful; none enters Hell, except one, who denies them and they deny him. Ibne Abil Hadid says in commentary of this sermon that: The first three sentences imply the transfer of Caliphate and the fourth sentence implies deviations and improper acts, which occurred during the last days of Uthman. The fifth sentence hints that Almighty Allah replaced Uthman and his supporters with Ali and his Shia. After that he said: If one says that in spite of the fact that Ali (a.s.) had divorced the world, why was he so elated on getting the Caliphate? Its reply is that divorcing was from the aspect of desire and worldly point of view and delight was for Imamate of religion, rightful Caliphate and for preservation of Shariat and nation. After that he said: Is it lawful in the Mutazila religion to believe that Imam Ali (a.s.) should have been so eager for the killing of Uthman, like people are eager for rains during years of drought? This is, in fact, the religion of Shia. We will reply that Imam Ali
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(a.s.) had been eager for change and not eager for killing. Thus, it is possible that he might have been eager of his abdication, due to the blatant acts, which he had committed and it is according to the religion of our companions. It is now clear that those words of Amirul Momineen (a.s.) as Ibne Abil Hadid has also confessed, prove that Amirul Momineen (a.s.) was pleased at his killing and it is sufficient for his degradation. It is narrated that during the time of Amir Timur Gorkafi, the scholars Mawaraun Nahar (across the river) reached a consensus and composed a statement that malice to Imam Ali (a.s.) is obligatory on all, even though it be equal to a grain of barley, because His Eminence had issued the verdict of killing Uthman; then they convinced Amir Timur to act according to that missive and apply it in his territories. Amir Timur asked them to take that statement to Shaykh Zainuddin Abu Bakr in order to know his opinion about it. The Shaykh wrote behind that document: Woe on that Uthman, verdict of killing whom, His Eminence, Ali Murtada gives. The Amir liked his opinion and he invalidated that joint statement. Tenth Indictment: His Body was left Unburied for days
The rebellion and sinfulness of Uthman had reached to such an extent that after his killing, people of Medina did not care for his last rites as Madaini has written in Maqtal Uthman, Waqidi, Asim Kufi, Tabari, Ibne Abde Barr and all their scholars, have mentioned in their histories that after his murder, people of Medina and senior companions threw him in a garbage dump and forbid the people to perform any of his funeral rites. At last, when Marwan and his three servants took him for burial, people they learnt of it and started stoning his dead body. After three days, Imam Ali (a.s.) asked the people not to impede the burial and they buried him in the dead of the night in the
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cemetery of Jews. According to the view of majority, he was interred without funeral bath and shroud. No one from Imam Ali (a.s.), senior companions and Muslims performed his funeral prayers, except for some of his supporters. When Muawiyah became the governor, he proclaimed that the wall separating the burial ground of Muslims and Jews be demolished. Later, under the orders of Muawiyah, Muslims buried their dead near and around the grave of Uthman and that area joined the original burial grounds of Muslims. It is mentioned in Tarikh Asim Kufi, which is available at this time, Imam Ali (a.s.) ordered the people to bury Uthman, even though three days had passed since he was thrown on the garbage dump and dogs had devoured one of his legs. They picked it up and placed it on the flap of a small door in such a way that his leg dangled and his head moved on that plank. According to another report, the head knocked against that plank making and tapping sound. Hakim bin Kharam or Jubair bin Mutim prayed his funeral prayer and it is clear that if Imam Ali (a.s.) and all companions had considered him among Muslims, they would not have avoided praying his funeral prayer and left him on the garbage dump for three days to be consumed by cats and dogs. Who is fair even in the least, knows that the belief of the Caliphate of Imam Ali (a.s.) cannot be joined with belief in Caliphate of Uthman, because each includes the condemnation of one of them, whereas the Caliphate of Imam Ali (a.s.) is accepted by both sides. Thus, the Caliphate of Uthman and belief in Caliphate of those, on whose Caliphate, rests Uthman’s Caliphate, is not valid. Why Imam Ali (a.s.) condemned him to such an extent on his harassment and oppression of Ammar and Abuzar; but was so lenient and unconcerned about the killing of Uthman, leaving his burial and funeral prayers, inspite of the fact that according to the belief of that group, Imam Ali (a.s.) was his subject? It is mentioned in Kitab Sirat Mustaqeem that Ibne Jauzi, a great Ahle Sunnat scholar, in emulation of Imam Ali (a.s.) said
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one day: Ask me whatever you like, before you are deprived of me. A lady asked: Is it true that Salman passed away in Madayan and Imam Ali (a.s.) came to Madayan in a single night, which is at a distance of a month’s journey from Medina and performed his last rites and returned the same night? Ibne Jauzi said: Yes, it is narrated like this only. She said: Uthman was killed in Medina and he was lying on the garbage dump, and Ali (a.s.) did not pray his funeral prayer in spite of the fact that he was present in Medina? He replied: It is true. She asked: Then one of them was definitely in error. Ibne Jauzi said: Curse of God on you, if you left your place without permission of your husband, and curse on your husband if you came out with his permission. She asked: Did Ayesha leave her place to fight against Imam Ali (a.s.) with the permission of Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) or without his permission? This made Ibne Jauzi speechless. We should know that his heresies, and evil deeds and words are so many that they cannot be accommodated in this treatise. On the contrary, they are mentioned in wide ranging books and I have mentioned most of them in Biharul Anwar; but what is mentioned here is sufficient for the folks, who are fair. After narrating the indictments of Uthman, Ibne Abil Hadid has replied in brief: We do not deny that Uthman initiated many heresies, although most Muslims deny it, but we claim that these issues did not reach to the level of divine disobedience and did not cause invalidation of his deeds, they were lesser sins, which are forgivable and he is forgiven and worthy of Paradise due to three reasons: First Reason
It is that he is from the folks of Badr and the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: The Almighty Allah came to know about the folks of Badr. Then He said: You may do whatever you like; I have forgiven all your sins.
