Tafsir 2. Al Baqarah

Al-Baqara

1الم
2|1|Alif, Lam, Meem.
 

There are 29 verses of the Quran that start with a series of letters with no vowels. As far as I am aware, there is no concrete evidence to elaborate on the meaning of these letters, some have speculated about the abjad (traditional Arab numbers where letters are used which indicate a numerical value). Others have said that the letters represent praise to Allah, there is a (weak) hadith, and there is certainly no overwhelming evidence, but here it is anyway: From Muhammad ibn Haroon al-Zanjaanee that which ‘alee ibn Ahmad al-Baghdaadee had written by his own hands to me – narrated from Maaadh ibn al-Muthanee from Abd Allaah ibn Asmaa- from Jawayrah from Sufyaan al-Thawree who said: “I said to Al-Saadiq, peace be upon him, ‘O’ Son of the Messenger of Allah! What is the meaning of the words of Allah, The Powerful and Exalted, Alif, Lam, Meem and Alif, Lam, Meem, Saad and Aleef, Lam, Ra and Aleef, Lam, Meem, Ra and Kaf, Ha, Ya, Ayn, Saad and Ta, Ha and Ta, Seen and Ta, Seen, Meem and Ya, Seen and Saad and Ha, Meem and Ha, Meem, Ayn, Seen, Qaaf and Qaaf and Noon?”

The Imaam, peace be upon him, said, “As for Alif, Lam, Meem in the beginning of Surah al-Baqarah, it means ‘I am Allah the King’; and the Alif, Lam, Meem in the beginning of Surah Ale Imraan means ‘I am Allah the Noble’; the meaning of Alif, Lam, Meem, Saad is ‘I am Allah, The Decider, the Truthful’ ; and Alif, Lam, Ra means ‘I am Allah, the Forgiving’ ; the meaning of Alif, Lam, Meem, Ra is ‘I am Allah, The Giver of Life, The Taker of Life, The Sustainer’ ; the meaning of Kaf, Ha, Ya, ‘Ayn, Saad is ‘I am The Sufficient, the Guide, The Protecting Friend, The Knowledgeable, The One Who is Truthful to His Promise’ ; as for Ta, Ha, this is one of the name from the names of the Prophet, blessings of All¡h be upon him and his progeny, and its meaning is ‘O’ Searcher of Truth and The Guide to it (the truth), we have not revealed unto you the Qur’aan so that you may be unsuccessful (in your mission), rather, through it, We wish to give you good fortune’ ; as for the meaning of Ta Seen, it means ‘I am The Claimant and The Hearer of All’ ; as for Ta Seen Meem, it means ‘I am The Claimant, The Hearer of all, The Originator and the Ender’ ; as for the meaning of Ya Seen, this is one name from the names of the Prophet, blessings of Allaah be upon him and his progeny and it means, ‘O’ you who are listening to Our Revelation and the Qur’aan full of Wisdom, surely you are of Our Emissaries, upon the Straight Path; and as for Saad, it is a spring that originates from under the Divine Throne (of Allaah) and it is from this spring of water that the Prophet, blessings of Allaah be upon him and his progeny, performed Wudhoo- when he was carried into the heavens (on the Night Journey – al-Meraaj) and it is this same stream of water which Jibreel, goes to every day and submerges himself into. He then comes out of this stream and shakes off all of the water that is on his wings and there is not a single drop of water that falls off of his wings except that All¡h, the Glorified and High, creates from that drop of water, an Angel who glorifies, sanctifies, exclaims the greatness and praises Allaah until the Day of Judgement; as for Ha, Meem, its meaning is ‘The Praised, the Glorified’ ; and as for Ha Meem ‘Ayn Seen Qaaf, its meaning is‘The Forbearing, The Rewarder, The Knowledgeable, The Hearer of All, The All Able, the All Powerful’ ; as for Qaaf, ‘it is a mountain that covers the Earth and the greenness of the sky comes from it, and through this mountain does Allaah spread out the Earth for the people living there on’; as for Noon, this is a stream of water in Paradise which Allaah, the Powerful and Exalted, told to coagulate and so it coagulated, and then He fashioned a pencil. Then He, the Powerful and Exalted, said to the pen, ‘Write!’ So then the pen wrote on the Al-LawH Al-MaHfoodh(The Protected Tablet) all that has happened and all that will happen until the Day of Judgement. And the pen is of Divine Light (noor) and the pencil is of Divine Light (noor) and the Law (tablet) is of Divine Light (noor).’ ”

Sufyaan then said, “I said to him, O’ son of the Messenger of Allah! Explain to me the command of the Law and the Pen and the Pencil – a complete explanation – and teach me that which Allah has taught you!” The Imam replied, “O’ Son of Sa`id! Certainly if you had not been a person who was worthy of replying, then I would not have replied to you. So then, Noon is an Angel who leads to the Pen and it (the Pen) is an Angel and the Pen leads to the Law (tablet) and it too (the Law) is an Angel and the Law leads to the Angel Israafeel and Israafeel leads to Mika’eel and Mika’eel leads to Jibraa’eel and Jibraa’eel leads to all of the Prophets and Messengers, prayers of Allah be upon all of them.” The Imam then said to me, “Get up O’ Sufyaan since there is no security for you (since I have conveyed to you this hidden knowledge).”

 

  • Source:

  • Al-Sadooq, Ma’aanee Al-Akhbaar, pg. 22

  • Al-Majlisi, Bihaar Al-Anwaar, vol. 89, ch. 127, pg. 373, hadeeth # 1

 

 

 

 
 
2ذَٰلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لَا رَيْبَ ۛ فِيهِ ۛ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ
2|2|That is the Book in which there is no doubt, a guide for the righteous.
 

Allah refers to the Quran as  “The book”, not just poetry or oral tradition, it is a written thing, and it was written at the time of the Prophet SAW

 

3الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ
2|3|Those who believe in the unseen, and perform the prayers, and give from what We have provided for them.
 
 

The “Unseen” may refer to a number of things, such as God, the day of Judgement, etc According to a tradition from Imam Sadiq AS The Unseen here refers to the Divine Proof (Imam Mahdi AS), and he added the evidence is referred to in this verse (10:20) “And they say: Why is not a sign sent to him from his Lord? Say: The unseen is only for Allah; therefore wait– surely I too, with you am of those who wait” 

 

 

 
4وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ وَبِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ
2|4|And those who believe in what was revealed to you, and in what was revealed before you, and are certain of the Hereafter.
 
 

Those who guard against evil, or in other words, the pious ones, are the very people who believe. Piety or guarding oneself against evil, is not a special virtue of any particular group of the believers. It is not like doing good, being humble before God or purity of intention, which are counted as various grades of the faith. Piety, on the other hand, is a comprehensive virtue that runs through all the ranks of the true faith. It is for this reason that Allah has not reserved this adjective for any particular group of the believers.The characteristics of piety, enumerated in these four verses, are five: Believing in the unseen, keeping up prayers, spending benevolently out of what Allah has given, believing in what Allah has revealed to His apostles, and being sure of the hereafter

 

 
5أُولَٰئِكَ عَلَىٰ هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ
2|5|These are upon guidance from their Lord. These are the successful.
 

The above set of verses are regarding the believers, they believe in the Quran, the Unseen (God), perform prayer, give charity and accept previous revelations, they are certain of an afterlife. 

 
6إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا سَوَاءٌ عَلَيْهِمْ أَأَنذَرْتَهُمْ أَمْ لَمْ تُنذِرْهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ
2|6|As for those who disbelieve—it is the same for them, whether you have warned them, or have not warned them—they do not believe.
 
7خَتَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ وَعَلَىٰ سَمْعِهِمْ ۖ وَعَلَىٰ أَبْصَارِهِمْ غِشَاوَةٌ ۖ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ
2|7|God has set a seal on their hearts and on their hearing, and over their vision is a veil. They will have a severe torment.
8وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَبِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَمَا هُم بِمُؤْمِنِينَ
2|8|Among the people are those who say, “We believe in God and in the Last Day,” but they are not believers.
 

Refers to the hypocrites.

 

9يُخَادِعُونَ اللَّهَ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَمَا يَخْدَعُونَ إِلَّا أَنفُسَهُمْ وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ
2|9|They seek to deceive God and those who believe, but they deceive none but themselves, though they are not aware.
10فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ فَزَادَهُمُ اللَّهُ مَرَضًا ۖ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْذِبُونَ
2|10|In their hearts is sickness, and God has increased their sickness. They will have a painful punishment because of their denial.
11وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ لَا تُفْسِدُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ قَالُوا إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ مُصْلِحُونَ
2|11|And when it is said to them, “Do not make trouble on earth,” they say, “We are only reformers.”
12أَلَا إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ الْمُفْسِدُونَ وَلَٰكِن لَّا يَشْعُرُونَ
2|12|In fact, they are the troublemakers, but they are not aware.
13وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ آمِنُوا كَمَا آمَنَ النَّاسُ قَالُوا أَنُؤْمِنُ كَمَا آمَنَ السُّفَهَاءُ ۗ أَلَا إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ السُّفَهَاءُ وَلَٰكِن لَّا يَعْلَمُونَ
2|13|And when it is said to them, “Believe as the people have believed,” they say, “Shall we believe as the fools have believed?” In fact, it is they who are the fools, but they do not know.
14وَإِذَا لَقُوا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا قَالُوا آمَنَّا وَإِذَا خَلَوْا إِلَىٰ شَيَاطِينِهِمْ قَالُوا إِنَّا مَعَكُمْ إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ مُسْتَهْزِئُونَ
2|14|And when they come across those who believe, they say, “We believe”; but when they are alone with their devils, they say, “We are with you; we were only ridiculing.”
15اللَّهُ يَسْتَهْزِئُ بِهِمْ وَيَمُدُّهُمْ فِي طُغْيَانِهِمْ يَعْمَهُونَ
2|15|It is God who ridicules them, and leaves them bewildered in their transgression.
 
 

We have in the Qur’an: “And they (the unbelievers or Jews) schemed, and Allah schemed (against them), and Allah is the best of schemers” [3, 47]; and also: “Verily the hypocrites seek to beguile Allah, but it is ,Allah Who beguileth them” [4,141]; and: ” Allah doth mock them ” [2, 15]; and we have: “Allah will deride at (sakhira) them ” [9, 80]; and we have: “They have forgotten Allah, so He hath forgotten them” [9, 68]. And the meaning of all this is that He, the Glorious and Mighty, shall requite them for their scheming (makr), beguiling (mukhada’a) mockery (istihza’), and forgetfulness (nisyan); and that is, He will make them forget themselves, as He, the Mighty and Glorious, has said: “And be not ye as those who forgot Allah, therefore He caused them to forget their souls ” [59,19]. For in reality Allah, the Glorious and Mighty, does not scheme, nor does He beguile, deride, or forget. Exalted is Allah beyond all this by His Greatness and Glory.

 
 
16أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ اشْتَرَوُا الضَّلَالَةَ بِالْهُدَىٰ فَمَا رَبِحَت تِّجَارَتُهُمْ وَمَا كَانُوا مُهْتَدِينَ
2|16|Those are they who have bartered error for guidance; but their trade does not profit them, and they are not guided.
17مَثَلُهُمْ كَمَثَلِ الَّذِي اسْتَوْقَدَ نَارًا فَلَمَّا أَضَاءَتْ مَا حَوْلَهُ ذَهَبَ اللَّهُ بِنُورِهِمْ وَتَرَكَهُمْ فِي ظُلُمَاتٍ لَّا يُبْصِرُونَ
2|17|Their likeness is that of a person who kindled a fire; when it illuminated all around him, God took away their light, and left them in darkness, unable to see.
 

The people made a fire to see the correct way, but without Allah, there is no possibility of correct guidance.

 
18صُمٌّ بُكْمٌ عُمْيٌ فَهُمْ لَا يَرْجِعُونَ
2|18|Deaf, dumb, blind. They will not return.
19أَوْ كَصَيِّبٍ مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ فِيهِ ظُلُمَاتٌ وَرَعْدٌ وَبَرْقٌ يَجْعَلُونَ أَصَابِعَهُمْ فِي آذَانِهِم مِّنَ الصَّوَاعِقِ حَذَرَ الْمَوْتِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ مُحِيطٌ بِالْكَافِرِينَ
2|19|Or like a cloudburst from the sky, in which is darkness, and thunder, and lightning. They press their fingers into their ears from the thunderbolts, in fear of death. But God surrounds the disbelievers.
20يَكَادُ الْبَرْقُ يَخْطَفُ أَبْصَارَهُمْ ۖ كُلَّمَا أَضَاءَ لَهُم مَّشَوْا فِيهِ وَإِذَا أَظْلَمَ عَلَيْهِمْ قَامُوا ۚ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَذَهَبَ بِسَمْعِهِمْ وَأَبْصَارِهِمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
2|20|The lightning almost snatches their sight away. Whenever it illuminates for them, they walk in it; but when it grows dark over them, they stand still. Had God willed, He could have taken away their hearing and their sight. God is capable of everything.
 

The hypocrites are constantly afraid and doubting, remembering Allah only when they are afraid.They think that every cry is against them. (63: 4)They swear by Allah that they are truly of you while they are not of you, but they are a people who are afraid. Should they find refuge, or caves, or a place of concealment, they would turn straightway thereto in a swift rush. (9:56-57).

 
21يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ
2|21|O people! Worship your Lord who created you and those before you, that you may attain piety.
 

One reason mankind has been created is so that it may learn righteousness. 

 

 

 

 

 

 
22الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ فِرَاشًا وَالسَّمَاءَ بِنَاءً وَأَنزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَخْرَجَ بِهِ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ رِزْقًا لَّكُمْ ۖ فَلَا تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّهِ أَندَادًا وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
2|22|He who made the earth a habitat for you, and the sky a structure, and sends water down from the sky, and brings out fruits thereby, as a sustenance for you. Therefore, do not assign rivals to God while you know.
 

Consider that we are in a place where we can live, with water to drink and food to eat, if we look around the universe, these seems to be unique or at the very least, rare.

 

23وَإِن كُنتُمْ فِي رَيْبٍ مِّمَّا نَزَّلْنَا عَلَىٰ عَبْدِنَا فَأْتُوا بِسُورَةٍ مِّن مِّثْلِهِ وَادْعُوا شُهَدَاءَكُم مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ
2|23|And if you are in doubt about what We have revealed to Our servant, then produce a chapter like these, and call your witnesses apart from God, if you are truthful.
 
24فَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلُوا وَلَن تَفْعَلُوا فَاتَّقُوا النَّارَ الَّتِي وَقُودُهَا النَّاسُ وَالْحِجَارَةُ ۖ أُعِدَّتْ لِلْكَافِرِينَ
2|24|But if you do not—and you will not—then beware the Fire whose fuel is people and stones, prepared for the disbelievers.
25وَبَشِّرِ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ أَنَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ ۖ كُلَّمَا رُزِقُوا مِنْهَا مِن ثَمَرَةٍ رِّزْقًا ۙ قَالُوا هَٰذَا الَّذِي رُزِقْنَا مِن قَبْلُ ۖ وَأُتُوا بِهِ مُتَشَابِهًا ۖ وَلَهُمْ فِيهَا أَزْوَاجٌ مُّطَهَّرَةٌ ۖ وَهُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ
2|25|And give good news to those who believe and do righteous deeds; that they will have gardens beneath which rivers flow. Whenever they are provided with fruit therefrom as sustenance, they will say, “This is what we were provided with before,” and they will be given the like of it. And they will have pure spouses therein, and they will abide therein forever.
26۞ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَسْتَحْيِي أَن يَضْرِبَ مَثَلًا مَّا بَعُوضَةً فَمَا فَوْقَهَا ۚ فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا فَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ ۖ وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَيَقُولُونَ مَاذَا أَرَادَ اللَّهُ بِهَٰذَا مَثَلًا ۘ يُضِلُّ بِهِ كَثِيرًا وَيَهْدِي بِهِ كَثِيرًا ۚ وَمَا يُضِلُّ بِهِ إِلَّا الْفَاسِقِينَ
2|26|God does not shy away from making an example of a gnat, or something above it. As for those who believe, they know that it is the Truth from their Lord. But as for those who disbelieve, they say, “What did God intend by this example?” He leads astray many thereby, and He guides many thereby; but He misleads thereby only the evildoers.
 

People are not simply mislead, people who are evil by their own choice will not be inclined to Islam until they change their ways.

 

27الَّذِينَ يَنقُضُونَ عَهْدَ اللَّهِ مِن بَعْدِ مِيثَاقِهِ وَيَقْطَعُونَ مَا أَمَرَ اللَّهُ بِهِ أَن يُوصَلَ وَيُفْسِدُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ
2|27|Those who violate God’s covenant after its confirmation, and sever what God has commanded to be joined, and commit evil on earth. These are the losers.
28كَيْفَ تَكْفُرُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَكُنتُمْ أَمْوَاتًا فَأَحْيَاكُمْ ۖ ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُحْيِيكُمْ ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ
2|28|How can you deny God, when you were dead and He gave you life, then He will put you to death, then He will bring you to life, then to Him you will be returned?
29هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ لَكُم مَّا فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًا ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ فَسَوَّاهُنَّ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ ۚ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ
2|29|It is He who created for you everything on earth, then turned to the heaven, and made them seven heavens. And He is aware of all things.
30وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً ۖ قَالُوا أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَن يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاءَ وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ ۖ قَالَ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ
2|30|When your Lord said to the angels, “I am placing a successor on earth.” They said, “Will You place in it someone who will cause corruption in it and shed blood, while we declare Your praises and sanctify You?” He said, “I know what you do not know.”

By successor it is meant authority figure, the angels were surprised that Allah would choose mankind, as they seemed to know that their behavior can be awful. The angels were thinking it should be one of them, as they are dedicated worshippers. It seems that “calipha” is not an individual, but rather a successor in terms of a creation that was not their before, but is being put there. So mankind itself was not there before in the form as we know it today, but Allah wanted it to be. The angels saw something on Earth like humans and were surprised that Allah would want to allow such a creation to become dominant on earth. 

 

The Commander of the Faithful [a] said,

“Allah wanted to create a creature by His hand, and that was after the jinn and the Nasnaas (a half-human half-beast species) remained in the Earth for seven thousand years. And it was His will to create Adam beyond the confines of the heavens.

Allah said to the angels, ‘Look at the inhabitants of the Earth, My creatures, the jinn and the Nasnaas.’

