The Teleological Argument refers to the evidence of design in nature as a proof for the existence of God. It is a common theme in the Quran, often asking the reader to look around and realise that things are perfectly designed.
The word teleological comes from the Greek word "telos" meaning "purpose", so it can be understood that these arguments are based on the observation that the universe has an inherent purpose and therefore design.
Essentially this argument is as follows:
- Anything that exhibits a purpose is the product of a designer.
- The universe exhibits a purpose.
- Therefore the universe is the product of a designer.
The Quran makes the point really well, when you look around, you notice that the environment appears well designed for us.
16|5|And the livestock—He created them for you. In them are warmth and benefits for you, and of them you eat.16|6|And there is beauty in them for you, when you bring them home, and when you drive them to pasture.16|7|And they carry your loads to territory you could not have reached without great hardship. Your Lord is Clement and Merciful.16|8|And the horses, and the mules, and the donkeys—for you to ride, and for luxury. And He creates what you do not know.16|10|It is He Who sends down for you from the sky water. From it is drink, and with it grows vegetation for grazing.16|11|And He produces for you grains with it, and olives, and date-palms, and grapes, and all kinds of fruits. Surely in that is a sign for people who think.16|12|And He regulated for you the night and the day; and the sun, and the moon, and the stars are disposed by His command. Surely in that are signs for people who ponder.16|13|And whatsoever He created for you on earth is of diverse colors. Surely in that is a sign for people who are mindful.16|14|And it is He who made the sea to serve you, that you may eat from it tender meat, and extract from it ornaments that you wear. And you see the ships plowing through it, as you seek His bounties, so that you may give thanks.16|15|And he cast mountains on the earth, lest it shifts with you; and rivers, and roads, so that you may be guided.16|16|And landmarks. And by the stars they guide themselves.16|17|Is He who creates like him who does not create? Will you not take a lesson?
If you are interested in the evidence of the existence of God, then I suggest you consider the book I have written on the topic which goes into much more detail and covers many other arguments both for and against.