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But the fact is that Uthman was not present in the Battle of Badr. He had stayed behind to take care of his wife, Ruqaiyyah, daughter of Prophet and the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) had assured him divine recompense and war booty. Second Reason
He was from the folk of the allegiance of Rizwan, with whom the Almighty Allah is pleased, as He says: 256B ِ ةَ ﺮَ اﻟﺸﱠﺠ َﺖْﺤَ ﺗَ ﻚَﻮﻧُ ﻌِﺎﻳَ ﺒُ ﻳـْ ذِ إَﻴﻦِ ﻨِ ﻣْ ﺆُ اﻟْﻤِ ﻦَ ﻋُ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َ ﻲِﺿَ رْ ﺪَ ﻘَ ﻟ 1139B“Certainly Allah was well pleased with the believers when they swore allegiance to you under the tree,” (Surah Fath 48:18) 3999BThe fact is that he was not present in that allegiance as well, but the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) had sent him as a messenger to the idolaters of Mecca and meanwhile this allegiance took place, because it was rumored that idolaters have eliminated him. Thus, His Eminence took the allegiance on the condition of death under the tree; then he said: If Uthman is alive; I pay allegiance on his behalf. Then he placed his left hand on his right hand and said: My left hand is better than the right hand of Uthman. 8037BThird Reason
4000BHe is of those regarding whom it is mentioned in traditions that they are destined for Paradise. Thus, all these reasons prove that he is forgiven and Allah is pleased with him and he is from the folks of Paradise and these issues prove that he is not a disbeliever, transgressor and doer of greater sins. 4001BAll these are absurd statements of Ibne Abil Hadid and we, by the help of Allah, reply to these questions in brief, as follows: 4002BAll these reasons are based on traditions, which they have fabricated and they are considered unreliable even in their books
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and it was repeatedly mentioned that reasoning should be only through traditional reports accepted by both sects and which are narrated in sources of both sects as we have done and not through reports, which are only mentioned in their own sources and which are unacceptable to us. Their best traditional reports being those, which Bukhari has narrated. Some Nasibis (Ahle Bayt haters) have also narrated from Abdullah bin Umar – and Ibne Umar is one, who neither paid allegiance to Imam Ali (a.s.) not supported him; on the contrary, he was inimical to him and he paid allegiance to Hajjaj, the disbeliever and transgressor – the tradition of Ten, who were given glad tidings of Paradise (Hadith Ashra Mubashshira) Imam Ali (a.s.) has condemned and refuted Hadith Ashra Mubashshira in the Battle of Jamal. As Shaykh Tabari has narrated in the book of Ihtijaaj that when Imam Ali (a.s.) arrayed against the people of Basra in the Battle of Jamal, he summoned Zubair and he came with Talha. The Imam said: By Allah, both of you are the learned persons from companions of Muhammad and even Ayesha also knows that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) cursed the folks of Jamal. And that person is dishonest and hopeless who makes allegations against the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). Zubair asked: How are we accursed, when we are from the folks of Paradise? Ali (a.s.) replied: If I had considered you as folks of Paradise, I would not have imagined fighting you to be lawful. Zubair said: Perhaps you have not heard the tradition of Saeed bin Amr bin Nufayl that he has narrated from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) that: Ten persons from Quraish are in Paradise. Ali (a.s.) replied: I heard it from him and he narrated it during the reign of Uthman. Zubair said: Do you think that he falsely attributed this tradition to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.)? He replied: I will not reply till you inform who those ten are? Zubair said: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Talha, Zubair, Abdur Rahman bin Auf, Saad bin
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Abi Waqqas, Abu Ubaidah Ibne Jarrah, Saeed bin Amr bin Nufayl. Ali (a.s.) said: You mentioned only nine? Who is the tenth? He said: It is you. Ali (a.s.) said: You admit that I am destined for Paradise and I deny whatever you have claimed for your companions. Zubair asked: Do you think that he attributed a false statement to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.)? Imam Ali (a.s.) said: I do not suspect; on the contrary, I am sure that he has attributed a false statement to Prophet (s.a.w.s.). By Allah, some of those you have named are placed in a casket and that casket is in a well, which is in the lowest ravine of Hell and there is a stone at the mouth of that well. When the Almighty Allah intends to flame up Hell, they remove the stone. I heard this from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and if I have not, may Allah give you victory over me and cause my blood to be shed at your hands. If I have heard it may Allah bestow victory me over you and your companions and may He convey your souls to Hell at the soonest. Zubair turned to his supporters weeping. Moreover, Ahle Sunnat have narrated this tradition in their Sihah books from Saeed bin Amr and Abdur Rahman bin Auf and these two were included among those and culpable for fabricating this tradition, inspite of the fact that most scholastic theologians have proved through rational proofs that it is not valid from the aspect of reason that Almighty Allah should inform anyone, except an infallible, that his end will be good and he will be in Paradise, because it can instigate him to commit evil deeds and there is no one, who can deny that most of those ten were not infallible and according to general consensus, some of them have committed greater sins. If this report was authentic, why Abu Bakr did not mention it in his favor in Saqifah etc.? In the same way, Umar also never narrated it and also when people had besieged Uthman and wanted to eliminate him; and although he reminded them of his merits, why he did not rely on this tradition? If this tradition had any truth, it was much more beneficial to him than what all he had mentioned.