So when they saw what they were doing in acts of disobedience, the shedding of blood, and unjustly spreading corruption in the Earth, that became significant to the angels. They became angry at the inhabitants of the Earth, and they could not control their anger.

They said, ‘Our Lord, You are the Almighty, the Able, the Powerful, the Supreme, the One of Great Consequence. These are your weak, servile creatures. They tumble within Your grasp, they live within Your sustenance, they enjoy Your pardon, and they disobey You with these great sins that You do not make them regretful for, nor do you get angry, nor do You seek vengeance for Yourself when You hear from them or when You see. But this has become significant to us.’

So when He heard that from the angels, He said, ‘Surely, I will establish a vicegerent upon the Earth (2:30) who will be My Proof in the Earth upon My creation.’

The angels said, ‘May You be glorified.’ ‘Will You place upon it one who will cause corruption therein (2:30) just as the children of the jinn caused corruption, and shed blood just as the jinn shed, and be envious and disobedient? Appoint that vicegerent from us, for we are not envious, nor are we disobedient, nor do we shed blood.’ ‘And we will declare Your praise and sanctify You’ (2:30)

Allah said, ‘I know what you know not’ (2:30). ‘I want to create a creation with My two hands, and make from his progeny prophets, messengers, and righteous servants who are guided Imams, and I will make them vicegerents upon My creation in My Earth. They will prohibit them from disobeying Me, and warn them of My punishment, and guide them to My obedience, and put them upon the path of My cause, and be My Proof upon them. I will remove the Nasnaas from My Earth and purify it from them, and I will move the evil, disobedient jinn away from My goodly, preferred creatures and settle them in the space beyond the Earth so that they do not tyrannize this race of My creatures. I will put a barrier between the jinn and My creatures so that this race of My creatures will not see the jinn, nor sit with them, nor mix with them.’”

فحدثني أبي عن الحسن بن محبوب عن عمرو بن (أبى ط) مقدام عن ثابت الحذاء عن جابر بن يزيد الجعفي عن أبي جعفر محمد بن علي بن الحسين عن أبيه عن آبائه عليهم السلام عن أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام قال إن الله تبارك وتعالى أراد ان يخلق خلقا بيده وذلك بعد ما مضى من الجن والنسناس في الأرض سبعة آلاف سنة وكان من شأنه خلق آدم كشط(2) عن اطباق السماوات قال للملائكة انظروا إلى أهل الأرض من خلقي من الجن والنسناس فلما رأوا ما يعملون فيها من المعاصي وسفك الدماء والفساد في الأرض بغير الحق عظم ذلك عليهم وغضبوا وتأسنوا على أهل الأرض ولم يملكوا غضبهم قالوا ربنا إنك أنت العزيز القادر الجبار القاهر العظيم الشأن وهذا خلقك الضعيف الذليل يتقلبون في قبضتك ويعيشون برزقك ويتمتعون بعافيتك وهم يعصونك بمثل هذه الذنوب العظام لا تأسف عليهم ولا تغضب ولا تنتقم لنفسك لما تسمع منهم وترى وقد عظم ذلك علينا وأكبرناه فيك قال فلما سمع ذلك من الملائكة قال “إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً” يكون حجة لي في الأرض على خلقي فقالت الملائكة سبحانك “أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَن يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا” كما أفسد بنو الجان ويسفكون الدماء كما سفك بنو الجان ويتحاسدون ويتباغضون فاجعل ذلك الخليفة منا فانا لا نتحاسد ولا نتباغض ولا نسفك الدماء ونسبح بحمدك ونقدس لك قال عز وجل “إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ” اني أريد ان أخلق خلقا بيدي واجعل من ذريته أنبياء ومرسلين وعبادا صالحين أئمة مهتدين واجعلهم خلفاء على خلقي في أرضي ينهونهم عن معصيتي وينذرونهم من عذابي ويهدونهم إلى طاعتي ويسلكون بهم طريق سبيلي وأجعلهم لي حجة عليهم وأبيد النساس من ارضي وأطهرها منهم وانقل مردة الجن العصاة من بريتي وخلقي وخيرتي واسكنهم في الهواء في أقطار الأرض فلا يجاورون نسل خلقي وأجعل بين الجن وبين خلقي حجابا فلا يرى نسل خلقي الجن ولا يجالسونهم ولا يخالطونهم

(Tafsir al-Qummi, Surat al-Baqara, verse 34)

 

31وَعَلَّمَ آدَمَ الْأَسْمَاءَ كُلَّهَا ثُمَّ عَرَضَهُمْ عَلَى الْمَلَائِكَةِ فَقَالَ أَنبِئُونِي بِأَسْمَاءِ هَٰؤُلَاءِ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ
2|31|And He taught Adam the names, all of them; then he presented them to the angels, and said, “Tell Me the names of these, if you are sincere.”
 

The origin of knowledge is Allah.

 

32قَالُوا سُبْحَانَكَ لَا عِلْمَ لَنَا إِلَّا مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ
2|32|They said, “Glory be to You! We have no knowledge except what You have taught us. It is you who are the Knowledgeable, the Wise.”
33قَالَ يَا آدَمُ أَنبِئْهُم بِأَسْمَائِهِمْ ۖ فَلَمَّا أَنبَأَهُم بِأَسْمَائِهِمْ قَالَ أَلَمْ أَقُل لَّكُمْ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ غَيْبَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَأَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ
2|33|He said, “O Adam, tell them their names.” And when he told them their names, He said, “Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of the heavens and the earth, and that I know what you reveal and what you conceal?”
34وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ أَبَىٰ وَاسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ
2|34|And We said to the angels, “Bow down to Adam.” They bowed down, except for Satan. He refused, was arrogant, and was one of the disbelievers.
 

Satan was a Jinn, but as hinted earlier, it was not only angels present at this time.

Satan is labeled as a disbeliever, yet he believers in God, the Prophets, the Books, Afterlife, prayer etc. It seems the item of faith he rejected was the authority of Allah on the earth, rejection of this appears to amount to disbelief. Or it is simply that satan openly refused a clear order from Allah, however the issue is not clear, as surely there is a difference between someone who believes but does wrong, eg a fasiq, and someone who rejects God all together?

 H 3564, Ch 14, h 14 Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from ‘Abd Allah ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn al-Hakam from ‘Abd Allah ibn Bukayr from abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, who has said the following: “The Holy Quran was revealed in a manner like, ‘I speak to you, but it is the neighbor who must listen.’” It is narrated, in another Hadith, from abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, who has said the following: “The meaning of ‘I speak to you, but it is the neighbor who must listen’, is that whenever Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has addressed His prophet in critical expressions they, in fact, are addressed to others and not the Holy Prophet such as: ‘Had We not strengthened your faith you might have relied on them some how,’ (17:74) is addressed to others (not the Holy Prophet).’” 

H 2904, CH 172, h 1 Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Jamil who has said the following: “Al-Tayyar would say to me that Satan is not among the angels. Only angels were commanded to bow down in prostration before Adam and Satan said, ‘I will not bow down in prostration.’ Why should Satan be called disobedient for not bowing down in prostration when he is not among the angels? The narrator has said that he and I went in the presence of abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant. He, by Allah, presented his question very nicely saying, ‘May Allah keep my soul in service for your cause, please consider Allah’s, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, calling the believers, “O believing people,” are hypocrites also addressed along with the believers?’ The Imam said, ‘Yes, also the straying people and all who had affirmed the public call to Islam. Satan was included in the public call with them (the angles).’”

 

35وَقُلْنَا يَا آدَمُ اسْكُنْ أَنتَ وَزَوْجُكَ الْجَنَّةَ وَكُلَا مِنْهَا رَغَدًا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا وَلَا تَقْرَبَا هَٰذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ فَتَكُونَا مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ
2|35|We said, “O Adam, inhabit the Garden, you and your spouse, and eat from it freely as you please, but do not approach this tree, lest you become wrongdoers.”
 

The prohibition was approaching the tree, Prophet Adam AS believed that he was free to eat as he liked.

 

H 4707, Ch. 91, h 2
Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn abu Nasr from al-Husayn ibn Muyassir who has said
the following:
“I asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the garden of Adam, ‘Alayhi al-Salam. He said, ‘It
was a garden of the gardens of the world on which the sun and moon rise. Had it been of the gardens of
the hereafter, he would have never been expelled there from.’”

 

36فَأَزَلَّهُمَا الشَّيْطَانُ عَنْهَا فَأَخْرَجَهُمَا مِمَّا كَانَا فِيهِ ۖ وَقُلْنَا اهْبِطُوا بَعْضُكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ ۖ وَلَكُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ مُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمَتَاعٌ إِلَىٰ حِينٍ
2|36|But Satan caused them to slip from it, and caused them to depart the state they were in. We said, “Go down, some of you enemies of one another. And you will have residence on earth, and enjoyment for a while.”
37فَتَلَقَّىٰ آدَمُ مِن رَّبِّهِ كَلِمَاتٍ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ
2|37|Then Adam received words from his Lord, so He relented towards him. He is the Relenting, the Merciful.
38قُلْنَا اهْبِطُوا مِنْهَا جَمِيعًا ۖ فَإِمَّا يَأْتِيَنَّكُم مِّنِّي هُدًى فَمَن تَبِعَ هُدَايَ فَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ
2|38|We said, “Go down from it, all of you. Yet whenever guidance comes to you from Me, then whoever follows My guidance—they have nothing to fear, nor shall they grieve.
39وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَكَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا أُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ
2|39|But as for those who disbelieve and reject Our signs—these are the inmates of the Fire—wherein they will remain forever.”
40يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ اذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتِيَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَأَوْفُوا بِعَهْدِي أُوفِ بِعَهْدِكُمْ وَإِيَّايَ فَارْهَبُونِ
2|40|O Children of Israel! Remember My blessings which I bestowed upon you, and fulfill your pledge to Me, and I will fulfill My pledge to you, and fear Me.
41وَآمِنُوا بِمَا أَنزَلْتُ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا مَعَكُمْ وَلَا تَكُونُوا أَوَّلَ كَافِرٍ بِهِ ۖ وَلَا تَشْتَرُوا بِآيَاتِي ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا وَإِيَّايَ فَاتَّقُونِ
2|41|And believe in what I revealed, confirming what is with you; and do not be the first to deny it; and do not exchange My revelations for a small price; and be conscious of Me.
42وَلَا تَلْبِسُوا الْحَقَّ بِالْبَاطِلِ وَتَكْتُمُوا الْحَقَّ وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
2|42|And do not mix truth with falsehood, and do not conceal the truth while you know.

 

You should always be truthful, and not tell only half the truths. This does not override taqiyah, which is obligatory if your life or interests are threatened. (2:225, 3:28, 16:106, 40:28)

 
43وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَارْكَعُوا مَعَ الرَّاكِعِينَ
2|43|And attend to your prayers, and practice regular charity, and kneel with those who kneel.
 
praying together is desirable, 
 
44۞ أَتَأْمُرُونَ النَّاسَ بِالْبِرِّ وَتَنسَوْنَ أَنفُسَكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ تَتْلُونَ الْكِتَابَ ۚ أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُونَ
2|44|Do you command people to virtuous conduct, and forget yourselves, even though you read the Scripture? Do you not understand?
45وَاسْتَعِينُوا بِالصَّبْرِ وَالصَّلَاةِ ۚ وَإِنَّهَا لَكَبِيرَةٌ إِلَّا عَلَى الْخَاشِعِينَ
2|45|And seek help through patience and prayer. But it is difficult, except for the devout.
 

H 6223, Ch. 1, h 7
Ali has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Sulayman from those whom he has mentioned who has said the following:
“This is about the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, ‘Seek support through
patience.’ (2:45) Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘“Patience” is a reference to fasting.’ He
further said, ‘If a man faces severe difficulties, he should fast. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most

 
46الَّذِينَ يَظُنُّونَ أَنَّهُم مُّلَاقُو رَبِّهِمْ وَأَنَّهُمْ إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ
2|46|Those who know that they will meet their Lord, and that to Him they will return.
 

The Arabic word yathunoona, is normally translated as assumption / conjecture / guess / think. A person can assume or think something, and it maybe right or it maybe wrong, it is not certain, the person does not have certainty (yaqeen). Generally in the Quran, acting on assumption is disliked (45:32, 48:12, 53:23, 53:28, 64:7) which makes me suspect this verse is implying that those people who dont practice what they preach and find religion very difficult are just suspecting there will be a judgement day, rather than being certain. Or, the verse could just mean that those who genuinely think they are going to meet their Lord, as in people who are God fearing decent people.

 

 
47يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ اذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتِيَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَأَنِّي فَضَّلْتُكُمْ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ
2|47|O Children of Israel! Remember My favor which I bestowed upon you, and I that favored you over all nations.

 

48وَاتَّقُوا يَوْمًا لَّا تَجْزِي نَفْسٌ عَن نَّفْسٍ شَيْئًا وَلَا يُقْبَلُ مِنْهَا شَفَاعَةٌ وَلَا يُؤْخَذُ مِنْهَا عَدْلٌ وَلَا هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ
2|48|And beware of a Day when no soul will avail another in the least, nor will any intercession be accepted on its behalf, nor will any ransom be taken from it, nor will they be helped.
 

 

The ancient tribes and the idol-worshippers believed that the life hereafter was an extension of this one; that the customs of this world were valid for that one too, and that the next world was permeated by the same actions and reactions which prevailed in this one. Thus they offered sacrifices and offerings to their deities seeking forgiveness for their sins or assistance in their needs; the offerings were supposed to intercede on their behalf. Some times a sin was expiated or help was sought by offering even a human sacrifice. They carried this idea of continuation of the life so far as to bury with a man all types of necessities of life, not forgetting his ornaments and arms, in order that he might use them on his onward journey; some times even his concubines and soldiers were buried alive with him to keep him company. You may see a lot of such finds in archaeological museums around the world. Some such ideas have persisted even among the Muslims – with all their diverse cultures and languages, albeit in modified forms.The Qur’an has rejected all such superstitious beliefs and baseless ideas in no uncertain terms:…and the command on that day shall be entirely Allah’s(82:19).…and they see the chastisement and their ties are cut asunder (2:166).And certainly you have come to Us alone as We created you at first, and you have left behind your backs the things which We gave you, and We do not see with you your intercessors about whom you asserted that they were (Allah’s) associates in respect to you; certainly the ties between you are now cut off and what you asserted is gone from you (6:94).There shall every soul become acquainted with what is sent before, and they shall be brought back to Allah, their true Master and what they did fabricate shall escape from them (10:30).There are many similar verses; and they show that the life hereafter is cut off from the natural causes which govern this life, and is quite separate from material connections. Once this principle is understood all the above-mentioned myths would automatically be cleared away. But the Qur’an is not content with this general declaration; it refutes each and every myth and superstition described above:And be on your guard against the day when one soul shall not avail another in the least;- neither shall intercession on its behalf be accepted, nor shall any compensation be taken from it, nor shall they be helped(12:48)…before the day comes in which there is no bargaining, neither any friendship nor intercession (2:254)The day on which a friend shall not avail (his) friend aught… (44:41).…there shall be no savior for you from Allah… (40:33).What is the matter with you that you do not help each other? Nay! on this day they are submissive (37:25 – 26).And they worship beside Allah what can neither harm them nor profit them, and they say: “These are our intercessors with Allah” Say: “Do you (presume to) inform Allah of what He knows not in the heavens and the earth?” Glory be to Him, and supremely exalted is He above what they set up with Him. (10: 18).…the unjust shall not have any friend nor any intercessors who should be obeyed (40:18).So we have no intercessors, nor a true-friend (26:100-101).There are many other verses of the same theme, all rejecting the intercession on the Day of Resurrection.On the other hand, the Qur’an does not totally reject the intercession; rather it confirms it to a certain extent. For example, it says:Allah is He Who created the heavens and the earth and what is between them in six periods and He is firmly established on the throne; you have not besides Him any guardian or any intercessors; will you not then mind? (32:4)…there is no guardian for them, nor any intercessor besides Him (6:51).Say: Allah’s is the intercession altogether” (39:44).…whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth is His; who is he that can intercede with Him but by His permission? He knows what is before them and what is behind them (2:255).Surely your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six periods; and He is firmly established on the throne; regulating the affair; there is no intercessor except after His permission (10: 3).And they say,- “The Beneficent God had taken to Himself a son.” Glory be to Him! Nay! they are honored servants; they do not precede Him in speech and (only)according to His commandment do they act. He knows what is before them and what is behind them, and they do not intercede except for whom He approves, and for fear of Him they tremble (21:26 – 28).And those whom they call upon besides Him have no authority for intercession, but he who bears witness of the truth, and they know (him) (43:86).They shall have no authority for intercession, save he who has made a covenant with the Beneficent God(19:87).On that day shall no intercession avail except of him whom the Beneficent God allows and whose word He is pleased with. He knows what is before them and what is behind them, while they do not comprehend Him in knowledge And intercession will not avail aught with Him save of him whom He permits (34:23).And how many an angel is there in the heavens whose intercession does not avail at all except after Allah has given permission to whom He pleases and chooses (53: 26).Some of these verses (like the first three) say that intercession is reserved for Allah, while the rest declare that others too may intercede with Allah’s permission. In any case, all of them confirm the intercession per se. How are these verses related to the preceding ones which totally reject intercession? It is exactly the same relation that exists between the verses that say that the knowledge of unseen is reserved to Allah and those which declare that others too may have that knowledge with the permission of Allah. As Allah says:Say: “No one in the heaven and the earth knows the unseen but Allah” (27:65).And with Him are the keys of the unseen, does not know it any except He (6:59).The Knower of the unseen! so He does not reveal His secrets to any, except to him whom He chooses of an apostle (72:27).The same is the case with various verses on the subjects of creating, sustaining, giving death, causality, command, authority and similar things. Some verses reserve them for Allah, while some say that others too may do these things. It is a well-known style of the Qur’an: first it rejects the idea that anyone other than Allah has any virtue or perfection; thereafter it confirms the same virtue or perfection for others depending on the permission and pleasure of Allah. When read together, the verses show that nobody has any virtue by his own power and right; whatever excellence there may be, he has got it because Allah has given it to him. Allah puts much emphasis to this fact; He attaches the proviso of His will even for those things which are firmly decreed by Him. For example:So as to those who are unhappy, they shall be in the fire; for them shall be sighing and groaning in it; abiding therein so long as the heavens and the earth endure, except as your Lord please; surely your Lord is the(mighty) doer of what He intends. And as to those who are made happy, they shall be in the garden, abiding in it as long as the heavens and the earth endure, except as your Lord please; a gift which shall never be cut off(11:106 -108).Note that abiding for ever is made dependent on the pleasure of Allah, even in case of the garden, although it is a gift which shall never be cut off. It emphasizes the fact that even when Allah firmly decrees a thing, it does not pass out of His control or authority; “Surely your Lord is (mighty) doer of what He intends” (11:107). When Allah gives a thing, it does not go out of His total possession. When He denies some thing to someone, it is not done to protect Himself against any need or poverty!In short, the verses that reject intercession – albeit talking about the Day of Resurrection – do so in the context of intercession independent of Allah’s authority; while the ones proving it, prove it basically for Allah and then, depending on His pleasure, for others.Thus the intercession is proved for other than Allah with His permission.Now we should see what is the meaning of intercession? Who may intercede? On behalf of whom? And when? How is it related to the divine forgiveness?