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Also, if this tradition had been true, how can it be supposed that senior companions and Muhajireen should dare to recite it and all of them, especially Imam Ali (a.s.), should approve that such a person is thrown to the garbage dump and they do not pray his funeral prayers? How his helpers and supporters were not arguing in his favor through that tradition? Additionally, if it is true, the infidelity of Talha will be proved, as according to consensus, he considered his killing lawful. Even if this tradition was proved true, it was necessary that Umar should have been sure that he was not a hypocrite; then why he was always asking Huzaifah whether the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) had included him among the hypocrites. We also say that tradition of the people of Badr is based on the apparent meaning as Ibne Abil Hadid has understood. That is they are given a general permission and their forgiveness is sure for all their past and future sins or there is some permission or exception in it. On the basis of the first supposition, it becomes necessary that no responsibility remained on them and they were permitted to commit all smaller and greater sins, even though that act may reach to the level of disbelief; like considering the Holy Quran as unimportant; and it is opposed to consensus and fundamentals of religion. No one from the people of Badr has claimed infallibility, except Imam Ali (a.s.) and there is no doubt that except for him all committed sins. Thus, informing them of this general salvation tantamount making them inclined to evil deeds and this is an evil and such a thing is impossible from the Almighty Allah. On the basis of the second supposition: that is to make it a permission and exception; or restriction of permission with smaller sins and consider it to be an assurance of forgiveness of past and future sins, although this matter is opposed to consensus, it does not confer any benefit on them and does not prove that the sins they had committed were all lesser disbeliefs
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or they should have deemed the exclusiveness of forgiveness only for past sins and understood the exaggeration of: 257B ْ ﻢُ ﺘْ ﺌِ ﺎ ﺷَﻮا ﻣُ ﻠَ ﻤْاﻋ 1140B“Do what you like.” (Surah Fussilat 41:40) 4016B…in the Battle of Badr; and consider an expression of approval and satisfaction from that preferable act of theirs. Thus, this is also of no use to them, and all these suppositions are applicable only when we accept that Uthman was among the people of Badr, on the basis of this, the report of Ibne Umar is weak and his circumstances were mentioned above. 4017BAs for relying on the allegiance of Rizwan; thus, even if we accept the validity of the traditional report that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) paid allegiance on his behalf; even then it is incorrect to reason from it due to a number of reasons: 8038BFirst Reason
4018BIn the above verse, the Almighty Allah made His pleasure conditional to both faith and allegiance and not only with allegiance alone; and the faith of Uthman and his supporters is doubtful and many traditions prove the hypocrisy of the three Caliphs. 8039BSecond Reason
4019BWe do not accept that the verse is general, especially when such qualities are mentioned after this, which prove a specific group, because after that the Almighty Allah said: ﺎ 258B ً ﺤْ ﺘَ ﻓـْ ﻢُ ﻬَﺎﺑـَ ﺛَ أَ وْ ﻢِ ﻬْ ﻴَ ﻠَ ﻋَ ﺔَﻴﻨِ اﻟﺴﱠﻜ َ لَ ﺰْ ﻧـَ ﺄَ ﻓْ ﻢِ ﻬِﻮﺑُ ﻠُﻲ ﻗـِﺎ ﻓَ ﻣَ ﻢِ ﻠَ ﻌَ ﻓـ ﺎ ًﻳﺒِ ﺮَ ﴾١٨﴿ ﻗ
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“And He knew what was in their hearts, so He sent down tranquility on them and rewarded them with a near victory,” (Surah Fath 48:18) The victory immediately after the allegiance of Rizwan was the victory of Khyber. In that battle, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) sent Abu Bakr and Umar and they fled. Then His Eminence sent Imam Ali (a.s.) and he gained victory as was mentioned before. Thus, Imam Ali (a.s.) and those who had accompanied him, are exclusive for the command of this verse and it is not known and proved that Uthman was among them; therefore, his inclusion in the command of this verse is also not proved and known. This is the reply of some Shia researchers and scholastic theologians. Third Reason
Even if we accept the assurance of this tradition and that Uthman and his companions are included in it, thus, its conclusion is that the Almighty Allah indeed was satisfied with believers, when they paid allegiance under the tree. How does it prove that divine pleasure will continue for them till their last? And that they will not commit any act against the wish of Allah? And will not commit greater sins? And it is well known that they numbered 1500 or 1300. It is proved and well known that many of them committed great sins and prohibited acts. If a person owns a slave and one day that slave performs a good act; and the master tells him: I have become satisfied with you as you did that; but the following day he commits a great disobedience; the master is infuriated at him and condemns and threatens him; thus, no one criticizes that master and does not attribute contradiction to him, especially when that verse occurs in this incident, a little before this verse. It clearly proves that acceptance of allegiance is conditional to its fulfillment and it is possible that they might break this allegiance, as it is said that:
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259B ْ ﻢِﻳﻬِ ﺪْ ﻳَ أَ قْ ﻮَ ﻓـِ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ُ ﺪَ ﻳَ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ َﻮنُ ﻌِﺎﻳَ ﺒُﺎ ﻳـَ ﱠﻤ ﻧِ إَ ﻚَﻮﻧُ ﻌِﺎﻳَ ﺒُ ﻳـَﻳﻦِ ﱠ اﻟﱠﺬ نِ ۚ إ ◌ َ ﻤَ ﻓ ِ ﻪِ ﺴْ ﻔَ ﻧـٰ ﻰَ ﻠَ ﻋُﺚُ ﻜْ ﻨَ ﺎ ﻳـَ ﱠﻤ ﻧِ ﺈَ ﻓَﺚَ ﻜَ ﻧْ ۖ ﻦ ◌ َ ﺪَﺎﻫَﺎ ﻋَ ﻤِ ﺑٰ ﻰَ ﻓْ وَ أْ ﻦَ ﻣَ و ﺎ ًﻴﻤِ ﻈَا ﻋً ﺮْ ﺟَ أِﻴﻪِ ﺗْ ﺆُ ﻴـَﺴَ ﻓَ اﻟﻠﱠﻪ ُ ﻪْ ﻴَ ﻠَ ﴾١٠﴿ ﻋ 1142B“Surely those who swear allegiance to you do, but swear allegiance to Allah; the hand of Allah is above their hands. Therefore, whoever breaks (his faith), he breaks it only to the injury of his own soul, and whoever fulfills what he has covenanted with Allah, He will grant him a mighty reward.” (Surah Fath 48:10) 4023BSo we conclude that the benefit of this allegiance and satisfaction of God falls in their share, only when they do not commit any act against it, but, first they took to flight during the Battle of Khyber and after that they showed enmity to the Ahle Bayt of the Prophet; they invalidated the religion of His Eminence and destroyed the holy laws; they dismissed his successor and slew his beloved daughter. 4024BHow does the command of that allegiance and pleasure of God remain for them after committing these vile acts? We have discussed this matter in some detail, because some Ahle Sunnat use these verses and traditions to put ordinary Shia people in doubt and sometimes they are unable to reply. 4025BHowever, the indictments of Uthman are much more than to be included in this treatise; thus, we are content to mention only these many here; and one, who desires to learn about all of them, may refer to Biharul Anwar. 4026BIn the same way are the indictments of Muawiyah, Talha, Zubair, Ayesha, Hafasa, Bani Umayyah and Bani Abbas Caliphs and all wicked persons, heretics etc. which may also be referred to in Biharul Anwar and books of other reliable authors.
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Seventh Objective: Imamate of all the Holy Imams (a.s.)
We should know that the word of Shia implies a person who considers Amirul Momineen (a.s.) to be the Caliph after the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and Imamiyah and Ithna Ashariya implies one, who considers all twelve Imams till Imam Qaim (a.s.) as Imams and Caliphs of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). These regard infallibility to be a necessary condition for Imamate and after the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), consider Imam Ali (a.s.) then Imam Husain (a.s.) then Imam Husain (a.s.), Imam Zainul Abideen (a.s.), Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.), Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.), Imam Musa Kazim (a.s.), Imam Ali Reza (a.s.), Imam Muhammad Taqi (a.s.), Imam Ali Naqi (a.s.), Imam Hasan Askari (a.s.) and then Imam Hujjat Ibne Hasan alMahdi (a.s.) as the Imam and they believe that Imam Mahdi (a.s.) is alive and is concealed from the majority of people and after that he will reappear and remove all heresies and fill up the world with justice and equity and this is the right religion among all Shia sects. Thus, most Zaidiyyah, Ismailiya, Waqifiya, Kaisaniya are included in Shia, but they are not included in Imamiyah and Ithna Ashariya. From this aspect, there are many sects in Shia as Fakhre Razi, Muhammad Shahristani and the author of Mawafiq have mentioned and said that they are seventy and even more than that; like Kaisaniya, who after Imam Husain (a.s.) regard Muhammad bin Hanafiyyah, son of Amirul Momineen (a.s.) as Caliph; some say that he is not dead, he is the Mahdi and he has gone into occultation and he will reappear. There is no Imam after him and some say that he has passed away and Imamate has gone to his descendants. There were many such invalid sects, but praise be to Allah, none of them survive.
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Some are like the Zaidiyyah, who after Imam Husain (a.s.) or Imam Zainul Abideen (a.s.), regard Zaid Ibne Imam Zainul Abideen (a.s.) as imam. Some consider Amirul Momineen (a.s.) to be the immediate Caliph after the Prophet and some accept the Caliphate of the first three unlawful Caliphs also. Then there are Ismailiya, who consider Ismail, son of Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) as imam, although Ismail died during the lifetime of Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) and his funeral was carried out in full public view. There are many sects in Ismailiya; some of which say that Ismail is not dead; Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) concealed him from Mansur Dawaniqi and spread the rumor of his death. He remained alive for some days after Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) and his descendants received Imamate. Some of them say that he died during the lifetime of Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.), but the declaration of Imamate was not cancelled and after Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) it was transferred to Ismail. Most of their sects apostasied after a long time and revoking all religious worship acts deemed all sinful acts as lawful. Presently, they are mostly underground. Then there is the Nawusiyyah, who say that Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) is not dead; he has gone into hiding and will reappear and he is the Mahdi. The Fatha regard Abdullah Aftah, eldest son of Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.), who was having physical and mental defects as imam. He lived for some days after Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) and then died. The Waqifiya claim that Imam Musa Kazim (a.s.) is alive and in concealment and he is the Mahdi. After Imam Musa Kazim (a.s.), they do not believe in any other Imam. In addition some rare sects are also mentioned but 1109 years have passed from Hijra and only three major sects remain in Shia. That is Imamiyah, Ismailiya and Zaidiyyah and all other sects are extinct, and except for name, nothing else remains.