 

Qur’anic Discourse About Intercession

1. WHAT IS THE MEANING OF INTERCESSION? “Ash-Shafa’ah” (intercession) is derived from “ash-shaf'” which means “even” as opposed to odd – the interceder adds his own recommendation to the plea of the petitioner; in this way the number of pleaders becomes even, and the weak plea of the petitioner is strengthened by the prestige of the intercessor. We are accustomed in our social and communal life to seek others’ intercession and help for fulfilling our needs. We resort to it to get an advantage or to ward off a disadvantage. Here we are riot talking about an advantage or a disadvantage, a benefit or a harm that is caused by natural causes, like hunger and thirst, heat or cold, illness or health; because in such cases we get what we want through its natural remedies, like eating and drinking, wearing clothes, getting treatment and so on. What we are talking here about is the benefit and harm, punishment and reward resulting from the social laws made by civil authorities. Rising from the very relationship of mastership-and-servitude and for that matter, between every ruler and ruled – there are some commandments, orders and prohibitions; one who follows and obeys them is praised and rewarded, and the one who disobeys is condemned and punished; that reward or punishment may be either material or spiritual. When a master orders his servant to do or not to do a thing, and the servant obeys him he gets its reward, and if he disobeys he is punished. Whenever a rule is made, the punishment for its infringement is laid down too. This is the foundation which all the authorities are built upon.When a man wants to get a material or spiritual benefit but is not suitably qualified for it; or when he desires to ward off a harm which is coming to him because of his disobedience, but has no shield to protect himself, then comes the time for intercession.In other words, when he wants to get a reward without doing his task, or to save himself from punishment without performing his duty, then he looks for someone to intercede on his behalf. But intercession is effective only if the person for whom one intercedes is otherwise qualified to get the reward and has already established a relationship with the authority. If an ignorant person desires appointment to a prestigious academic post, no intercession can do him any good; nor can it avail in case of a rebellions traitor who shows no remorse for his misdeeds and does not submit to the lawful authorities. It clearly shows that intercession works as a supplement to the cause; it is not an independent cause.The effect of an intercessor’s words depends on one or the other factor which may have some influence upon the concerned authority; in other words, intercession must have a solid ground to stand upon. The intercessor endeavors to find a way to the heart of the authority concerned, in order that the said authority may give the reward to, or waive the punishment of, the person who is the subject of intercession. An intercessor does not ask the master to nullify his mastership or to release the servant from his servitude; nor does lie plead with him to refrain from laying down rules and regulations for his servants or to abrogate his commandments (either generally or especially in that one case), in order to save the wrong-doer from the due consequences; nor does he ask him to discard the canon of reward and punishment, (either generally or in that particular case). In short, intercession can interfere with neither the institution of mastership and servantship nor the masters authority to lay down the rules; nor can it effect the system of reward and punishment. These three factors are beyond the jurisdiction of intercession.What an intercessor does is this: He accepts the inviolability of the above-mentioned three aspects. Then he looks at one or more of the following factors and builds his intercession on that basis:a. He appeals to such attributes of the master as give rise to forgiveness, e.g., his nobility, magnanimity and generosity.b. He draws attention to such characteristics of the servant as justify mercy and pardon, e.g., his wretchedness, poverty, low status and misery.c. He puts at stake his own prestige and honor in the eyes of the master.Thus, the import of intercession is like this: I cannot and do not say that you should forget your mastership over your servant or abrogate your commandment or nullify the system of reward and punishment. What I ask of you is to forgive this defaulting servant of yours because you are magnanimous and generous, and because no harm would come to you if you forgive his sins; and/or because your servant is a wretched creature of low status and steeped in misery; and it is befitting of a master like you to ignore the faults of a slave like him; and/or because you have bestowed on me a high prestige, and I implore you to forgive and pardon him in honor of my intercession.The intercessor, in this way, bestows precedence on the factors of forgiveness and pardon over those of legislation and recompense. He removes the case from the latter’s jurisdiction putting it under former’s influence. As a result of this shift, the consequences of legislation (reward and punishment) do not remain applicable. The effect of intercession is, therefore, based on shifting the case from the jurisdiction of reward and punishment to that of pardon and forgiveness; it is not a confrontation between one cause (divine legislation) and the other (intercession).By now it should have been clear that intercession too is one of the causes; it is the intermediate cause that connects a distant cause to its desired effect.Allah is the ultimate Cause. This causality shows itself in two ways:First: In creation: Every cause begins from Him and ends up to Him; He is the first and the final Cause. He is the real Creator and Originator. All other causes are mere channels to carry His boundless mercy and limitless bounty to His creatures.Second: In legislation: He, in His mercy, established a contact with His creatures; He laid down the religion, sent down His commandments, and prescribed suitable reward and appropriate punishment for His obedient and disobedient servants; He sent prophets and apostles to bring us good tidings and to warn us of the consequences of transgression. The prophets and apostles conveyed to us His message in the best possible way. Thus His proof over us was complete: and the word of your Lord has been accomplished with truth and justice, there is none to change His words… (6: 115).Both aspects of causality of Allah may be, and in tact are, related to intercession.1. Intercession in creation: Quite obviously the intermediary causes of creation are the conduits that bring the divine mercy, life, sustenance and other bounties to the creatures; and as such they are intercessors between the Creator and the created. Some Qur’anic verses too are based on this very theme:whatever is in the heavens and what is in the earth is His; who is he that can intercede with Him but by His permission (2:255); Surely your Lord is Allah, who created the heavens and the earth in six periods, and He is firmly established on throne, regulating the affair; there is no intercessor except after His permission (10: 3).Intercession in the sphere of creation is only the intermediation of causes between the Creator and the created thing and effect, in bringing it into being and regulating its affairs.2. Intercession in legislation: Intercession, as analyzed earlier, is effective in this sphere too. It is in this context that Allah says: On that day shah no intercession avail except of him whom the Beneficent God allows and whose word He is pleased with (20: 109);And intercession will not avail aught with Him save of him whom He permits (34:23); And how many an angel is there in the heavens whose intercession does not avail at all except after Allah has given permission to whom He pleases and chooses (53:26); and they do not intercede except for him whom He approves… (21:28);And those whom they call upon besides Him have no authority for intercession, but he who bears witness of the truth and they know (him) (43:86). These verses clearly affirm intercessory role for various servants of Allah both men and angels — with divine permission and pleasure. It means that Allah has given them some power and authority in this matter, and to Him belongs all the kingdom and all the affairs. Those intercessors may appeal to Allah’s mercy, forgiveness and other relevant attributes to cover and protect a servant who otherwise would have deserved punishment because of his sins and transgressions. That intercession would transfer his case from the general law of recompense to the special domain of grace and mercy. (It has already been explained that the effect of intercession is based on shifting a case from the former’s to the latter’s jurisdiction-, it is not a confrontation between one law and the other.) Allah clearly says: …so these are they of whom Allah changes the evil deeds to good ones (25:70). Allah has the power to change one type of deed into other, in the same way as He may render an act null and void. He says: And We will proceed to what they have done of deeds, so We shah render them as scattered floating dust (25:23); …so He rendered their deeds null(47:9); If you avoid the great sins which you are forbidden, We will expiate from you your (small) sins(4:31); Surely Allah does not forgive that any thing should be associated with Him, and forgives what is besides that to whomsoever He pleases (4:48). The last quoted verse is certainly about the cases other than true belief and repentance, because with belief and repentance even polytheism is forgiven, like any other sin. Also Allah may nurture a small deed to make it greater than the original: These shall be granted their reward twice (28:54); Whoever brings a good deed, he shall have ten like it (6:160). Likewise, He may treat a nonexistent deed as existing: And (as for) those who believe and their offspring follow them in faith, We will unite with them their offspring and We will not diminish to them aught of their work; every man Is responsible for what he has done (52:21).To make a long story short, Allah does what He please, and decrees as He wills. Of course, He does so pursuant to His servants’ interest, and in accordance with an intermediary cause – and intercession of the intercessors (e.g., the prophets, the friends of Allah and those who are nearer to Him) is one of those causes, and certainly no rashness or injustice is entailed therein.It should have been clear by now that intercession, in its true sense, belongs to Allah only; all His attributes are intermediaries between Him and His creatures and are the channels through which His grace, mercy and decrees pass to the creatures; He is the real and all-encompassing intercessor: Say: “A1lah’s is the intercession altogether” (39:44); …you have not besides Him any guardian or any intercessor (32:4), …there is no guardian for them nor any intercessor besides Him(6:51). The intercessors, other than Allah, get that right by His permission, by His authority.In short, intercession with Him is a confirmed reality – in cases where it does not go against the divine glory and honor.2. THE OBJECTIONS AGAINST INTERCESSIONIntercession, as explained above, is a confirmed reality not in every case but in approved ones. The Qur’an and the traditions do not prove more than this. A little meditation on the meaning of intercession is enough to lead to this conclusion. Intercession is mediation in causality and effectiveness. Obviously causality cannot be limitless and unconditional. No cause can be a cause of every effect, nor can an effect be governed by every cause – otherwise it would render the system of cause and effect null and void. Those who do not believe in intercession have fallen in this very trap – they thought that we affirm the intercession in its totality without any condition or limit. All their objections emanates from this very misunderstanding:First Objection: Allah has threatened to punish the wrongdoer; now supposedly He waives the punishment on the Day of Judgment. The question is whether this waiver is justice or injustice. If it is justice, then the original promise of punishment would be injustice, quite unworthy of divine majesty; and if it is injustice, then the intercession of the prophets, for example, would be a plea for injustice, and it is a folly that should not be attributed to the prophets.Reply – First: What will they say about those, orders that are given only to test the royalty of a servant and are changed at the last moment, like the order to Ibrahim to kill Isma’il? Surely its waiver too like the original order was based on justice. Such orders are given only to test the hidden quality of the servant concerned. Likewise, it may be said that salvation is written for all the believers. The laws of the shari’ahwere ordained with punishments prescribed for transgressors – in order that the disbelievers should perish because of their disbelief. As for the obedient believers their rank would be enhanced by their good deeds. And as for the disobedient believers, they would be rescued by intercession: that intercession might be effective either totally or partially; in later case, they would have to suffer some of the punishments in al-Barzakh or on the Day of Judgment itself and then they would get deliverance.Thus the original law with the prescribed punishment for the defaulters is nothing but justice, and, the subsequent waiver of that punishment too is nothing but justice.Second: The waiver of the prescribed punishment as a result of intercession could be compared with the previous order – in being based on justice or injustice – only if that waiver were a contradiction of the previous order. But we have explained that it is not so. Intercession is not a contradiction of, or confrontation between one cause (divine legislation) and the other (intercession); it is in tact shifting his case from one jurisdiction (reward and punishment) to the other (mercy and forgiveness).Second Objection: It is the established practice of Allah, that His actions are safe from contradiction and conflict. Whatever He decrees and orders, without any exception, runs on an established pattern. And this is the foundation which the system of cause and effect has been built upon. Allah says: This is a straight path with Me, Surely, as regards My servants, thou hast no authority over them except those who follow thee of the deviators. And surely Hell is the promised place of them all (15:41-43); And (know) that this is My path, the straight one, therefore, follow it, and follow not (other) ways, for they will scatter you away from His way(6:153); For you shall not find any alteration in the course of Allah; and you shall not find any change in the course of Allah (3 5:43). And intercession, if effective, would certainly create conflict and contradiction in the actions Allah: If intercession caused waiver of punishment from all the sinners, of all their sins, then it would defeat the very purpose of the shari’ah and would turn the whole system into a joke. And if only some of the sinners, or only some of their sins were forgiven, then there would occur contradiction in divine actions and change and alteration in Allah’s established course. Certainly, all the sinners are transgressors and every sin is disobedience of divine command. Therefore, forgiving only some of them or only some of their sins, because of intercession, would be impossible.Intercession is used in this life of ours, where people are influenced by their desires or social connections. It cannot work in the affairs of the shari’ah nor can it influence the divine Judgment in any way.Reply: No one doubts that the path of Allah is straight and His course without any change or conflict. But it should not be forgotten that this one and unchanged course is based on all His relevant attributes, not on only one or two of them.Allah is the One Who bestows on every creature diverse things like life death, sustenance, bounty and so on. These are the decrees that are contradictory or unrelated to each other; they do not have the same connection with the issuing authority i.e. God. Otherwise the relationship of cause and effect would become null and void. For example, Allah does not restore a sick man to health by virtue of His death-giving power; rather He does so because He is Merciful, Benevolent, Giver of health and Bestower of bounties. Likewise, He does not destroy an arrogant tyrant by His mercy and beneficence, but because He is the Avenger, the Omnipotent and the Subduer. The Qur’an is the best witness of this fact: Whenever it ascribes an event or affair to Him, it invariably always mentions the appropriate attribute by which that affair or event was decreed and managed.You may say that every affair and every thing is decreed by Allah because of its underlying benefit and good. And He does whatever He does by His all relevant attributes, and not by only one or some of them. There is always action and reaction between benefits and good of various courses of a certain affair; and Allah issues His decree as a result of His knowledge that encompasses ail those aspects; His vision is not limited to one or two sides only. Had there been one fixed cause or attribute, there would have been no change or difference between a believer and a non-believer, between a pious person and a debauchee; but there are numerous causes and attributes, and their sum-total often has effects quite different from the effect of its individual parts.Therefore, intercession, and the consequent waiver of punishment – based on sum-total of numerous causes like mercy, pardon, Judgment, and giving everyone his due right – does not entail any change in the established course, nor any deviation from the right path.Third Objection: Intercession, according to common understanding, prevails upon the authority to do against his original will. In other words, the original will is abrogated and changed because of the intercessor. A just judge would never accept an intercession unless his knowledge is changed, e.g., his original Judgment was wrong, and then he was made to realize that justice demanded a course opposite to his original plan. An unjust judge would accept intercession of his friends knowing fully well that the course suggested was wrong; but he values his personal relations more than the demands of justice and equity. Obviously, both these alternatives are impossible so far as Allah is concerned; His will is related to His knowledge, and His knowledge is eternal and unchangeable.Reply: Intercession has nothing to do with change of will or knowledge. What actually changes is the thing willed about or known. Allah knows that a certain man will pass through various stages in his life; for a time his condition will be excellent – and Allah wills about him a certain will, and He knows that later his condition will change – and He wills about him another will; and every day He is in a (new) state (of glory). And He has said:Allah effaces what He pleases and establishes (likewise), and with Him is the bases of the Book (13:39); Nay, both His hands are spread out, He expends as He pleases(6:64). The same happens with out knowledge and will. We know that soon night will come and we will not be able to see in darkness, but a few hours later the sun will rise dispelling the darkness. When night comes out will is directed to light a lamp, and later when the morning comes the will is directed to extinguish that lamp. In this case, there was no change at all in out knowledge and will; what changed was the objects of that knowledge and will. And consequently they ceased to be governed by that knowledge and that will. After all, not every knowledge is related to every known object, nor every will is connected to every purpose.What is impossible for Allah is disagreement of His knowledge with the thing known, or of His will with its object – while that thing or object remains unchanged. In other words, it is impossible for Him to be mistaken in His knowledge or for His will to be ineffective. We see an apparition far away and take it to be a man; on coming nearer we find that it was a horse. In this case, out “knowledge” did not agree with its object; it was a mistake.Likewise, we intend to do a certain work, then we realize that it would be wrong to do so; here our “will” was cancelled and became ineffective. But in these cases the objects of our knowledge and will had not changed. Such “disagreement” is certainly impossible for Allah. But as we have seen, intercession and the subsequent waiver of punishment does not come into this category.Fourth Objection: Had Allah promised intercession, or had His prophets brought this message to their nations, the people would have been emboldened to disobey the commandments of Allah, and to transgress the limits of the shari’ah. It would have defeated the whole purpose behind the institutions of prophethood and religion. If we are to avoid this inherent difficulty, we shah have to interpret the relevant Qur’anic verses and traditions in a way that does not collide with this basic concept.Reply – First: What will they say about the verses showing that Allah’s mercy and forgiveness is all-encompassing? For example: Surely Allah does not forgive that any thing should be associated with Him, and forgives what is besides that to whomsoever He pleases (4:48). This verse, as explained earlier, covers the cases other than repentance, as the exception of polytheism shows – because in cases of repentance even polytheism may be forgiven.Second: The promise or message of intercession could incite people to disregard the rules of the shari’ah, if it were accompanied by one of the following factors:1. If it had pin-pointed either the sinner – by name or description – who was to be forgiven through intercession; or the particular sin that was to be wiped off – unconditionally, definitely and without any ambiguity.2. Or, if intercession were effective against all types of punishment and at all times.Read the following sentences to understand what the above conditions mean:”All men, or a named group of men, will never be held responsible for any sins they commit; nor they ever be punished for their transgressions.””A particularly named sin will never be punished for.”Obviously, such declarations would defeat the basic purpose of the shari’ah.But Allah has kept both things vague. He has never said what sins or which sinners might benefit from intercession, nor has He Said whether all or only some of the punishment would be waived; nor has He made it clear whether or not the intercession would be effective in every condition and at all times. As all these things have been kept vague, no one could be sure of getting the benefit of intercession. In view of this uncertainty, he cannot feel bold to trespass the limits of Allah. On the other hand the possibility of intercession would save him from losing the hope of divine mercy, will keep him away from despair and despondency, from pessimism and hopelessness. Then there is the verse: If you avoid great sins which you are forbidden, We will expiate from You your (small) sins… (4:31). It clearly says that Allah will forgive small sins and waive the punishment, provided the servant shuns great sins. If Allah can say, “If you avoid great-sins, I shall forgive the small ones”, He can as easily say, “If you keep your belief pure until you come to Me with unpolluted faith, I shall accept the intercession of intercessors on your behalf.” The important thing is to keep the faith strong; the sins weaken the faith, harden the heart and lead to polytheism. Allah has said: But none feels secure from Allah’s plan except the people who shah perish (7:99);Nay! rather what they used to do has become like rust upon their hearts (83:14); Then evil was the end of those who did evil, because they rejected the signs of Allah…(30:10).The hope of divine mercy (generated by the belief of intercession), in many cases, leads to repentance, piety and good deeds – and often the servant reaches a stage where intercession is not