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Like those who believed in the Imamate of Ismail, son of Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.), Musa Mubriqa, Ja’far Kazzab or some other like them. As for the sects, which do not survive, their validity is not needful of explanation, because none of them is claiming Imamate now, and it is clear that religious obligations are not cancelled; thus, if religious obligations are not cancelled and there is no one to explain them, it is an impossible situation. Moreover, there is consensus of Ummah that it is necessary for religion to survive till Judgment Day. Also, the whole community has consensus on the negation of all religions other than Islam. However, to prove the Imamate of the twelve Imams and to refute all other existing and extinct faiths is possible through five methods: First Method: Textual Declaration (Nass)
It is textual declaration (Nass): It is of two types: one is brief and the other is detailed. As for the brief one; it is further having some types: First Type
The author of Jamiul Usul has narrated from Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Jabir Samra that he heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) say: After me there will be twelve chiefs. After that he mentioned some words, which I did not hear and asked my father what the Prophet has said. He replied: He said: All of them will be from Quraish. According to another report, he said: The affairs of the people will remain in force as long as twelve persons are their rulers. Muslim has narrated from another channel from Jabir that he said: I went to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) with my father. I heard him state: This religion will remain powerful and
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dominant till the twelve Caliphs and my father said: The Prophet said: All of them will be from Quraish. Through another chain of narrators, he has narrated a report of this same meaning and instead of religion, he mentioned Islam. Moreover, in Jamiul Usul, these same points are narrated from Sahih Tirmidhi and Nasai and it is mentioned in some reports that people asked the Prophet what will happen after that. He replied: Confusion. It is mentioned in some reports that this religion will remain established, till the twelve Caliphs remain. Moreover, in Sahih Muslim, it is narrated from Amir bin Saeed bin Waqqas that he said: I wrote to Jabir bin Samra to inform me about what he heard from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). He replied: I heard on Friday at Asr, when Aslami was stoned to death that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: This religion will survive till Judgment Day and there will be twelve Caliphs of Quraish on them. In another report the conclusion of this tradition is: Thus, some liars will appear just before Judgment Day. In their authentic books, it is narrated from Shobi and Shobi narrates from Masrooq that he said: We were with Ibne Masud and he was reciting the Quran. A man asked: Did you people ask the prophet how many Caliphs there will be after him? Ibne Masud said: No one asked me this since I came to Iraq. Yes, we did ask the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) about it and he said that there will be twelve Caliphs according to the number of the chiefs of Bani Israel, and all of them will be from Quraish. It is narrated from Abu Jofiya that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: The dignity of my religion will continue as long as twelve Caliphs are at its helm; all of them are from Quraish. It is narrated from Anas that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: This religion will remain established till the twelve Caliphs continue; when they go away, the earth will shake along with its inhabitants.
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Moreover, it is narrated from Abdullah Ibne Umar that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: There will be twelve Caliphs after me. Also, it is narrated that Ibne Umar said to Ibne Abi Tufayl: Enumerate the twelve Caliphs, after which there would be confusion and killings. It is also narrated that people asked Ayesha how many Caliphs will succeed the Prophet. She replied: The Prophet informed me that there will be twelve Caliphs. They asked: Who are they? She replied: There names are written in the words of the Prophet with me. They asked to mention them, but she refused. This issue is mentioned in other words as well. In Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, it is narrated from Abdullah bin Umar that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: This matter will continue in Quraish forever till two persons remain. It is narrated from Ishaq bin Sulaiman Abbasi that he said: Harun Rashid informed me that his forefathers narrated from Abbasi that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) told him: O uncle, there will be twelve Caliphs from my descendants. Then conflicts and hard times will appear. After that Mahdi will appear from my descendants and the Almighty Allah will reform his affairs overnight. Thus, he would fill up the earth with justice and equity after it would have been fraught with injustice and oppression. He will remain in the earth as long Allah likes, then Dajjal would appear. The reason of arguing from these traditions of the Caliphate of the twelve Imams is that from all the sects of Muslims, no sect believes in the Caliphate of twelve Imams, especially, the twelve Imams, all of them being from Quraish and for as long as the world exists, except the Twelver Shia Sect. Then through those traditions, which are repeatedly mentioned in their Sihah books, our religion is proved and all other religions are proved false. A strange prejudice of the Ahle
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Sunnat is that some of them tried to interpret these traditions according to their religion and they say: The twelve Caliphs are: The three Caliphs, Amirul Momineen (a.s.), Imam Hasan (a.s.) and seven Caliphs of Bani Umayyah. Some say that it denotes the righteous Caliphs and after Imam Hasan (a.s.), they are Abdullah Ibne Zubair and Umar bin Abdullah Aziz and other five Caliphs of Bani Abbas. Both these justifications are extremely atrocious, because all Bani Umayyah and Bani Abbas Caliphs were similar to each other in vileness and wickedness, except for Umar bin Abdul Aziz, who possessed some good traits. Thus, it is useless to select some of them and to condemn others. Moreover, all traditions apparently denote the continuity of their Caliphate and it is mentioned clearly in some traditions that the twelve Caliphs will continue till Judgment Day. In some versions, it is mentioned: When these Imams go away, the earth will rock with its inhabitants and the system of the Universe will be destroyed. In some, it is clearly mentioned that the Caliphate of Quraish is in force till Judgment Day. Therefore, it becomes clear their justifications are of no use and these same traditions are enough to prove our assertion. Second Type
The second type is Hadith Thaqlayn and other traditions of its kind, which prove that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) commanded following the Quran and Ahle Bayt (a.s.) and said: These two will not separate from each other till Judgment Day. Thus, the period of the Caliphs of Ahle Sunnat is over and they do not believe in the Caliphate of anyone from Ahle Bayt (a.s.). If they are Ismailiya Imams, they are some transgressors and apostates, who apparently followed Shia rulers. They are
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also well known for sinful behavior and every kind of divine disobedience and no sane person considers their Imamate valid. The Zaidiyyah also, in their fundamentals of faith, are not relying on any divine proof and according to their belief, only that Fatimi Sayyid, who stages an armed uprising is imam. And the Imams regarding whose Imamate they claim, if their lineage is proved, it is necessary that they should be having knowledge of divine laws and Quran, so that their proximity to Quran is proved, although most are ignorant of Quran and Sunnah and are followers of Abu Hanifah in their secondary issues of religion. They do not have any proof of their particular choice of Imamate and neither have any textual declaration in its support. Nor has any consensus taken place for it. On the contrary, like all tyrant rulers, they seize power through violence and name it as Imamate. They speak ill of those, who are the most superior persons of Ahle Bayt (a.s.), like Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) and Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.). In spite of the fact, that except for Khawarij, the whole Ummah admits to their excellence and glory. That is why, they are like Khawarij and it is mentioned in traditions of Ahle Bayt (a.s.) that Zaidiyyah are worse than Ahle Sunnat, because Ahle Sunnat harbor enmity with our Shia and Zaidiyyah are inimical to us. Third Type
Ibne Abil Hadid has narrated from the author of Hilyatul Awliya and it is mentioned in the Fadhail of Ahmad bin Hanbal and Khasais of Tatanzi that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: One, who desires to live like me and die like me; and that he should settle in that Garden, which the Almighty Allah has planted with the hand of His power; and which is my abode, it is necessary from him to adopt the Wilayat of Ali after me and follow the Imams and successors from his descendants. Indeed, only this is my progeny and they are created from my essence and Almighty Allah bestowed my knowledge and perception to them. Woe on those of my Ummah, who falsify them and cut off
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the relation between me and them and disregard my position with them; may Allah not allow my intercession for them. Fourth Type
Zamakhshari has narrated that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: Fatima is the pleasure of my heart; her two sons are the fruits of my heart; her husband is the light of my eyes. The Imams from her progeny are the trustees of my Lord. And they are the rope stretched between Allah and His creatures. One, who is attached to their obedience, will get salvation and one, who remains aloof from them and separates from them, will enter the lowest level of Hell. Traditions of this type are numerous in their authentic books, but since they are not mentioned in their Sihah, they are not mentioned. Detailed textual declaration: When the Caliphate of Imam Ali (a.s.) is proved, the textual declaration of Imam Ali (a.s.) for Imam Hasan (a.s.) and textual declaration of Imam Hasan (a.s.) for Imam Husain (a.s.) and in the same way, textual declaration of each Imam for the succeeding Imam till Imam Mahdi (a.s.) is widely related among Imamiyah scholars and traditionists, whose followers were present in every area. They have recorded these statements in their books and writings and it is well known that except for honesty and truthfulness, nothing else was the reason for them, because rulership was always in the hands of opponents and they were dominant. However, these persons, in spite of being fearful of them, used to record all these reports and traditions. If their aim had been material, it was necessary that they should have aligned with the tyrants and becoming free of fear, should remain powerful and respected. In addition to this, we are aware that all of them were extremely peace loving and pious and they avoided falsehood. Thus, one, who pays attention to these causes along with those traditional reports, he becomes aware of their knowledge
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and truthfulness and in authentic traditions of the Twelver Shia, their holy names are widely related from the Prophet and all Imams. All of them are miracles, because the name of each Imam, his qualities and name of his parents and him are mentioned before they were born, till the occultation of the twelfth Imam; that is Imam Mahdi (a.s.). Also, all their circumstances and description of those Caliphs, who lived during the time of each Imam, since the time of Imam Zainul Abideen (a.s.) till the time of Imam Qaim (a.s.) are mentioned in books of traditions, which are famous among Shia and Sunni. Thus, there in no doubt in these traditions. Second Method: Precedence
It is precedence – and there is no doubt that each of our Pure Imams was superior to all the people of his time, especially those Caliphs, who usurped their rights, in knowledge, reform, piety, abstinence, in excellence, merits and all supporters and opponents have consensus on this. Scholars and jurisprudents referred to them in all difficulties and tragic circumstances and considered them as proof and worth of following. They were points of reference for the common people as well as rulers and all rulers of Bani Umayyah and Bani Abbas considered them rightful for Caliphate and were afraid of them. Ahle Sunnat books of history and traditions are filled with these issues and their excellence and merits, especially the excellence of Imam Hasan and Imam Husain (a.s.) are more numerous than what can be calculated. It is narrated from Sahih Bukhari, Muslim and Tirmidhi in Jamiul Usul from Baraa bin Azib that he said: I saw the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) seat Imam Hasan (a.s.) on his shoulders and say: I love this one, O my Lord, You also love him. Also, all of them have narrated from Baraa that one day the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) saw Hasan and Husain (a.s.) and said: O Lord, I love them. You also love them.