needed after all. It is in fact the most important benefit of this belief.Likewise, if it were mentioned who would benefit from intercession or which sins were likely to be interceded about, but it was declared that it would nevertheless entail some types of punishment up to a certain period, the man could not feel bold to commit sins.And the fact is that the Qur’an has nowhere pin-pointed the sin or the sinner likely to benefit from intercession. On the contrary, it speaks only of averting the punishment from some people. And no objection can be leveled against such a vague expression.Fifth Objection: Utmost that reason may prove is the possibility, and not the actuality, of intercession – in fact, it does not prove even that much. So far as the Qur’an is concerned, it does not show that intercession will actually take place. Some verses refute the idea of intercession altogether, e.g., …the day comes in which there is no bargaining, neither any friendship nor intercession (2:254). Other verses say that intercession shall be of no avail, e.g., So the intercession of intercessors shall not avail them (74:48). Still others, after refuting the actuality of intercession, add the proviso like, but by His permission (2:255), except after His permission (10:3), except for him whom He approves(21:28). This style (a negative followed by exception of divine permission or approval) is used in the Qur’an invariably always to emphasize the negative statement; for example, it says: We will make you recite so you shall not forget, except what Allah pleases (87:6-7); Abiding therein so long as the heavens and the earth endure, except as your Lord pleases (11:107). Obviously, there is no definite declaration in the Qur’an proving the actuality of intercession. As for the traditions, those giving its details are not reliable; and the reliable ones do not say more than the Qur’an does.Reply: As for the verses refuting the intercession we have already explained that what they reject is the intercession without the permission of Allah. The verse 74:48, which says that “the intercession of intercessors shall not avail them”, is not a proof against intercession; on the contrary it proves its actuality. The verse is in the Chapter, “The Clothed One’ and speaks about “them”, i.e., a particular group of wrong-doers mentioned in verses 41 to 47; it is they who shall not benefit from the intercession of intercessors; it does not speak about all the sinners. Moreover, it uses the phrase, “the intercession of intercessors.” There is a difference between saying, “Intercession shall not avail them”, and saying, “Intercession of intercessors shall not avail them.” When an infinitive verb or verbal noun is used in genitive or possessive case, it proves its actual existence, as ash-Shaykh ‘Abdu’l-Qahir has clearly written in Dala’ilu’l- I’jaz. Therefore, the expression, “intercession of intercessors” proves that some intercession shall definitely take place on that day, although that particular group shall not be able to benefit from it. Also, the plural, “intercessors” points to the presence of a group of intercessors. Look for example at the phrases: she was of those who remained behind (7:83); and he was one of the unbelievers covenant does (2:34); so he is of those who go astray(7:175); My convenant does not include the unjust ones(2:124). The plurals in all these phrases would have been irrelevant if they did not mean existence of more than two persons having the attributes mentioned. Likewise, the verse: So the intercession of intercessors shall not avail them, instead of refuting the intercession, clearly proves the existence of intercessors and, therefore, intercession. As for the verses that contain the exceptions, “but by His permission”, “except after His permission”, they clearly prove the actuality of intercession, especially as the infinitive verb “permission” is used in genitive case (His permission).No one having a taste of Arabic literature can entertain any doubt about it.It is childish to say that the two phrases, “but by His permission” and “except for him whom He approves” mean the same thing, i.e., the divine will. Moreover, the Qur’an has used various phrases of exception in various places, e.g., “but by His permission”, “except after His permission”, “except for him whom He approves” and “but he who bears witness of the truth and they know (him).” Even if we accept that the divine permission and divine approval mean the same thing, i. e., divine will, can it bc said that the last-mentioned phrase (but he who bears witness of the truth…) too implies the same? Such interpretation implies such inexactness and laxity in talk as even an ordinary Arab would not like attributed to him, let alone an eloquent one. Can we accuse the most eloquent divine speech, i.e., the Qur’an, of such inarticulateness?As for the traditions, we shall show later that they too follow the line adopted by the Qur’an.Sixth Objection: The verses do not say clearly that on the Day of Judgment, the punishment would be averted from the wrong-doers, after the sin has been proved and the sentence pronounced. The intercession attributed to the prophets means that they were the intermediaries between the Lord and His servant, they received revelation from their Lord and conveyed it to the people and guided them to the right path, leading them to spiritual and ethical perfection. In this sense, they are the intercessors for the believers in this world as well as in the hereafter.Reply: No doubt, it is one of the aspects of intercession; but intercession is not limited to this much. The prophets called their people to the true faith and repentance, and this is the intercession mentioned by the objector. Now let us look again at the verse: Surely Allah does not forgive that any thing should be associated with Him, and forgives what is besides – that to whomsoever He pleases (4:48). As described earlier, this verse covers the cases other than the true faith and repentance. (True faith and repentance would wipe out the polytheism too.) The exception of polytheism shows that here the talk is about other things – and intercession, in themeaning explained by us, is one those cases.Seventh Objection: Reason does not prove that intercession really exists; and the Qur’anic verses on this subject are ambiguous – in one place they prove it, at others refute it; sometimes they add some proviso, at the other they speak unconditionally. Therefore, the ethics of religion demands that we should believe in all of them and leave their meaning to Allah.Reply: The ambiguous verses, when referred to the decisive ones, become decisive themselves. It is an easy process which is not beyond our ability and power. We shall explain this subject when writing about the verse:of it there are some verses decisive, they are the basis of the Book, and others are ambiguous… (3:).3. WHO WILL BENEFIT FROM INTERCESSION?As explained earlier, it was not in the best interest of religious guidance to pin-point who should benefit from intercession on the Day of Judgment. But vague hints and ambiguous statements can do no harm, and the Qur’an has used them to give us a general idea. Allah says: Every soul is held in pledge for what it has earned, except the people of the right hand, in gardens; they shall ask each other about the guilty: “What has brought you into hell?” They shall say: “We were not of those who prayed, and we used not to feed the poor; and we used to enter (into vain discourse) with those who entered (into vain discourse); and we use to call the Day of Judgment a lie, till death overtook us.” So the intercession of intercessors shall not avail them (74:38-48). The verses declare that every soul shall remain mortgaged on the Day of Judgment for the sins it has earned, held responsible for the wrongs done in this life. The only exception is of the people of the right hand – they shall be released from that pledge, and shall settle in the gardens. They shall see the wrongdoers who shall be held captive of their sins, and herded into hell; they shall ask them for the reason of their entering into hell, and the guilty shall reply by enumerating four sins as the cause of their disgrace and punishment. And because of those sins, they shall lose the benefit of the intercession of intercessors.It implies that the people of the right hand would be free from those sins which deprive a man of the benefit of intercession. Allah shall release them from the fetters of sins and wrongs; and this release shall be as a result of the intercession of intercessors.The verses are a part of the Chapter 74, (The Clothed One); it was revealed at Mecca at the beginning of the Call, as its contents amply prove. At that time the prayer and zakat as known to us were not promulgated. In this context the prayer, mentioned in the verse, “We were not of those who prayed”, could only mean turning one’s face towards Allah with humility and submission; likewise, the verse, “and we used not to feed the poor”, could only refer to general spending on the poor in the way of Allah. Al-Khawd (= translated here as entering into vain discourse) literally means to wade into water, to plung or rush into something. The verse, “we used to enter (into vain discourse)…”, implies entanglement in the vain things of this life, which distract a man from remembrance of the hereafter; it may also mean vilification of the verses which remind one of the Day of Reckoning.Those wrongdoers, therefore, shall be guilty of four sins: (1) Not turning their faces towards Allah with humility and submission; (2) not spending in the way of Allah; (3) vilification – of divine revelations; and (4) calling the Day of Judgment a lie. These four evils destroy the foundation of religion. Religion demands following the purified guides, setting one’s face towards Allah, turning away from the worldly distractions, setting one’s eyes on the Day of Judgment. If a man succeeds in it, he will be free from the third and the fourth sins, i.e., vilification of divine revelation and calling the Day of Judgment a lie. When, in this way, his fundamental belief is secured, he shall feel the urge to turn towards Allah and to help fellow human beings. These two factors are represented in these verses by prayer and spending in the way of Allah. Faith and deed all would thus combine to build the structure of religion. Other elements, like belief in Oneness of God and the prophethood, would naturally follow.The people of the right hand are the ones who shall benefit from the intercession; and they are the ones whose religion and faith Allah is pleased with. They may come on the Day of Judgment with perfect deeds – and in that case there will be no need for any intercession; or they may come burdened with some sins and it is they who shall benefit from the intercession. Therefore, the intercession shall be for those people of the right hand who may have committed some sins.Allah says: If you avoid the great sins which you are forbidden, We will expiate from you your (small) sins(4:31). Therefore, anybody coming on the Day of Judgment with a sin not expiated, shall certainly be guilty of a great sin; had it been a small one it would have been expiated long ago. We have to conclude from this verse that the intercession shall be for those people of the right hand who shall be guilty of great sins. The Prophet has said: “Verily my intercession is for those of my ummah who shall have committed great sins; as for the good doers, there shall be no difficulty for them …”The designation, “the people of the right hand”, is the opposite of “the people of the left hand.” These Qur’anic terms are based on the fact that man, on the Day of Judgment, shall be given his book of deeds either in his right hand or in the left. Allah says: (Remember) the day when We will call every people with their Imam; then whoever is given his book in his light hand, these shall read their book; and they shall not be dealt with a whit unjustly. And whoever is blind in this, he shall (also) be blind in the hereafter; and more erring from the way(17:71-72). We shall describe, when writing about this verse, that getting the book in the right hand is synonymous with following the rightful Imam; likewise getting the book in the left hand means following a misguiding leader or lmam. Allah says about Pharaoh:He shall lead his people on the resurrection day, and bring them down to the fire (11:98). It means that not only the required four qualities but even the nomenclature, “the people of the right hand”, is based on the fact that they followed an approved religion, that Allah was pleased with them.Allah says in another place: and they do not intercede except for him whom He approves (21:28). This approval is general and without any condition or qualification. It is not like the one mentioned in verse: …except of him whom the Beneficent God allows and whose word He is pleased with (20:109), where approval or pleasure is related to the servant’s word. In the verse under discussion the pleasure or approval is related to them, not to their deed; in other words, “whom He approves” means ‘whose religion He approves’. Accordingly this verse too has the same import as the previous ones.Again Allah says: The day on which We will gather the pious ones to the Beneficent God as the guests of honor, and We will drive the guilty to hell like (thirsty) herd (to the watering place). They shall own not any intercession, save he who has made a covenant with the Beneficent God (19:85-87). The one who has made a covenant with Allah shall be given possession of intercession. It should not be forgotten that not every guilty servant is an unbeliever. Allah says: Whoever comes to his Lord (being) guilty, for him is surely hell; he shall not die therein nor shall he live; and whoever comes to Him a believer (and) he has done good deeds indeed, these it is who shall have the high ranks (20:74-75). According to these verses, anyone who is not a good-doing believer is guilty, no matter whether he is an unbeliever or a wrong-doing believer. The latter group, i.e., those who have true belief but have also committed sins, is the one that has made a covenant with God. Allah says: Did I not enjoin you (make a covenant with you), O children of Adam! that you should not worship the Satan? Surely he is your open enemy, and that you should worship Me; this is the straight path (36:60-61). The phrase, ” and that you should worship Me”, is a covenant in the meaning of order, enjoinment; and the sentence, “this is the straight path”, is also a covenant by implication because the straight path leads to felicity and safety. However, such believers shall enter the hell because of the sins they had committed, then they shall be rescued by intercession. It is to this covenant that the verse 2:80 alludes: (The Jews) Say: “Fire shall not touch us but for a few days. Say: “Have you received a promise (covenant) from Allah?” These verses too, therefore, lead us to the same conclusion, namely, the group that shall benefit from intercession on the Day of Judgment is that of the believers who would have committed great sins; it is they whose religion and belief Allah is pleased with and has approved.4. WHO ARE THE INTERCESSORS?It has been described that intercession takes place in two spheres: in creation and in legislation. So far as the intercession in creation is concerned, all intermediary causes are intercessors because they are placed between the Creator and the created.As for the intercessors in the sphere of legislation and Judgment, they may be divided into two categories: (1) intercessors in this life, and (2) those in the hereafter.Intercessors in this life: All the things that bring a man nearer to Allah and make him eligible for divine forgiveness. The following come into this category:a. Repentance: Allah says: Say: …O my servants! who have acted extravagantly against their own souls, do not despair of the mercy of Allah; surely Allah forgives the faults altogether; surely He is the Forgiving, the Merciful. And return to your Lord…(39:53 – 54). It covers all the sins, even polytheism; if one repents from it and believes in One God, one’s previous polytheism is wiped out and forgiven.b. True faith: Allah says: 0 you who believe! Fear Allah and believe in His Apostle: He will give you two portions of His mercy, and make for you a light with which you will walk, and forgive you… (57:28).c. Good deed: Allah has promised those who believe and do good deeds (that there is) for them pardon and great recompense (5:9); 0 you who believe! Fear Allah and seek an approach (medium) to Him… (5:35). There are many verses of this theme.d. The Qur’an: Indeed has come to you from Allah a light and a manifest Book whereby Allah guides him who follows His pleasure, into the ways of peace, and takes them out from darkness towards the light by His will and guides them to the straight path (5:16).e. * Any thing related to a good deed, like the mosques, holy places and auspicious days.f. The prophets and the apostles, as they seek forgiveness for their people. Allah says: and had they, when they were unjust to themselves, come to you and asked forgiveness of Allah, and the Apostle had (also) asked forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah oft-returning (to mercy), Merciful (4: 64).g. The angels, as they too ask forgiveness for the believers. Allah says: Those who bear the throne and those around it celebrate the praise of their Lord and believe in Him and ask forgiveness for those who believe(40:7); …and the angels celebrate the praise of their Lord and ask forgiveness for those on earth… (42:5).h. The believers themselves, as they seek pardon for their believer brothers and for themselves. Allah quotes them as saying: and pardon us, and forgive us, and have mercy on us, Thou art our Guardian… (2:286).Intercessors in the hereafter: We use the term, intercessor, in the meaning explained in the beginning. The following come into this category:a. The prophets and the apostles: Allah says: And they say: “The Beneficent God has taken to Himself a son.” Glory be to Him. Nay! they are honoured servants,- they do not precede Him in speech and (only) according to His commandment do they act. He knows what is before them and what is behind them, and they do not intercede except for him whom He approves… (21:26-28). Those who were called ‘son’ of God, are in fact His honoured servants and they do intercede for him whom He approves. Among them is ‘Isa, son of Maryam, and he was a prophet. It means that the prophets do intercede for approved persons.Again Allah says: And those whom they call upon besides Him have no authority for (or, do not own)intercession, but he who bears witness of the truth and they know (him) (43:86).b. The angels: The preceding two verses prove that the angels too may intercede, because they too were called daughters of Allah. M, Allah says: And how many an angel is there in the heavens whose intercession does not avail at all except after Allah has given permission to whom He pleases and chooses (53:26) On that day shall no intercession avail except of him whom the Beneficent God allows and whose word He is pleased with, He knows what is before them and what is behind them…(20:109-110).c. The witnesses: Allah says: And those whom they call upon besides Him have no authority for (or, do not own)intercession, but he who bears witness of truth and they know (him) (43:86). This verse shows that those who bear witness of the truth do own (or, have authority for) intercession. The witness mentioned here does not mean the one killed in the battlefield. It refers to the witness for the deeds, as was described in the Chapter of the Opening, and will be further explained under the verse: And thus we have made you a medium (i.e. just)nation that you may be witnesses over the people and (that) the Apostle may be a witness over you… (2:143).d. The believers: They shall be joined to the witnesses on the Day of Judgment; it follows that they too may intercede like the witnesses. Allah says: And (as for)those who believe in Allah and His apostles, these it is that are the truthful and the witnesses with their Lord…(57:19).5. INTERCESSION: ABOUT WHAT?The intercession in creation is related to every cause in this world of the cause and effect.As for the intercession in matters of legislation and Judgment, some of them wipe out every sin and its punishment, right from polytheism to the smallest one. For example, repentance done, and true faith acquired, before the Day of Resurrection. Some wipe out effects of some particular sins, like some specified good deeds. As for the issue under discussion, i.e., the intercession of the prophets and other believers on the Day of Judgment, we have already explained that it shall avail those believers who might have committed big sins, but whose faith Allah is pleased with.6. WHEN WILL INTERCESSION BE EFFECTED?We are talking here too about the intercession on the Day of Judgment to waive off the punishment of sins. We have earlier quoted the verses of the Chapter 42 (The Clothed One): Every soul is held in pledge for what it has earned, except the people of the right hand, in gardens they shall ask each other about the guilty (74:38-41). As explained earlier, the verses clearly say who would benefit from the intercession, and who wont. They also imply that the intercession will get the wrongdoing believers released from fetters of their sins, and protect them from abiding for ever in the hell.But there is nothing to show that intercession might avail against the turmoil of the Day of Resurrection. Rather, the verse proves that it will be effective only for rescuing the guilty believers from the hell, or preventing them from entering into it.It may be inferred from the verses that this talk will take place after the people of the garden have settled in the gardens, and the people of the hell in the hell; and that the intercessors shall then intercede for a group of the guilty ones and rescue them from the hell. The phrase, “in gardens”, implies it, as does the question, “What has brought you into hell?” Both phrases imply a more or less permanent abode. Likewise, the comment, “so the intercession… avails them not”, denotes something occurring in present time i.e. after both groups have settled in their abodes.As for al-Barzakh (the period between death and the Day of Resurrection) and presence of the Prophet and the lmams of the Ahlulbayt (a.s.) at the time of death and at the questioning in the grave and the help given by them to the believer to overcome those difficulties (as will be described under the verse: – And there shall not be any one of the people of the book but he must certainly believe in him before his death (4:159), these things have nothing to do with intercession. It is rather exercising the authority given to them by Allah over the creation. Allah says: …and on the most elevated places there shall be men who know all by their marks, and they shall call out to the dwellers of the garden: “Peace be on you; they shall not have yet entered it, though they hope”And the dwellers of the most elevated places shall call out to men whom they will recognize by their marks, saying: “Of no avail were to you your amassing and your behaving haughtily. Are these they about whom you swore that Allah will not bestow mercy on them?” “Enter the garden; you shall have no fear nor shall you grieve” (7:46-49). It gives a glimpse of the authority or rule vested in them by the permission of Allah. If we look at the verse 17:71 from this angle, it too throws light on this aspect: (Remember) the day when We will call every people with their Imam; then whoever is given his book in his right hand. The intermediary position of the lmam in calling every people and giving them their books is a sort of authority and rule vested in him by Allah.To make a long story short, intercession shall happen at the very last stage on the Day of Judgment; it shall bring the divine forgiveness to the guilty believers, prevent them from entering into hell and take those out who would have entered into it; it shall be by extension of mercy and/or manifestation of benevolence and magnanimity.