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Moreover, in Jamiul Usul, it is narrated from Sahih Tirmidhi from Ibne Abbas that when the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) mounted Imam Hasan (a.s.) on his shoulders, someone said to Imam Hasan (a.s.): O child, what a nice mount you have mounted. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: He is also a nice rider. It is narrated from Anas from Sahih Tirmidhi that people asked the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), which persons from his Ahle Bayt (a.s.) are most beloved to him. He replied: Hasan and Husain. He used to say to Lady Fatima (s.a.): Call my (two) sons. When they arrived, he used to smell them, take them in his arms and hug them. Moreover, it is narrated from Sahih Tirmidhi, from Abu Huraira that he said: One day I was with the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) for a long time, but His Eminence did not say a word and neither did I ask him about anything, till he went to the market of Bani Qinqaa. From there, he came to the house of Lady Fatima (s.a.) and asked: Is my son here? That is Hasan (a.s.). I saw Imam Hasan (a.s.) emerge and ran to His Eminence and they hugged each other. The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: O Allah, I love him; so You also please love him. Also love one, who loves him. In Sahih Bukhari also, it is narrated from Abu Huraira that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) came to the house of Lady Fatima (s.a.) and called Imam Hasan (a.s.) thrice. Imam Hasan (a.s.) came and there was an amulet around his neck. When the Prophet saw him, he extended his hands and taking him in his arms, said: O Allah, I love him, thus, You also love him; and love one, who loves him. Abu Huraira said: After this, no one was as dear to me as Hasan (a.s.). Also, it is narrated from Sahih Tirmidhi from Usamah that he said: One evening, I went to the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) for something. I saw him placing something on his lap and covering it with a cloth. When I my need was fulfilled, I asked: What is there in your lap? The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) removed
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the cloth and I saw Hasan and Husain sleeping in his lap. His Eminence said: These two are my sons and sons of my daughter; O Allah, I love them; You also love them and love those, who love them. Also, it is narrated from Sahih Tirmidhi from Yaala bin Murrah that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: I am from Husain and Husain is from me. Allah loves one, who loves Husain. Husain is also a Sibt from the Asbat. Ibne Athir has said in the interpretation of this tradition in Jamiul Usul that Sibt is the child of a child and is from the Asbat, who were the sons of Prophet Yaqub (a.s.); as if one of a prophet. This tradition is again quoted in Nihayatul Lughat and he said in interpretation that in goodness and excellence, he is equal to a whole tribe. And he says that it is mentioned in another tradition that Hasan and Husain are two grandsons of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) and then said: That is they are two tribes from the Prophet. Moreover, it is narrated from Abu Saeed Khudri in Sahih Tirmidhi that His Eminence used to say: Hasan and Husain are the best of the youths of Paradise. Also, it is narrated in Sahih Bukhari, Muslim and Tirmidhi that a person asked Abdullah bin Umar, what is the decree regarding killing of a mosquito in the condition of consecration (Ihram)? Ibne Umar asked: Where are you from? He replied: From Iraq. Ibne Umar said to the audience: This man is asking me about killing of a mosquito, whereas these people killed the son of the Prophet. I heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) say regarding him (Husain) and his brother: These two are flowers of my garden. And he said: They are Sayyids, the best and leaders of the folks of Paradise. Moreover, it is narrated from Sahih Nasai that Abdullah bin Shaddad narrated from his father that he said: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) came out for Maghrib or Isha Prayer having
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Hasan (a.s.) or Husain (a.s.) on his shoulders. He put him down and recited the Takbir and he prolonged much one of his prostrations. I raised my head and saw that the child was astride the Prophet and the Prophet was prostrating. So, I again went into prostration. When His Eminence concluded the prayer, people asked: O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), you prolonged one prostration too much; till we thought that some incident has occurred or divine revelation has descended. He replied: It was nothing of this sort; on the contrary, my son had mounted my back and I did not like to put him down, so that he may be satisfied fully. In Sahih Bukhari, Sunan Abu Dawood, Tirmidhi and Nasai, it is narrated from Hasan Basri that Abu Bakr said: I saw the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) seated on pulpit and Hasan (a.s.) was besides him. Sometimes the Prophet looked at the people, sometimes at him and then he said: This son is a chief; perhaps through him the Almighty Allah would make peace between two groups of my Ummah. It is narrated from Sahih Bukhari and Tirmidhi from Anas bin Malik that no one resembled the Prophet more than Hasan and Husain. There are so many traditions in their excellence that it is impossible to compute them; and whatever was mentioned so far, is from what happened before the Verse of Purification and Verse of Malediction were revealed; it clearly proves the excellence of those personalities, especially the traditions of their being the beloved of Allah and the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.). As it is clear and proved that love of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) is subservient to the love of God and the love of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) was not due to close relationship and humanity as was mentioned repeatedly. When these noble souls were beloved of the Almighty Allah and the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), it is necessary that in all perfections also, they should be ahead of all people of Ummah, except for Amirul Momineen (a.s.), because his excellence was
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proved through external reasonings. In many traditional reports the final statement is: And their father is better than them. Thus, only these respected persons, more all the people, would be deserving of Caliphate, especially more than those, who took over Caliphate during their times, through force and the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) on most occasions had cursed them. Moreover, one, who is such, that his love is a necessary requirement of faith, it is necessary that his love and recognition should be from fundamentals of faith and he should never have been smeared with any sin or impurity; otherwise, enmity to him would become necessary, because of that sin of his. Also, he should be having exclusiveness with the Prophet in such a way that he says regarding him: He is from me and I am from him; and he compared them to the tribes of Bani Israel, who were prophets. Only such a person can be most deserving for Imamate. In the same way, their being the best of the folks of Paradise proves that they are best in the world, except one, who is exempted through reasoning, because according to consensus, all folks of Paradise are youthful and none of them is aged. If youthful implies those, who died young, it is wrong, because they passed away during maturity. Moreover, our claim in that case is also proved, because many prophets, like Yahya etc. are such, who passed away during their youth. Thus, when these respectable folks are superior to prophets and also infallible and leaders of people; if they say that since these personalities were youthful at that time, hence he said: They are better than the folks of Paradise, who were youthful at this time. But this interpretation is also wrong, because at that time they were children and not youths. Even if we accept that, our meaning is evident; because while these noble souls will be better than all folks of Paradise, their excellence is definitely proved during their youth. Most astonishing fact is that Ahle Sunnat have tried to fabricate an excellence for Abu Bakr and Umar also that Abu Bakr and Umar are the chiefs of the aged
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folks of Paradise. They are ignorant of the fact that no one is aged in Paradise. Other suppositions are also invalid, as was concluded before. In spite of the fact that this weak tradition, which is only narrated by them, and they have also narrated it from Ibne Umar, who is accused of bigotry and is well known for his enmity to Imam Ali (a.s.). This tradition is contradictory to the traditions of their being the chiefs of the youths of Paradise, which Ahle Sunnat and Shia have narrated through widely related channels. Moreover, this tradition is contradictory to the traditions, which Ahle Sunnat have narrated in their authentic books, that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: Sons of Abdul Muttalib are the chiefs of all the folks of Paradise. That is I, Ali and Ja’far, sons of Abu Talib, Hamza, Hasan, Husain and till His Eminence, Mahdi. If they say that it implies that these two are better than that group of the folks of Paradise, who were aged at that time, in spite of the fact that this justification is very unlikely, it is of no use to them, because it does not prove their being superior to that group, which at that time were youths or boys. Like Imam Ali (a.s.) and Hasan and Husain. In the same way, is the tradition: I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate. They added the spurious part: Umar is its roof. They are ignorant of the fact that a city does not have a roof. Also, the prolonging of the prostration for his sake proves that he was having a great position before the Almighty Allah that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) abstained from the usual practice of keeping congregation prayer brief only to satisfy him. If each of those merits is not sufficient to prove their Imamate, there is no doubt that all of them prove that the position of superiority was exclusive for them and the people of their time did not share this excellence. Thus, only these divine personalities will have precedence, as preferring the inferior in place of the superior is against reason.
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Third Method: Infallibility
It is infallibility – and we have proved through logical and textual proofs that infallibility is obligatory for the Imam; and except for the Twelver Shia, no other sect believes in infallibility of all those, whom they consider as Imams. Thus, all those sects are invalid and the Twelver religion is truth. Fourth Method: Miracle
It is miracle. Numerous miracles were displayed by each Imam, which are widely related among the Shia and even the Sunnis. Ibne Talha Shafei has mentioned in Matalibus So-ool and Ibne Sabbagh Makki Maliki has written in Fusulul Muhimma and Mulla Jami in Shawahidun Nubuwwah, and other Ahle Sunnat scholars have also recorded them in their books and labeled them as Karamat (extraordinary feats). So much so, miracles were even displayed by the special representatives of Imam Mahdi (a.s.), through which people became aware and certain about their office and deputyship. Fifth Method: Consensus
Its explanation is that there is consensus of the whole Ummah that the right religion is not other than those religions, which exist in the Ummah. We have proved the invalidity of all schools, because of absence of textual proof, absence of infallibility, absence of miracle and absence of excellence according to consensus, because most people of these schools do admit these issues for their Imams, whom they follow. And those who believe in this, like Nawusiyyah and Waqifiya, they in fact, share the belief of Twelver Shia. Thus, the Imamate of Twelver Shia is proved by all; and to claim Waqf (stoppage), occultation and life, which is exclusive for those sects, is invalid through definitely proved texts, which
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have come down regarding their number of twelve Imams and their being exclusive for Imamate and devotion to them. In addition to these five methods, we have other methods as well to prove the Imamate of these personalities. If a person, who is fair in the least, who discards prejudice, seeks truth and ponders on these matters, he will obtain guidance. First Method: Sciences
They are the sciences, which spread in all Muslim sects and all those sciences have come together in our Purified Imams and each of them has earned distinction and fame in the world in some sciences, as was mentioned before. All scholars are students of Imam Ali (a.s.) and they all owe their knowledge to him. They attribute their knowledge to Imam Ali (a.s.) in all sciences, like fundamentals of religion, Islamic laws, Quranic exegesis, Arabic grammar, medicine, philosophy, literature, ethics, politics and astronomy. All of them have narrated from the Imam and they consider his statements to be compulsorily followed and they cannot object to him inspite of the prejudice they had with him due to their invalid objectives. In the same way, they have taken all these sciences from the progeny of Imam Ali (a.s.) and there is no one from the people of knowledge, who doubts the excellence and majesty of those personalities. During the time of Imam Zainul Abideen (a.s.), since Bani Umayyah were in power, and infidelity and deviation had surrounded the world, there was severe dissimulation and the Imam did not allow people to meet him. Th