Traditions

Al-Husayn ibn Khalid narrates from ar-Rida (a.s.), who narrated through his forefathers from the leader of the faithful (a.s.) that he said: “The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) said: ‘Whoever does not believe in my reservoir, and whoever does not believe in my intercession, may Allah not extend to him my intercession.’ Then he (s.a.w.) said: ‘Verily my intercession is for those of my ummah who shall have committed great sins; as for those good-doers, there shall be no difficulty for them.'” Al-Husayn ibn Khalid said: “I asked ar-Rida (a.s.): ‘O son of the Messenger of Allah! What is then the meaning of the words of Allah, Mighty and Great is He: and they do not intercede except for him whom He approves?’ He (a.s.) said ‘They do not intercede except for him whose religion Allah is pleased with.'” (al-Amali as-Saduq) The author says: The tradition of the Prophet, “Verily my intercession is…”, has been narrated by both sects with numerous chains; and we have shown earlier that it is based on the theme of the Qur’anic verses.Suma’ah ibn Mihran narrates from Abu Ibrahim (a.s.) that he said about the words of Allah: may be your Lord will raise you to a praised position: “The people, on the Day of Resurrection, will remain standing for forty years; and the sun will be ordered so that it will ride over their heads and they will be bridled by sweat – and the earth will be told not to accept any of their sweat. So they will approach Adam to intercede for them and he will direct them to Nuh, and Nuh will direct them to Ibrahim, and Ibrahim will direct them to Musa, and Musa will direct them to ‘Isa, and ‘Isa will direct them saying: ‘You should seek the help of Muhammad, the last prophet.’ Thereupon, Muhammad (s.a.w.) will say: ‘I’ll do it;’ and will proceed until, arriving at the door of the garden, he will knock at it. It will be asked, ‘Who is it?’ (while Allah knows better!), and he will say: ‘Muhammad.’ Then it will be said: ‘Open for him.’ When the door will be opened he will turn to his Lord, falling in sajdah. He will not raise his head until he is told: ‘Speak up and ask, you will be given; and intercede, your intercession shall be granted.’ He will raise his head and turning to his Lord will fall (again) in sajdah. Then he will be promised as before; then he will raise his head. (Thereupon, he shall intercede) until he will intercede even for him who would have been burnt in the fire. Therefore, on the Day of Resurrection, no one among all the nations will be more eminent then Muhammad (s.a.w.); and it is (the meaning of) the words of Allah: May be your Lord will raise you to a praised position.” (al-‘Ayyashi)The author says: This meaning is narrated by both sects in great number, in detail as well as in short, with numerous chains; and it proves that the “praised position” means the position of intercession. This tradition is not in conflict with intercession of other prophets, because probably their intercession will be an offshoot of our Prophet’s, and it will begin on his hand.’Ubayd ibn Zurarah said: “Abu ‘Abdillah (a.s.) was asked whether a believer would have the right of intercession. He said: ‘Yes.’ Then someone said: ‘Will even a believer need the intercession of Muhammad (s.a.w.) on that day?’ He said: ‘Yes. The believers too will come with wrongs and sins; and there will be none but he shall need the intercession of Muhammad on that day.'” (‘Ubayd) said: “And someone asked him about the words of the Messenger of Allah: ‘I am the Chief of the children of Adam, and I say this without boasting.’ He said: ‘Yes.’ (Then) he said: ‘He will hold the chain-link of the door of the garden and open it; then he will fall in sajdah, and Allah will tell him ‘Raise your head, do intercede, your intercession shall be granted, and ask, you shall be given.’ Thereupon he will raise his head and intercede – and his intercession will be accepted; and he will ask and be given.” (ibid)Muhammad ibn al-Qasim narrates through his chains from Bishr ibn Shurayh al-Basri that he said: “I said to Muhammad ibn ‘Ali (a.s.): ‘Which verse in the Book of Allah is the most hope-inspiring?’ He said: ‘And what do your people say (about it)?’ I said: ‘They say, (it is the verse), Say: “O my servants! Who have acted extravagantly against their own souls, do not despair of the mercy of Allah.”‘ He said: ‘But we, the people of the house, do not say so.’ I said: ‘Then what do you say about it?’ He said: ‘We say (it is the verse), And soon will your Lord give you so that you shall be well pleased. (It means) the intercession, by Allah the intercession, by Allah the intercession.'” (at-Tafsir, Furat ibn Ibrahim)The author says: The words of Allah, may be your Lord will raise you to a praised position, refers to the Prophet’s glorious position of intercession, as the numerous traditions of the prophet himself prove. Moreover the wording of the verse too supports it: “will raise you” shows that it is a position which he will attain in future, i.e. on the Day of Judgment; “praised” is general and unconditional, and implies that he shall be praised by all men, past and present. Al-Hamd means to praise someone for a good done to you intentionally. This definition shows that the Prophet will do something by his own will and power which will benefit all of them and in return everyone will praise him. That is why the Imam said in the tradition of ‘Ubayd ibn Zurarah, “and there will no one but he shall need the intercession of Muhammad that day.”

 

 
49وَإِذْ نَجَّيْنَاكُم مِّنْ آلِ فِرْعَوْنَ يَسُومُونَكُمْ سُوءَ الْعَذَابِ يُذَبِّحُونَ أَبْنَاءَكُمْ وَيَسْتَحْيُونَ نِسَاءَكُمْ ۚ وَفِي ذَٰلِكُم بَلَاءٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ عَظِيمٌ
2|49|And recall that We delivered you from the people of Pharaoh. They inflicted on you terrible persecution, killing your sons and sparing your women. Therein was a tremendous trial from your Lord.
50وَإِذْ فَرَقْنَا بِكُمُ الْبَحْرَ فَأَنجَيْنَاكُمْ وَأَغْرَقْنَا آلَ فِرْعَوْنَ وَأَنتُمْ تَنظُرُونَ
2|50|And recall that We parted the sea for you, so We saved you, and We drowned the people of Pharaoh as you looked on.
51وَإِذْ وَاعَدْنَا مُوسَىٰ أَرْبَعِينَ لَيْلَةً ثُمَّ اتَّخَذْتُمُ الْعِجْلَ مِن بَعْدِهِ وَأَنتُمْ ظَالِمُونَ
2|51|And recall that We appointed for Moses forty nights. Then you took to worshiping the calf after him, and you turned wicked.
 

Nabi Musa AS was in occultation, (like Imam Mahdi AS), during the time Musa AS was away, the people failed to keep up the message and religion and instead reverted back to idol worship.

 

52ثُمَّ عَفَوْنَا عَنكُم مِّن بَعْدِ ذَٰلِكَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ
2|52|Then We pardoned you after that, so that you might be grateful.
 
the people took the calf for worship, and thus became polytheist. Some have said, there is no way back or no forgiveness for shirk. This verse shows the opposite, Allah will forgive those who genuinely repent and abandon shirk. Many of the companions of the Prophet Saw were also polytheist before accepting Islam, but the process of repenting and accepting Islam gives them an opportunity to be forgiven
 
53وَإِذْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ وَالْفُرْقَانَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ
2|53|And recall that We gave Moses the Scripture and the Criterion, so that you may be guided.
54وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِقَوْمِهِ يَا قَوْمِ إِنَّكُمْ ظَلَمْتُمْ أَنفُسَكُم بِاتِّخَاذِكُمُ الْعِجْلَ فَتُوبُوا إِلَىٰ بَارِئِكُمْ فَاقْتُلُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ ذَٰلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ عِندَ بَارِئِكُمْ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ
2|54|And recall that Moses said to his people, “O my people, you have done wrong to yourselves by worshiping the calf. So repent to your Maker, and kill your egos. That would be better for you with your Maker.” So He turned to you in repentance. He is the Accepter of Repentance, the Merciful.
 
also shows those repenting and being forgiven, there is no better option but repentance. Nabi Musa AS  recommends to repent. 
 
55وَإِذْ قُلْتُمْ يَا مُوسَىٰ لَن نُّؤْمِنَ لَكَ حَتَّىٰ نَرَى اللَّهَ جَهْرَةً فَأَخَذَتْكُمُ الصَّاعِقَةُ وَأَنتُمْ تَنظُرُونَ
2|55|And recall that you said, “O Moses, we will not believe in you unless we see God plainly.” Thereupon the thunderbolt struck you, as you looked on.
 

As mentioned earlier in this chapter, the believers are those who believe in Allah being the Unseen, those that suggest Allah is to be viewed are severely mistaken.

 
56ثُمَّ بَعَثْنَاكُم مِّن بَعْدِ مَوْتِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ
2|56|Then We revived you after your death, so that you may be appreciative.
 

Allah can restore people in this world as He likes, an example of rajah. According to Sheikh Suduq : those that were selected among the Bani Isra’il. And that was because when they heard the word of Allah, they said: We shall not believe in its truth until we see Allah clearly. So, on account of their wrongdoing the thunderbolt fell upon them and they perished. Moses, said O my Lord, what shall I say to the Bani Isra’il when I return to them? Then Allah revived them and they returned to the world; they ate and drank and married women and begat children, and lived in the world and died at their appointed times.

 

57وَظَلَّلْنَا عَلَيْكُمُ الْغَمَامَ وَأَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَنَّ وَالسَّلْوَىٰ ۖ كُلُوا مِن طَيِّبَاتِ مَا رَزَقْنَاكُمْ ۖ وَمَا ظَلَمُونَا وَلَٰكِن كَانُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ
2|57|And We shaded you with clouds, and We sent down to you manna and quails: “Eat of the good things We have provided for you.” They did not wrong Us, but they used to wrong their own souls.
 

H 363, Ch. 23, h 11
Some of our people have narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abdallah from ‘Abdal Wahhab ibn Bishr from Musa ibn Qadim from Sulayman from Zurara from abu Ja‘far (a.s.) who has said
the following. “I asked the Imam about the words of Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, “They (children of Israel) did not wrong Us but they wronged themselves.” (2:57) The Imam said, “Allah is far Great and Majestic and Mighty above being wronged. But He has mixed us with His Own self. He has considered the wrong done to us as being done to Him and His Own authority as
our authority as He has said, “Only God, His Messenger, and the true believers who are steadfast in prayer and pay alms, while they kneel during prayer, are your guardians” (5:55).
It means the Imams from us. Allah has also said, “They (children of Israel) did not wrong Us but wronged themselves. (2:57)” Then he mentioned a similar statement.”

 
58وَإِذْ قُلْنَا ادْخُلُوا هَٰذِهِ الْقَرْيَةَ فَكُلُوا مِنْهَا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمْ رَغَدًا وَادْخُلُوا الْبَابَ سُجَّدًا وَقُولُوا حِطَّةٌ نَّغْفِرْ لَكُمْ خَطَايَاكُمْ ۚوَسَنَزِيدُ الْمُحْسِنِينَ
2|58|And recall that We said, “Enter this town, and eat plentifully from it whatever you wish; but enter the gate humbly, and say, ‘Pardon.’ We will forgive your sins, and give increase to the virtuous.”
59فَبَدَّلَ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا قَوْلًا غَيْرَ الَّذِي قِيلَ لَهُمْ فَأَنزَلْنَا عَلَى الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا رِجْزًا مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْسُقُونَ
2|59|But the wrongdoers among them substituted words other than those given to them, so We sent down on the wrongdoers a plague from heaven, because of their wicked behavior.
60۞ وَإِذِ اسْتَسْقَىٰ مُوسَىٰ لِقَوْمِهِ فَقُلْنَا اضْرِب بِّعَصَاكَ الْحَجَرَ ۖ فَانفَجَرَتْ مِنْهُ اثْنَتَا عَشْرَةَ عَيْنًا ۖ قَدْ عَلِمَ كُلُّ أُنَاسٍ مَّشْرَبَهُمْ ۖ كُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا مِن رِّزْقِ اللَّهِ وَلَا تَعْثَوْا فِي الْأَرْضِ مُفْسِدِينَ
2|60|And recall when Moses prayed for water for his people. We said, “Strike the rock with your staff.” Thereupon twelve springs gushed out from it, and each tribe recognized its drinking-place. “Eat and drink from God’s provision, and do not corrupt the earth with disobedience.”
61وَإِذْ قُلْتُمْ يَا مُوسَىٰ لَن نَّصْبِرَ عَلَىٰ طَعَامٍ وَاحِدٍ فَادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُخْرِجْ لَنَا مِمَّا تُنبِتُ الْأَرْضُ مِن بَقْلِهَا وَقِثَّائِهَا وَفُومِهَا وَعَدَسِهَا وَبَصَلِهَا ۖ قَالَ أَتَسْتَبْدِلُونَ الَّذِي هُوَ أَدْنَىٰ بِالَّذِي هُوَ خَيْرٌ ۚ اهْبِطُوا مِصْرًا فَإِنَّ لَكُم مَّا سَأَلْتُمْ ۗ وَضُرِبَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ الذِّلَّةُ وَالْمَسْكَنَةُ وَبَاءُوا بِغَضَبٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ ۗ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا يَكْفُرُونَ بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ وَيَقْتُلُونَ النَّبِيِّينَ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ ۗ ذَٰلِكَ بِمَا عَصَوا وَّكَانُوا يَعْتَدُونَ
2|61|And recall when you said, “O Moses, we cannot endure one kind of food, so call to your Lord to produce for us of what the earth grows: of its herbs, and its cucumbers, and its garlic, and its lentils, and its onions.” He said, “Would you substitute worse for better? Go down to Egypt, where you will have what you asked for.” They were struck with humiliation and poverty, and incurred wrath from God. That was because they rejected God’s revelations and wrongfully killed the prophets. That was because they disobeyed and transgressed.
 

H 2797, CH 156, h 6
Yunus has narrated from ibn Sinan from Ishaq ibn ‘Ammar from abu ‘Abd

Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, who has said the following: “The Imam recited this verse: ‘. . . for they denied the evidence (of the existence of Allah) and murdered His Prophets without reason; they were disobedient transgressors.’ (2:61) The Imam said, ‘By Allah they did not murder them with their hands or swords but they would hear their Hadith and publicize them,
causing them to be captured and murdered. It then became murder, transgression and disobedience.’”

 
62إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَالَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالنَّصَارَىٰ وَالصَّابِئِينَ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَلَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ
2|62|Those who believe, and those who are Jewish, and the Christians, and the Sabeans—any who believe in God and the Last Day, and act righteously—will have their reward with their Lord; they have nothing to fear, nor will they grieve.

Any who believe in God and a day of judgement, who do good, they will have the reward of their actions. Also the term Nasara is used here for Christians and Yahood for Jews.

Ibn Faddal said: “I asked ar-Rida (a.s.) why “an-Nasara” (the Christians) were given that name. He said: ‘Because they were from a village called an-Nasirah (Nazarath) in Syria. Maryam and ‘Isa settled there after they returned from Egypt.'”

 

The same tradition says that “al-Yahud” (the Jews) got this name because they are descended from Yahuda, son of Ya’qub. (Ma’ani ‘1-akhbar) 

So there is some evidence that they are called Christians and Jews because of their cultural and ethnic heritage. A person can be a Jew by heritage but a Muslim by belief. 

 

 

63وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَكُمْ وَرَفَعْنَا فَوْقَكُمُ الطُّورَ خُذُوا مَا آتَيْنَاكُم بِقُوَّةٍ وَاذْكُرُوا مَا فِيهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ
2|63|And recall when We received a pledge from you, and raised the Mount above you: “Take what We have given you earnestly, and remember what is in it, that you may attain righteousness.”
 
 
 
64ثُمَّ تَوَلَّيْتُم مِّن بَعْدِ ذَٰلِكَ ۖ فَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَتُهُ لَكُنتُم مِّنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ
2|64|But after that you turned away. Were it not for God’s grace and mercy towards you, you would have been among the losers.
65وَلَقَدْ عَلِمْتُمُ الَّذِينَ اعْتَدَوْا مِنكُمْ فِي السَّبْتِ فَقُلْنَا لَهُمْ كُونُوا قِرَدَةً خَاسِئِينَ
2|65|And you surely knew those of you who violated the Sabbath. We said to them, “Be despicable apes!”
66فَجَعَلْنَاهَا نَكَالًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهَا وَمَا خَلْفَهَا وَمَوْعِظَةً لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ
2|66|Thus We made it a deterrent for their generation, and for subsequent generations, and a lesson for the righteous.
67وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِقَوْمِهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَن تَذْبَحُوا بَقَرَةً ۖ قَالُوا أَتَتَّخِذُنَا هُزُوًا ۖ قَالَ أَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ أَنْ أَكُونَ مِنَ الْجَاهِلِينَ
2|67|And recall when Moses said to his people, “God commands you to sacrifice a heifer.” They said, “Do you make a mockery of us?” He said, “God forbid that I should be so ignorant.”
68قَالُوا ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُبَيِّن لَّنَا مَا هِيَ ۚ قَالَ إِنَّهُ يَقُولُ إِنَّهَا بَقَرَةٌ لَّا فَارِضٌ وَلَا بِكْرٌ عَوَانٌ بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ ۖ فَافْعَلُوا مَا تُؤْمَرُونَ
2|68|They said, “Call upon your Lord to show us which one.” He said, “He says she is a heifer, neither too old, nor too young, but in between. So do what you are commanded.”
69قَالُوا ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُبَيِّن لَّنَا مَا لَوْنُهَا ۚ قَالَ إِنَّهُ يَقُولُ إِنَّهَا بَقَرَةٌ صَفْرَاءُ فَاقِعٌ لَّوْنُهَا تَسُرُّ النَّاظِرِينَ
2|69|They said, “Call upon your Lord to show us what her color is.” He said, “He says she is a yellow heifer, bright in color, pleasing to the beholders.”
70قَالُوا ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُبَيِّن لَّنَا مَا هِيَ إِنَّ الْبَقَرَ تَشَابَهَ عَلَيْنَا وَإِنَّا إِن شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَمُهْتَدُونَ
2|70|They said, “Call upon your Lord to show us which one; the heifers look alike to us; and God willing, we will be guided.”
71قَالَ إِنَّهُ يَقُولُ إِنَّهَا بَقَرَةٌ لَّا ذَلُولٌ تُثِيرُ الْأَرْضَ وَلَا تَسْقِي الْحَرْثَ مُسَلَّمَةٌ لَّا شِيَةَ فِيهَا ۚ قَالُوا الْآنَ جِئْتَ بِالْحَقِّ ۚ فَذَبَحُوهَا وَمَا كَادُوا يَفْعَلُونَ
2|71|He said, “He says she is a heifer, neither yoked to plow the earth, nor to irrigate the field; sound without blemish.” They said, “Now you have brought the truth.” So they slew her; though they almost did not.
72وَإِذْ قَتَلْتُمْ نَفْسًا فَادَّارَأْتُمْ فِيهَا ۖ وَاللَّهُ مُخْرِجٌ مَّا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ
2|72|And recall when you killed a person, and disputed in the matter; but God was to expose what you were hiding.
73فَقُلْنَا اضْرِبُوهُ بِبَعْضِهَا ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يُحْيِي اللَّهُ الْمَوْتَىٰ وَيُرِيكُمْ آيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ
2|73|We said, “Strike him with part of it.” Thus God brings the dead to life; and He shows you His signs, that you may understand.
 

An example of Rajah, God is able to do as He pleases, including bringing the dead back in this life.

 

74ثُمَّ قَسَتْ قُلُوبُكُم مِّن بَعْدِ ذَٰلِكَ فَهِيَ كَالْحِجَارَةِ أَوْ أَشَدُّ قَسْوَةً ۚ وَإِنَّ مِنَ الْحِجَارَةِ لَمَا يَتَفَجَّرُ مِنْهُ الْأَنْهَارُ ۚ وَإِنَّ مِنْهَا لَمَا يَشَّقَّقُ فَيَخْرُجُ مِنْهُ الْمَاءُ ۚ وَإِنَّ مِنْهَا لَمَا يَهْبِطُ مِنْ خَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ ۗ وَمَا اللَّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ
2|74|Then after that your hearts hardened. They were as rocks, or even harder. For there are some rocks from which rivers gush out, and others that splinter and water comes out from them, and others that sink in awe of God. God is not unaware of what you do.
75۞ أَفَتَطْمَعُونَ أَن يُؤْمِنُوا لَكُمْ وَقَدْ كَانَ فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُمْ يَسْمَعُونَ كَلَامَ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ يُحَرِّفُونَهُ مِن بَعْدِ مَا عَقَلُوهُ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ
2|75|Do you hope that they will believe in you, when some of them used to hear the Word of God, and then deliberately distort it, even after understanding it?
76وَإِذَا لَقُوا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا قَالُوا آمَنَّا وَإِذَا خَلَا بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَىٰ بَعْضٍ قَالُوا أَتُحَدِّثُونَهُم بِمَا فَتَحَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكُمْ لِيُحَاجُّوكُم بِهِ عِندَ رَبِّكُمْ ۚ أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُونَ
2|76|And when they come across those who believe, they say, “We believe,” but when they come together privately, they say, “Will you inform them of what God has disclosed to you, so that they might dispute with you concerning it before your Lord?” Do you not understand?
77أَوَلَا يَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا يُسِرُّونَ وَمَا يُعْلِنُونَ
2|77|Do they not know that God knows what they conceal and what they reveal?
78وَمِنْهُمْ أُمِّيُّونَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ الْكِتَابَ إِلَّا أَمَانِيَّ وَإِنْ هُمْ إِلَّا يَظُنُّونَ
2|78|And among them are uneducated who know the Scripture only through hearsay, and they only speculate.
 

Assumptions and conjecture are not the same as truth, and are not acceptable ways of analysing religion. See 53:28 There are Muslims today who are doing the same, they know the external, simple, superficial aspects, and then try to guess the rest, with disastrous consequences.

 
79فَوَيْلٌ لِّلَّذِينَ يَكْتُبُونَ الْكِتَابَ بِأَيْدِيهِمْ ثُمَّ يَقُولُونَ هَٰذَا مِنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ لِيَشْتَرُوا بِهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۖ فَوَيْلٌ لَّهُم مِّمَّا كَتَبَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَوَيْلٌ لَّهُم مِّمَّا يَكْسِبُونَ
2|79|So woe to those who write the Scripture with their own hands, and then say, “This is from God,” that they may exchange it for a little price. Woe to them for what their hands have written, and woe to them for what they earn.
80وَقَالُوا لَن تَمَسَّنَا النَّارُ إِلَّا أَيَّامًا مَّعْدُودَةً ۚ قُلْ أَتَّخَذْتُمْ عِندَ اللَّهِ عَهْدًا فَلَن يُخْلِفَ اللَّهُ عَهْدَهُ ۖ أَمْ تَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ
2|80|And they say, “The Fire will not touch us except for a number of days.” Say, “Have you received a promise from God—God never breaks His promise—or are you saying about God what you do not know?”
 

Some assume that because they do some good and some bad, that at worst they will just go to hell for a short while, this is not necessarily the case.

 

81بَلَىٰ مَن كَسَبَ سَيِّئَةً وَأَحَاطَتْ بِهِ خَطِيئَتُهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ
2|81|Indeed, whoever commits misdeeds, and becomes besieged by his iniquities—these are the inmates of the Fire, wherein they will dwell forever.
82وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ أُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ الْجَنَّةِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ
2|82|As for those who believe and do righteous deeds—these are the inhabitants of Paradise, wherein they will dwell forever.
83وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ لَا تَعْبُدُونَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا وَذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَقُولُوا لِلنَّاسِ حُسْنًا وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ ثُمَّ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا مِّنكُمْ وَأَنتُم مُّعْرِضُونَ
2|83|We made a covenant with the Children of Israel: “Worship none but God; and be good to parents, and relatives, and orphans, and the needy; and speak nicely to people; and pray regularly, and give alms.” Then you turned away, except for a few of you, recanting.
 

These are the good honorable deeds, ones that God wishes for humanity, namely worshiping God, being good to parents, relatives, orphans, the needy, having good manners.

 

H 2024, CH 66, h 9
It is narrated from him (narrator of the Hadith above) from ibn Faddal from
Tha’labah ibn Maymun from Mu’awiyah ibn ‘Ammar from abu ‘Abd Allah,
recipient of divine supreme covenant, who has said the following:
“About the words of Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, ‘. . .
speak righteous words to people. . . .’ (2:83), the Imam said it
means, ‘Do not say anything about a people except good until
you actually learn all about it.’”

 
84وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَكُمْ لَا تَسْفِكُونَ دِمَاءَكُمْ وَلَا تُخْرِجُونَ أَنفُسَكُم مِّن دِيَارِكُمْ ثُمَّ أَقْرَرْتُمْ وَأَنتُمْ تَشْهَدُونَ
2|84|And We made a covenant with you: “You shall not shed the blood of your own, nor shall you evict your own from your homes.” You agreed, and were all witnesses.
85ثُمَّ أَنتُمْ هَٰؤُلَاءِ تَقْتُلُونَ أَنفُسَكُمْ وَتُخْرِجُونَ فَرِيقًا مِّنكُم مِّن دِيَارِهِمْ تَظَاهَرُونَ عَلَيْهِم بِالْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ وَإِن يَأْتُوكُمْ أُسَارَىٰ تُفَادُوهُمْ وَهُوَ مُحَرَّمٌ عَلَيْكُمْ إِخْرَاجُهُمْ ۚ أَفَتُؤْمِنُونَ بِبَعْضِ الْكِتَابِ وَتَكْفُرُونَ بِبَعْضٍ ۚ فَمَا جَزَاءُ مَن يَفْعَلُ ذَٰلِكَ مِنكُمْ إِلَّا خِزْيٌ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ۖ وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يُرَدُّونَ إِلَىٰ أَشَدِّ الْعَذَابِ ۗ وَمَا اللَّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ
2|85|But here you are, killing your own, and expelling a group of your own from their homes—conspiring against them in wrongdoing and hostility. And if they come to you as captives, you ransom them, although it was forbidden to you. Is it that you believe in part of the Scripture, and disbelieve in part? What is the reward for those among you who do that but humiliation in this life? And on the Day of Resurrection, they will be assigned to the most severe torment. God is not unaware of what you do.
86أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ اشْتَرَوُا الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا بِالْآخِرَةِ ۖ فَلَا يُخَفَّفُ عَنْهُمُ الْعَذَابُ وَلَا هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ
2|86|Those are they who bought the present life for the Hereafter, so the punishment will not be lightened for them, nor will they be helped.
87وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ وَقَفَّيْنَا مِن بَعْدِهِ بِالرُّسُلِ ۖ وَآتَيْنَا عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ الْبَيِّنَاتِ وَأَيَّدْنَاهُ بِرُوحِ الْقُدُسِ ۗ أَفَكُلَّمَا جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ بِمَا لَا تَهْوَىٰ أَنفُسُكُمُ اسْتَكْبَرْتُمْ فَفَرِيقًا كَذَّبْتُمْ وَفَرِيقًا تَقْتُلُونَ
2|87|We gave Moses the Scripture, and sent a succession of messengers after him. And We gave Jesus son of Mary the clear proofs, and We supported him with the Holy Spirit. Is it that whenever a messenger comes to you with anything your souls do not desire, you grew arrogant, calling some impostors, and killing others?
88وَقَالُوا قُلُوبُنَا غُلْفٌ ۚ بَل لَّعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَقَلِيلًا مَّا يُؤْمِنُونَ
2|88|And they said, “Our hearts are sealed.” Rather, God has cursed them for their ingratitude. They have little faith.
89وَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمْ كِتَابٌ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ مُصَدِّقٌ لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ وَكَانُوا مِن قَبْلُ يَسْتَفْتِحُونَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَلَمَّا جَاءَهُم مَّا عَرَفُوا كَفَرُوا بِهِ ۚ فَلَعْنَةُ اللَّهِ عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ
2|89|And when a scripture came to them from God, confirming what they have—although previously they were seeking victory against those who disbelieved—but when there came to them what they recognized, they disbelieved in it. So God’s curse is upon the disbelievers.
90بِئْسَمَا اشْتَرَوْا بِهِ أَنفُسَهُمْ أَن يَكْفُرُوا بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ بَغْيًا أَن يُنَزِّلَ اللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ عَلَىٰ مَن يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ ۖ فَبَاءُوا بِغَضَبٍ عَلَىٰ غَضَبٍ ۚ وَلِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابٌ مُّهِينٌ
2|90|Miserable is what they sold their souls for—rejecting what God has revealed, out of resentment that God would send down His grace upon whomever He chooses from among His servants. Thus they incurred wrath upon wrath. And there is a demeaning punishment for the disbelievers.
91وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ آمِنُوا بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ قَالُوا نُؤْمِنُ بِمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَيْنَا وَيَكْفُرُونَ بِمَا وَرَاءَهُ وَهُوَ الْحَقُّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ ۗ قُلْ فَلِمَ تَقْتُلُونَ أَنبِيَاءَ اللَّهِ مِن قَبْلُ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ
2|91|And when it is said to them, “Believe in what God has revealed,” they say, “We believe in what was revealed to us,” and they reject anything beyond that, although it is the truth which confirms what they have. Say, “Why did you kill God’s prophets before, if you were believers?”
92۞ وَلَقَدْ جَاءَكُم مُّوسَىٰ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ ثُمَّ اتَّخَذْتُمُ الْعِجْلَ مِن بَعْدِهِ وَأَنتُمْ ظَالِمُونَ
2|92|Moses came to you with clear proofs, yet you adopted the calf in his absence, and you were in the wrong.
93وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَكُمْ وَرَفَعْنَا فَوْقَكُمُ الطُّورَ خُذُوا مَا آتَيْنَاكُم بِقُوَّةٍ وَاسْمَعُوا ۖ قَالُوا سَمِعْنَا وَعَصَيْنَا وَأُشْرِبُوا فِي قُلُوبِهِمُ الْعِجْلَ بِكُفْرِهِمْ ۚ قُلْ بِئْسَمَا يَأْمُرُكُم بِهِ إِيمَانُكُمْ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ
2|93|And We made a covenant with you, and raised the Mount above you: “Take what We have given you firmly, and listen.” They said, “We hear and disobey.” And their hearts became filled with the love of the calf because of their disbelief. Say, “Wretched is what your faith commands you to do, if you are believers.”
 

The concept of something being “over” another thing is not literal, but rather it means the higher thing is in authority of the lower. So Allah is “over” the Throne, His Hand is “over” their hands etc, all means authority.

 

“Allah, it is He Who has created the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them in six days. Then He rose over (istawa) the Throne. You (mankind) have none, besides Him, as a Wali (protector or helper) or an intercessor. Will you not then remember (or receive admonition)?” [32:4]  

“Surely, your Lord is Allah Who created the heavens and the earth in six days and then rose over (istawa) the Throne, disposing the affair of all things.” [10:3]

 “He is the First (nothing is before Him) and the Last (nothing is after Him), the Most High (nothing is above Him) and the Most Near (nothing is nearer than Him).” [57:3]

“He it is Who created the heavens and the earth in six days and then rose over (istawa) the Throne. He knows what goes into the earth and what comes forth from it, and what descends from the heaven and what ascends thereto. And He is with you (by His Knowledge) wheresoever you may be.” [57:4]  

 

48|10|Those who pledge allegiance to you are pledging allegiance to God. The hand of God is over their hands. Whoever breaks his pledge breaks it to his own loss. And whoever fulfills his covenant with God, He will grant him a great reward.

 

94قُلْ إِن كَانَتْ لَكُمُ الدَّارُ الْآخِرَةُ عِندَ اللَّهِ خَالِصَةً مِّن دُونِ النَّاسِ فَتَمَنَّوُا الْمَوْتَ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ
2|94|Say, “If the Final Home with God is yours alone, to the exclusion of all other people, then wish for death if you are sincere.”
95وَلَن يَتَمَنَّوْهُ أَبَدًا بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالظَّالِمِينَ
2|95|But they will never wish for it, because of what their hands have forwarded. God is aware of the evildoers.
 
the term hands is not just referencing ones power or influence, it’s suggesting a direct responsibility. So when Allah says he made Adams AS with his two hands, it means with his direct power and influence,
 
96وَلَتَجِدَنَّهُمْ أَحْرَصَ النَّاسِ عَلَىٰ حَيَاةٍ وَمِنَ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا ۚ يَوَدُّ أَحَدُهُمْ لَوْ يُعَمَّرُ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ وَمَا هُوَ بِمُزَحْزِحِهِ مِنَ الْعَذَابِ أَن يُعَمَّرَ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بَصِيرٌ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ
2|96|You will find them, of all mankind, the most eager for life, even more than the polytheists. Every one of them wishes he could live a thousand years; but to be granted a long life will not nudge him from the punishment. God is Seeing of what they do.
97قُلْ مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّجِبْرِيلَ فَإِنَّهُ نَزَّلَهُ عَلَىٰ قَلْبِكَ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَهُدًى وَبُشْرَىٰ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ
2|97|Say, “Whoever is hostile to Gabriel—it is he who revealed it to your heart by God’s leave, confirming what preceded it, and guidance and good news for the believers.”
98مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّلَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَجِبْرِيلَ وَمِيكَالَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَدُوٌّ لِّلْكَافِرِينَ
2|98|Whoever is hostile to God, and His angels, and His messengers, and Gabriel, and Michael—God is hostile to the faithless.
99وَلَقَدْ أَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ آيَاتٍ بَيِّنَاتٍ ۖ وَمَا يَكْفُرُ بِهَا إِلَّا الْفَاسِقُونَ
2|99|We have revealed to you clear signs, and none rejects them except the sinners.
100أَوَكُلَّمَا عَاهَدُوا عَهْدًا نَّبَذَهُ فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُم ۚ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ
2|100|Is it not that whenever they make a covenant, some of them toss it aside? In fact, most of them do not believe.
101وَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمْ رَسُولٌ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ مُصَدِّقٌ لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ نَبَذَ فَرِيقٌ مِّنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ وَرَاءَ ظُهُورِهِمْ كَأَنَّهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ
2|101|And when there came to them a messenger from God, confirming what they had, a faction of those who were given the Book threw the Book of God behind their backs, as if they do not know.
102وَاتَّبَعُوا مَا تَتْلُو الشَّيَاطِينُ عَلَىٰ مُلْكِ سُلَيْمَانَ ۖ وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَانُ وَلَٰكِنَّ الشَّيَاطِينَ كَفَرُوا يُعَلِّمُونَ النَّاسَ السِّحْرَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبَابِلَ هَارُوتَ وَمَارُوتَ ۚ وَمَا يُعَلِّمَانِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ حَتَّىٰ يَقُولَا إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ فَلَا تَكْفُرْ ۖ فَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مِنْهُمَا مَا يُفَرِّقُونَ بِهِ بَيْنَ الْمَرْءِ وَزَوْجِهِ ۚ وَمَا هُم بِضَارِّينَ بِهِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مَا يَضُرُّهُمْ وَلَا يَنفَعُهُمْ ۚ وَلَقَدْ عَلِمُوا لَمَنِ اشْتَرَاهُ مَا لَهُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلَاقٍ ۚ وَلَبِئْسَ مَا شَرَوْا بِهِ أَنفُسَهُمْ ۚ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ
2|102|And they followed what the devils taught during the reign of Solomon. It was not Solomon who disbelieved, but it was the devils who disbelieved. They taught the people witchcraft and what was revealed in Babylon to the two angels Harut and Marut. They did not teach anybody until they had said, “We are a test, so do not lose faith.” But they learned from them the means to cause separation between man and his wife. But they cannot harm anyone except with God’s permission. And they learned what would harm them and not benefit them. Yet they knew that whoever deals in it will have no share in the Hereafter. Miserable is what they sold their souls for, if they only knew.
103وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ آمَنُوا وَاتَّقَوْا لَمَثُوبَةٌ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ خَيْرٌ ۖ لَّوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ
2|103|Had they believed and been righteous, the reward from God would have been better, if they only knew.
104يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَقُولُوا رَاعِنَا وَقُولُوا انظُرْنَا وَاسْمَعُوا ۗ وَلِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ
2|104|O you who believe! Do not say ambiguous words, but say words of respect, and listen. The disbelievers will have a painful torment.
105مَّا يَوَدُّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ وَلَا الْمُشْرِكِينَ أَن يُنَزَّلَ عَلَيْكُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَخْتَصُّ بِرَحْمَتِهِ مَن يَشَاءُ ۚوَاللَّهُ ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ
2|105|It is never the wish of the disbelievers from among the People of the Book, nor of the polytheists, that any good should be sent down to you from your Lord. But God chooses for His mercy whomever He wills. God is Possessor of Sublime Grace.
 

ahl kitab, some are believers others are disbelievers. Those that disbelieve do not believe in justice for all.

 

106۞ مَا نَنسَخْ مِنْ آيَةٍ أَوْ نُنسِهَا نَأْتِ بِخَيْرٍ مِّنْهَا أَوْ مِثْلِهَا ۗ أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
2|106|We never nullify a verse, nor cause it to be forgotten, unless We bring one better than it, or similar to it. Do you not know that God is capable of all things?
107أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۗ وَمَا لَكُم مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ مِن وَلِيٍّ وَلَا نَصِيرٍ
2|107|Do you not know that to God belongs the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth, and that apart from God you have no guardian or helper?
108أَمْ تُرِيدُونَ أَن تَسْأَلُوا رَسُولَكُمْ كَمَا سُئِلَ مُوسَىٰ مِن قَبْلُ ۗ وَمَن يَتَبَدَّلِ الْكُفْرَ بِالْإِيمَانِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ سَوَاءَ السَّبِيلِ
2|108|Or do you want to question your Messenger as Moses was questioned before? Whoever exchanges faith for disbelief has strayed from the right path.
109وَدَّ كَثِيرٌ مِّنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ لَوْ يَرُدُّونَكُم مِّن بَعْدِ إِيمَانِكُمْ كُفَّارًا حَسَدًا مِّنْ عِندِ أَنفُسِهِم مِّن بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الْحَقُّ ۖفَاعْفُوا وَاصْفَحُوا حَتَّىٰ يَأْتِيَ اللَّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
2|109|Many of the People of the Book wish to turn you back into unbelievers after you have believed, out of envy on their part, after the Truth has become clear to them. But pardon and overlook, until God brings His command. God has power over all things.
110وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ ۚ وَمَا تُقَدِّمُوا لِأَنفُسِكُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ تَجِدُوهُ عِندَ اللَّهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ
2|110|And perform the prayer, and give alms. Whatever good you forward for yourselves, you will find it with God. God is Seeing of everything you do.
111وَقَالُوا لَن يَدْخُلَ الْجَنَّةَ إِلَّا مَن كَانَ هُودًا أَوْ نَصَارَىٰ ۗ تِلْكَ أَمَانِيُّهُمْ ۗ قُلْ هَاتُوا بُرْهَانَكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ
2|111|And they say, “None will enter Heaven unless he is a Jew or a Christian.” These are their wishes. Say, “Produce your proof, if you are truthful.”
 
Similar things are said today about sects, “ISIS” say only they and their supporters will go to heaven, Sunni say only Sunni will go to heaven. The reality is that their is a truth beyond all the Prophets messages that each religion is working towards, and if you believe in that truth, then you are on the right path, regardless of the method you took to get there. 
 
112بَلَىٰ مَنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُ لِلَّهِ وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌ فَلَهُ أَجْرُهُ عِندَ رَبِّهِ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ
2|112|In fact, whoever submits himself to God, and is a doer of good, will have his reward with his Lord—they have nothing to fear, nor shall they grieve.
 

Allah rejects narrow view of religion, whoever believes in God and does good, their deeds will be rewarded.

 
113وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ لَيْسَتِ النَّصَارَىٰ عَلَىٰ شَيْءٍ وَقَالَتِ النَّصَارَىٰ لَيْسَتِ الْيَهُودُ عَلَىٰ شَيْءٍ وَهُمْ يَتْلُونَ الْكِتَابَ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ قَالَ الَّذِينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ مِثْلَ قَوْلِهِمْ ۚ فَاللَّهُ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فِيمَا كَانُوا فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ
2|113|The Jews say, “The Christians are not based on anything;” and the Christians say, “The Jews are not based on anything.” Yet they both read the Scripture. Similarly, the ignorant said the same thing. God will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection regarding their differences.
114وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّن مَّنَعَ مَسَاجِدَ اللَّهِ أَن يُذْكَرَ فِيهَا اسْمُهُ وَسَعَىٰ فِي خَرَابِهَا ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ مَا كَانَ لَهُمْ أَن يَدْخُلُوهَا إِلَّا خَائِفِينَ ۚلَهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا خِزْيٌ وَلَهُمْ فِي الْآخِرَةِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ
2|114|Who is more unjust than him who forbids the remembrance of God’s name in places of worship, and contributes to their ruin? These ought not to enter them except in fear. For them is disgrace in this world, and for them is a terrible punishment in the Hereafter.
 

destruction of any site that encourages remembrance of God is forbidden, regardless of the religion. Completely opposite to isis.

 

115وَلِلَّهِ الْمَشْرِقُ وَالْمَغْرِبُ ۚ فَأَيْنَمَا تُوَلُّوا فَثَمَّ وَجْهُ اللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ
2|115|To God belong the East and the West. Whichever way you turn, there is God’s face. God is Omnipresent and Omniscient.
 

God’s face refers to the fact where ever you are, you can look and see the proof of Gods existence in the creation.

 
116وَقَالُوا اتَّخَذَ اللَّهُ وَلَدًا ۗ سُبْحَانَهُ ۖ بَل لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ كُلٌّ لَّهُ قَانِتُونَ
2|116|And they say, “God has begotten a son.” Be He glorified. Rather, His is everything in the heavens and the earth; all are obedient to Him.
117بَدِيعُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ وَإِذَا قَضَىٰ أَمْرًا فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ
2|117|Originator of the heavens and the earth. Whenever He decrees a thing, He says to it, “Be,” and it becomes.
118وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ لَوْلَا يُكَلِّمُنَا اللَّهُ أَوْ تَأْتِينَا آيَةٌ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ قَالَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِم مِّثْلَ قَوْلِهِمْ ۘ تَشَابَهَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ ۗ قَدْ بَيَّنَّا الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يُوقِنُونَ
2|118|Those who do not know say, “If only God would speak to us, or a sign would come to us.” Thus said those who were before them. Their hearts are alike. We have made the signs clear for people who are certain.
119إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ بِالْحَقِّ بَشِيرًا وَنَذِيرًا ۖ وَلَا تُسْأَلُ عَنْ أَصْحَابِ الْجَحِيمِ
2|119|We have sent you with the truth—bringing good news, and giving warnings. You will not be questioned about the inmates of Hell.
120وَلَن تَرْضَىٰ عَنكَ الْيَهُودُ وَلَا النَّصَارَىٰ حَتَّىٰ تَتَّبِعَ مِلَّتَهُمْ ۗ قُلْ إِنَّ هُدَى اللَّهِ هُوَ الْهُدَىٰ ۗ وَلَئِنِ اتَّبَعْتَ أَهْوَاءَهُم بَعْدَ الَّذِي جَاءَكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ ۙ مَا لَكَ مِنَ اللَّهِ مِن وَلِيٍّ وَلَا نَصِيرٍ
2|120|The Jews and the Christians will not approve of you, unless you follow their creed. Say, “God’s guidance is the guidance.” Should you follow their desires, after the knowledge that has come to you, you will have in God neither guardian nor helper.
121الَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ يَتْلُونَهُ حَقَّ تِلَاوَتِهِ أُولَٰئِكَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِهِ ۗ وَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِهِ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ
2|121|Those to whom We have given the Scripture follow it, as it ought to be followed—these believe in it. But as for those who reject it—these are the losers.
122يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ اذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتِيَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَأَنِّي فَضَّلْتُكُمْ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ
2|122|O Children of Israel! Remember My blessing which I bestowed upon you, and that I have favored you over all people.
123وَاتَّقُوا يَوْمًا لَّا تَجْزِي نَفْسٌ عَن نَّفْسٍ شَيْئًا وَلَا يُقْبَلُ مِنْهَا عَدْلٌ وَلَا تَنفَعُهَا شَفَاعَةٌ وَلَا هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ
2|123|And beware of a Day when no soul will avail another soul in any way, and no ransom will be accepted from it, and no intercession will benefit it, and they will not be helped.
 

As earlier, sacrifices, fancy burial donations and gifts

 

124۞ وَإِذِ ابْتَلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ رَبُّهُ بِكَلِمَاتٍ فَأَتَمَّهُنَّ ۖ قَالَ إِنِّي جَاعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِمَامًا ۖ قَالَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِي ۖ قَالَ لَا يَنَالُ عَهْدِي الظَّالِمِينَ
2|124|And when his Lord tested Abraham with certain words, and he fulfilled them. He said, “I am making you a leader of humanity.” He said, “And my descendants?” He said, “My pledge does not include the wrongdoers.”
 

There is a position of leader, or Imam within humanity. The position of Imam is not for those that sin.

 

H 430, Ch. 2, h1 Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from abu Yahya al-Wasiti from Hisham ibn Salim and Durust ibn abu Mansur the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, has said that the prophets and the messengers are of four categories. There were prophets who were given Divine news in their souls just for their own selves and for no one else. There were also prophets who were given Divine news in their dreams and would hear the voice but would not see anyone when awake and they were not sent to other people with such news. They had to follow an Imam just as it happened with Lot who followed Abraham. There were prophets who would experience in their dreams, hear the voice and see the angel and were sent to a group of people small or large like Yunus (Jonah), as Allah has said, ‘We sent him to a hundred thousand people or a few more.’ (37:148). The Imam said that ‘Few more’ were thirty thousand people led by an Imam. “There were those who saw in their dreams, heard the voice and saw the angel when awake and were also Imam like ’Ulul ‘Azm ones. Abraham was a prophet but not an Imam until Allah said, ‘I want to appoint you as the Imam for people.’ He said, ‘Also, please (let there be more Imam), from my descendents,’ to which He said, ‘My covenant does not go to the unjust ones.’ (2:124) Those who have worshipped idols or statues will not become Imam.’” 

 

H 431, Ch. 2, h2 Muhammad ibn al-Hassan has narrated from those he mentioned from Muhammad ibn Khalid from Muhammad ibn Sinan from Zayd al-Shahham who has said the following: “I heard Imam abu ‘Abd Allah say, ‘Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, chose Abraham as a servant before choosing him as a prophet. Allah chose him as a prophet before choosing him as a messenger. Allah chose him as a messenger before choosing him as a friend. Allah chose him as a friend before choosing him as an Imam. When all of the above conditions accumulated in Abraham, Allah said, ‘I have certainly appointed you as the Imam for the people.’ To Abraham, to be an Imam was so great that he asked, ‘Can this Imamat (Leadership with Divine Authority) be placed in my descendants also?’ Allah said, ‘My covenant will not be made available to the unjust ones.’ (2:124) He said that the feeble-minded (the unjust ones) cannot become the leaders (the Imam) of the pious ones.’”

 

 

125وَإِذْ جَعَلْنَا الْبَيْتَ مَثَابَةً لِّلنَّاسِ وَأَمْنًا وَاتَّخِذُوا مِن مَّقَامِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ مُصَلًّى ۖ وَعَهِدْنَا إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ أَن طَهِّرَا بَيْتِيَ لِلطَّائِفِينَ وَالْعَاكِفِينَ وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ
2|125|And We made the House a focal point for the people, and a sanctuary. Use the shrine of Abraham as a place of prayer. And We commissioned Abraham and Ishmael, “Sanctify My House for those who circle around it, and those who seclude themselves in it, and those who kneel and prostrate.”
126وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ رَبِّ اجْعَلْ هَٰذَا بَلَدًا آمِنًا وَارْزُقْ أَهْلَهُ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ مَنْ آمَنَ مِنْهُم بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۖ قَالَ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَأُمَتِّعُهُ قَلِيلًا ثُمَّ أَضْطَرُّهُ إِلَىٰ عَذَابِ النَّارِ ۖ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ
2|126|When Abraham said, “O My Lord, make this a peaceful land, and provide its people with fruits—whoever of them believes in God and the Last Day.” He said, “And whoever disbelieves, I will give him a little enjoyment, then I will consign him to the punishment of the Fire; how miserable the destiny!”
127وَإِذْ يَرْفَعُ إِبْرَاهِيمُ الْقَوَاعِدَ مِنَ الْبَيْتِ وَإِسْمَاعِيلُ رَبَّنَا تَقَبَّلْ مِنَّا ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ
2|127|As Abraham raises the foundations of the House, together with Ishmael, “Our Lord, accept it from us, You are the Hearer, the Knower.
128رَبَّنَا وَاجْعَلْنَا مُسْلِمَيْنِ لَكَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِنَا أُمَّةً مُّسْلِمَةً لَّكَ وَأَرِنَا مَنَاسِكَنَا وَتُبْ عَلَيْنَا ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ
2|128|Our Lord, and make us submissive to You, and from our descendants a community submissive to You. And show us our rites, and accept our repentance. You are the Acceptor of Repentance, the Merciful.
129رَبَّنَا وَابْعَثْ فِيهِمْ رَسُولًا مِّنْهُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِكَ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ ۚ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ
2|129|Our Lord, and raise up among them a messenger, of themselves, who will recite to them Your revelations, and teach them the Book and wisdom, and purify them. You are the Almighty, the Wise.”
130وَمَن يَرْغَبُ عَن مِّلَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِلَّا مَن سَفِهَ نَفْسَهُ ۚ وَلَقَدِ اصْطَفَيْنَاهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا ۖ وَإِنَّهُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ لَمِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ
2|130|Who would forsake the religion of Abraham, except he who fools himself? We chose him in this world, and in the Hereafter he will be among the righteous.
131إِذْ قَالَ لَهُ رَبُّهُ أَسْلِمْ ۖ قَالَ أَسْلَمْتُ لِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ
2|131|When his Lord said to him, “Submit!” He said, “I have submitted to the Lord of the Worlds.”
132وَوَصَّىٰ بِهَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بَنِيهِ وَيَعْقُوبُ يَا بَنِيَّ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اصْطَفَىٰ لَكُمُ الدِّينَ فَلَا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا وَأَنتُم مُّسْلِمُونَ
2|132|And Abraham exhorted his sons, and Jacob, “O my sons, God has chosen this religion for you, so do not die unless you have submitted.”
133أَمْ كُنتُمْ شُهَدَاءَ إِذْ حَضَرَ يَعْقُوبَ الْمَوْتُ إِذْ قَالَ لِبَنِيهِ مَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِن بَعْدِي قَالُوا نَعْبُدُ إِلَٰهَكَ وَإِلَٰهَ آبَائِكَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ إِلَٰهًا وَاحِدًا وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ
2|133|Or were you witnesses when death approached Jacob, and he said to his sons, “What will you worship after Me?” They said, “We will worship your God, and the God of your fathers, Abraham, Ishmael, and Isaac; One God; and to Him we submit.”
134تِلْكَ أُمَّةٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ ۖ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَلَكُم مَّا كَسَبْتُمْ ۖ وَلَا تُسْأَلُونَ عَمَّا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ
2|134|That was a community that has passed; for them is what they have earned, and for you is what you have earned; and you will not be questioned about what they used to do.
 

Historical groups and disagreements will not be relevant to the questioning on the day of judgement.

 
135وَقَالُوا كُونُوا هُودًا أَوْ نَصَارَىٰ تَهْتَدُوا ۗ قُلْ بَلْ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا ۖ وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ
2|135|And they say, “Be Jews or Christians, and you will be guided.” Say, “Rather, the religion of Abraham, the Monotheist; he was not an idolater.”
 

There is a difference between what was revealed to Abraham and what the Jews and Christians practice.

 
136قُولُوا آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْنَا وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطِ وَمَا أُوتِيَ مُوسَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ وَمَا أُوتِيَ النَّبِيُّونَ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ
2|136|Say, “We believe in God; and in what was revealed to us; and in what was revealed to Abraham, and Ishmael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the Patriarchs; and in what was given to Moses and Jesus; and in what was given to the prophets—from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and to Him we surrender.”
 

H 1096, Ch. 108, h 19
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from alHassan ibn Mahbub from Muhammad ibn al-Nu‘man from Salam from abu Ja‘far AS who has said the following about the words of Allah, the Most High: “About the words of Allah, ‘(Muslims) say, “We believe in Allah and what He has revealed to us. . . .,”’ (2:136) the Imam said, ‘This is primarily addressed to Ali, Fatimah, al-Hassan and al-Husayn, recipients of divine supreme covenant, and thereafter to ‘A’immah (Leaders with Divine Authority), recipients of divine supreme covenant. Then the words of Allah “. . . if they [refers to people] believe, in all that you, [Ali, Fatimah, al Hassan and al-Husayn, recipients of divine supreme covenant] believe, they will have the right guidance, but if they turn away, it will be for no reason other than their own malice. . . .’” (2:137)

When it is said, “we make no distinction”, this refers to the message and the fact that all Prophets were on the right path with the right message, and all must be accepted. It does not mean that some Prophets AS were not given more support from God, or more “high”, as Allah says :

17|55|Your Lord knows well everyone in the heavens and the earth. We have given some prophets advantage over others; and to David We gave the Psalms.

2|253|These messengers: We gave some advantage over others. To some of them God spoke directly, and some He raised in rank. We gave Jesus son of Mary the clear miracles, and We strengthened him with the Holy Spirit. Had God willed, those who succeeded them would not have fought one another, after the clear signs had come to them; but they disputed; some of them believed, and some of them disbelieved. Had God willed, they would not have fought one another; but God does whatever He desires.

So the message and mission is the same, but the status and methods are different.

 
137فَإِنْ آمَنُوا بِمِثْلِ مَا آمَنتُم بِهِ فَقَدِ اهْتَدَوا ۖ وَّإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَإِنَّمَا هُمْ فِي شِقَاقٍ ۖ فَسَيَكْفِيكَهُمُ اللَّهُ ۚ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ
2|137|If they believe in the same as you have believed in, then they have been guided. But if they turn away, then they are in schism. God will protect you against them; for He is the Hearer, the Knower.
138صِبْغَةَ اللَّهِ ۖ وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ مِنَ اللَّهِ صِبْغَةً ۖ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ عَابِدُونَ
2|138|God’s coloring. And who gives better coloring than God? “And we are devoted to Him.”
 

H 1462, CH 7, h 1
Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father and Muhammad ibn Yahya from
Ahmad ibn Muhammad all from ibn Mahbub from ‘Abd Allah ibn Sinan from
abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, who has said the
following:
“About the words of Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, ‘. . . It is
the coloring of Allah. Who has a better color than Allah’s
color?’ (2:138), abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme
covenant, said, ‘Color is a reference to this belief.’ The Imam
also said, ‘It (color) stands for al-Islam.’ In the words of Allah,
the Majestic, the Glorious, ‘. . . He has established a firm hold
onto the strong ring’. . . (2:256), he said, ‘It (the strong ring) is a
reference to the faith and belief in Allah, Who is One and has no
partners.’”

 
139قُلْ أَتُحَاجُّونَنَا فِي اللَّهِ وَهُوَ رَبُّنَا وَرَبُّكُمْ وَلَنَا أَعْمَالُنَا وَلَكُمْ أَعْمَالُكُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُخْلِصُونَ
2|139|Say, “Do you argue with us about God, when He is our Lord and your Lord, and We have our works, and you have your works, and we are sincere to Him?”
140أَمْ تَقُولُونَ إِنَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطَ كَانُوا هُودًا أَوْ نَصَارَىٰ ۗ قُلْ أَأَنتُمْ أَعْلَمُ أَمِ اللَّهُ ۗ وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّن كَتَمَ شَهَادَةً عِندَهُ مِنَ اللَّهِ ۗ وَمَا اللَّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ
2|140|Or do you say that Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the Patriarchs were Jews or Christians? Say, “Do you know better, or God?” And who does greater wrong than he who conceals a testimony he has from God? God is not unaware of what you do.
141تِلْكَ أُمَّةٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ ۖ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَلَكُم مَّا كَسَبْتُمْ ۖ وَلَا تُسْأَلُونَ عَمَّا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ
2|141|That was a community that has passed. To them is what they have earned, and to you is what you have earned. And you will not be questioned about what they used to do.
142۞ سَيَقُولُ السُّفَهَاءُ مِنَ النَّاسِ مَا وَلَّاهُمْ عَن قِبْلَتِهِمُ الَّتِي كَانُوا عَلَيْهَا ۚ قُل لِّلَّهِ الْمَشْرِقُ وَالْمَغْرِبُ ۚ يَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ
 
Juz 2
 
2|142|The ignorant among the people will say, “What has turned them away from the direction of prayer they once followed?” Say, “To God belong the East and the West. He guides whom He wills to a straight path.”
 

The change in the direction of prayer (qibla), Allah reveals what is better when He feels the time is right, bada.

 
143وَكَذَٰلِكَ جَعَلْنَاكُمْ أُمَّةً وَسَطًا لِّتَكُونُوا شُهَدَاءَ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَيَكُونَ الرَّسُولُ عَلَيْكُمْ شَهِيدًا ۗ وَمَا جَعَلْنَا الْقِبْلَةَ الَّتِي كُنتَ عَلَيْهَا إِلَّا لِنَعْلَمَ مَن يَتَّبِعُ الرَّسُولَ مِمَّن يَنقَلِبُ عَلَىٰ عَقِبَيْهِ ۚ وَإِن كَانَتْ لَكَبِيرَةً إِلَّا عَلَى الَّذِينَ هَدَى اللَّهُ ۗ وَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيُضِيعَ إِيمَانَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِالنَّاسِ لَرَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ
2|143|Thus We made you a moderate community, that you may be witnesses to humanity, and that the Messenger may be a witness to you. We only established the direction of prayer, which you once followed, that We may distinguish those who follow the Messenger from those who turn on their heels. It is indeed difficult, except for those whom God has guided. But God would never let your faith go to waste. God is Kind towards the people, Merciful.
144قَدْ نَرَىٰ تَقَلُّبَ وَجْهِكَ فِي السَّمَاءِ ۖ فَلَنُوَلِّيَنَّكَ قِبْلَةً تَرْضَاهَا ۚ فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ ۚ وَحَيْثُ مَا كُنتُمْ فَوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ شَطْرَهُ ۗ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ لَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ ۗ وَمَا اللَّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا يَعْمَلُونَ
2|144|We have seen your face turned towards the heaven. So We will turn you towards a direction that will satisfy you. So turn your face towards the Sacred Mosque. And wherever you may be, turn your faces towards it. Those who were given the Book know that it is the Truth from their Lord; and God is not unaware of what they do.
145وَلَئِنْ أَتَيْتَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ بِكُلِّ آيَةٍ مَّا تَبِعُوا قِبْلَتَكَ ۚ وَمَا أَنتَ بِتَابِعٍ قِبْلَتَهُمْ ۚ وَمَا بَعْضُهُم بِتَابِعٍ قِبْلَةَ بَعْضٍ ۚ وَلَئِنِ اتَّبَعْتَ أَهْوَاءَهُم مِّن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ ۙ إِنَّكَ إِذًا لَّمِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ
2|145|Even if you were to bring to those who were given the Book every proof, they would not follow your direction, nor are you to follow their direction, nor do they follow the direction of one another. And if you were to follow their desires, after the knowledge that has come to you, you would be in that case one of the wrongdoers.
146الَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ يَعْرِفُونَهُ كَمَا يَعْرِفُونَ أَبْنَاءَهُمْ ۖ وَإِنَّ فَرِيقًا مِّنْهُمْ لَيَكْتُمُونَ الْحَقَّ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ
2|146|Those to whom We have given the Book recognize it as they recognize their own children. But some of them conceal the truth while they know.
147الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّكَ ۖ فَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُمْتَرِينَ
2|147|The truth is from your Lord, so do not be a skeptic.
148وَلِكُلٍّ وِجْهَةٌ هُوَ مُوَلِّيهَا ۖ فَاسْتَبِقُوا الْخَيْرَاتِ ۚ أَيْنَ مَا تَكُونُوا يَأْتِ بِكُمُ اللَّهُ جَمِيعًا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
2|148|To every community is a direction towards which it turns. Therefore, race towards goodness. Wherever you may be, God will bring you all together. God is capable of everything.
 

The suggestion is that every community was given some guidance and a format for religion.

 

149وَمِنْ حَيْثُ خَرَجْتَ فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ ۖ وَإِنَّهُ لَلْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّكَ ۗ وَمَا اللَّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ
2|149|And wherever you come from, turn your face towards the Sacred Mosque. This is the truth from your Lord, and God is not heedless of what you do.
150وَمِنْ حَيْثُ خَرَجْتَ فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ ۚ وَحَيْثُ مَا كُنتُمْ فَوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ شَطْرَهُ لِئَلَّا يَكُونَ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَيْكُمْ حُجَّةٌ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا مِنْهُمْ فَلَا تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَاخْشَوْنِي وَلِأُتِمَّ نِعْمَتِي عَلَيْكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ
2|150|And wherever you come from, turn your face towards the Sacred Mosque. And wherever you may be, turn your faces towards it. So that the people may not have any argument against you—except those who do wrong among them. So do not fear them, but fear Me, that I may complete My blessings upon you, and that you may be guided.
151كَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا فِيكُمْ رَسُولًا مِّنكُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْكُمْ آيَاتِنَا وَيُزَكِّيكُمْ وَيُعَلِّمُكُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَيُعَلِّمُكُم مَّا لَمْ تَكُونُوا تَعْلَمُونَ
2|151|Just as We sent to you a messenger from among you, who recites Our revelations to you, and purifies you, and teaches you the Book and wisdom, and teaches you what you did not know.
152فَاذْكُرُونِي أَذْكُرْكُمْ وَاشْكُرُوا لِي وَلَا تَكْفُرُونِ
2|152|So remember Me, and I will remember you. And thank Me, and do not be ungrateful.
153يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اسْتَعِينُوا بِالصَّبْرِ وَالصَّلَاةِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الصَّابِرِينَ
2|153|O you who believe! Seek help through patience and prayers. God is with the steadfast.
154وَلَا تَقُولُوا لِمَن يُقْتَلُ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أَمْوَاتٌ ۚ بَلْ أَحْيَاءٌ وَلَٰكِن لَّا تَشْعُرُونَ
2|154|And do not say of those who are killed in the cause of God, “Dead.” Rather, they are alive, but you do not perceive.
 

They are not physically alive as before, this is obvious, however there is life beyond the physical body.

 
155وَلَنَبْلُوَنَّكُم بِشَيْءٍ مِّنَ الْخَوْفِ وَالْجُوعِ وَنَقْصٍ مِّنَ الْأَمْوَالِ وَالْأَنفُسِ وَالثَّمَرَاتِ ۗ وَبَشِّرِ الصَّابِرِينَ
2|155|We will certainly test you with some fear and hunger, and some loss of possessions and lives and crops. But give good news to the steadfast.
156الَّذِينَ إِذَا أَصَابَتْهُم مُّصِيبَةٌ قَالُوا إِنَّا لِلَّهِ وَإِنَّا إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ
2|156|Those who, when a calamity afflicts them, say, “To God we belong, and to Him we will return.”
157أُولَٰئِكَ عَلَيْهِمْ صَلَوَاتٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ وَرَحْمَةٌ ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُهْتَدُونَ
2|157|Upon these are blessings and mercy from their Lord. These are the guided ones.
158۞ إِنَّ الصَّفَا وَالْمَرْوَةَ مِن شَعَائِرِ اللَّهِ ۖ فَمَنْ حَجَّ الْبَيْتَ أَوِ اعْتَمَرَ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِ أَن يَطَّوَّفَ بِهِمَا ۚ وَمَن تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ شَاكِرٌ عَلِيمٌ
2|158|Safa and Marwa are among the rites of God. Whoever makes the Pilgrimage to the House, or performs the Umrah, commits no error by circulating between them. Whoever volunteers good—God is Appreciative and Cognizant.
159إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْتُمُونَ مَا أَنزَلْنَا مِنَ الْبَيِّنَاتِ وَالْهُدَىٰ مِن بَعْدِ مَا بَيَّنَّاهُ لِلنَّاسِ فِي الْكِتَابِ ۙ أُولَٰئِكَ يَلْعَنُهُمُ اللَّهُ وَيَلْعَنُهُمُ اللَّاعِنُونَ
2|159|Those who suppress the proofs and the guidance We have revealed, after We have clarified them to humanity in the Scripture—those—God curses them, and the cursers curse them.
160إِلَّا الَّذِينَ تَابُوا وَأَصْلَحُوا وَبَيَّنُوا فَأُولَٰئِكَ أَتُوبُ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ وَأَنَا التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ
2|160|Except those who repent, and reform, and proclaim. Those—I will accept their repentance. I am the Acceptor of Repentance, the Merciful.
161إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَمَاتُوا وَهُمْ كُفَّارٌ أُولَٰئِكَ عَلَيْهِمْ لَعْنَةُ اللَّهِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةِ وَالنَّاسِ أَجْمَعِينَ
2|161|But as for those who reject faith, and die rejecting—those—upon them is the curse of God, and of the angels, and of all humanity.
 

Faith is to be rejected in order to be cursed, and cursing is the removal of God’s mercy upon that person.

 
 
162خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا ۖ لَا يُخَفَّفُ عَنْهُمُ الْعَذَابُ وَلَا هُمْ يُنظَرُونَ
2|162|They will remain under it forever, and the torment will not be lightened for them, and they will not be reprieved.
163وَإِلَٰهُكُمْ إِلَٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ ۖ لَّا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الرَّحْمَٰنُ الرَّحِيمُ
2|163|Your God is one God. There is no god but He, the Benevolent, the Compassionate.
164إِنَّ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلَافِ اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ وَالْفُلْكِ الَّتِي تَجْرِي فِي الْبَحْرِ بِمَا يَنفَعُ النَّاسَ وَمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مِن مَّاءٍ فَأَحْيَا بِهِ الْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا وَبَثَّ فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ دَابَّةٍ وَتَصْرِيفِ الرِّيَاحِ وَالسَّحَابِ الْمُسَخَّرِ بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ لَآيَاتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ
2|164|In the creation of the heavens and the earth; in the alternation of night and day; in the ships that sail the oceans for the benefit of mankind; in the water that God sends down from the sky, and revives the earth with it after it had died, and scatters in it all kinds of creatures; in the changing of the winds, and the clouds disposed between the sky and the earth; are signs for people who understand.
 

The world around us clearly has a design.

 

165وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَتَّخِذُ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ أَندَادًا يُحِبُّونَهُمْ كَحُبِّ اللَّهِ ۖ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَشَدُّ حُبًّا لِّلَّهِ ۗ وَلَوْ يَرَى الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا إِذْ يَرَوْنَ الْعَذَابَ أَنَّ الْقُوَّةَ لِلَّهِ جَمِيعًا وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعَذَابِ
2|165|Yet among the people are those who take other than God as equals to Him. They love them as the love of God. But those who believe have greater love for God. If only the wrongdoers would realize, when they see the torment; that all power is God’s, and that God is severe in punishment.
 

H 961, Ch. 85, h 11
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from
al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from ‘Umar ibn Thabit from Jabir who has said the
following:
“Once I asked abu Ja‘far, recipient of divine supreme
covenant, about the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most
Gracious: ‘. . . Certain people consider certain things equal to
Allah and love them just as one should love Allah. . . .’ (2:165)
“The Imam said, ‘They, by Allah, are the friends of so and so
and so and so whom they have taken as their ‘A’immah (leaders
without Divine Authority) instead of the ‘A’immah (Leaders with
Divine Authority) who are appointed for people as such by
Allah. For this reason He has said, ‘. . . had the unjust been able
to reflect upon their condition, when facing the torment, they
would have had no doubt that to Allah belongs all power and
that He is stern in His retribution (2:165). When the leaders see
the torment and lose all their resources, they will denounce their
followers (2:166). The followers will say, “If we had the chance
we also would have denounced our leaders.” That is how Allah
will show them their regrettable deeds. They will not be able to
escape from hellfire.’ (2:167)
“Then abu Ja‘far, recipient of divine supreme covenant, said,
‘By Allah, O Jabir, they are the unjust ‘A’immah (leaders without
Divine Authority) and their followers.’”

 
166إِذْ تَبَرَّأَ الَّذِينَ اتُّبِعُوا مِنَ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوا وَرَأَوُا الْعَذَابَ وَتَقَطَّعَتْ بِهِمُ الْأَسْبَابُ
2|166|Those who were followed will then disown those who followed them, and they will see the retribution, and ties between them will be severed.
167وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوا لَوْ أَنَّ لَنَا كَرَّةً فَنَتَبَرَّأَ مِنْهُمْ كَمَا تَبَرَّءُوا مِنَّا ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُرِيهِمُ اللَّهُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ حَسَرَاتٍ عَلَيْهِمْ ۖ وَمَا هُم بِخَارِجِينَ مِنَ النَّارِ
2|167|Those who followed will say, “If only we can have another chance, we will disown them, as they disowned us.” Thus God will show them their deeds, as regrets to them, and they will not come out of the Fire.
168يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ كُلُوا مِمَّا فِي الْأَرْضِ حَلَالًا طَيِّبًا وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ ۚ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ
2|168|O people! Eat of what is lawful and good on earth, and do not follow the footsteps of Satan. He is to you an open enemy.
169إِنَّمَا يَأْمُرُكُم بِالسُّوءِ وَالْفَحْشَاءِ وَأَن تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ
2|169|He commands you to do evil and vice, and to say about God what you do not know.
170وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمُ اتَّبِعُوا مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ قَالُوا بَلْ نَتَّبِعُ مَا أَلْفَيْنَا عَلَيْهِ آبَاءَنَا ۗ أَوَلَوْ كَانَ آبَاؤُهُمْ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَهْتَدُونَ
2|170|And when it is said to them, “Follow what God has revealed,” they say, “We will follow what we found our ancestors following.” Even if their ancestors understood nothing, and were not guided?
 

Some people just follow what is established, without checking if it is true or based on sound sources.

situations change, but principles stay same. So fiqh changes, no good following old rules, need old principles and new rules.

 

171وَمَثَلُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا كَمَثَلِ الَّذِي يَنْعِقُ بِمَا لَا يَسْمَعُ إِلَّا دُعَاءً وَنِدَاءً ۚ صُمٌّ بُكْمٌ عُمْيٌ فَهُمْ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ
2|171|The parable of those who disbelieve is that of someone who calls upon someone who hears nothing except screaming and yelling. Deaf, dumb, and blind—they do not understand.
172يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُلُوا مِن طَيِّبَاتِ مَا رَزَقْنَاكُمْ وَاشْكُرُوا لِلَّهِ إِن كُنتُمْ إِيَّاهُ تَعْبُدُونَ
2|172|O you who believe! Eat of the good things We have provided for you, and give thanks to God, if it is Him that you serve.
173إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةَ وَالدَّمَ وَلَحْمَ الْخِنزِيرِ وَمَا أُهِلَّ بِهِ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ ۖ فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ غَيْرَ بَاغٍ وَلَا عَادٍ فَلَا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
2|173|He has forbidden you carrion, and blood, and the flesh of swine, and what was dedicated to other than God. But if anyone is compelled, without desiring or exceeding, he commits no sin. God is Forgiving and Merciful.
 

Carrion refers to meat from an animal that has died and was not killed for food, eg finding a dead animal in a forest.  Also the concept of taqiyyah is established.

 
174إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْتُمُونَ مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَيَشْتَرُونَ بِهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۙ أُولَٰئِكَ مَا يَأْكُلُونَ فِي بُطُونِهِمْ إِلَّا النَّارَ وَلَا يُكَلِّمُهُمُ اللَّهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَلَا يُزَكِّيهِمْ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ
2|174|Those who conceal what God revealed in the Book, and exchange it for a small price—those swallow nothing but fire into their bellies. And God will not speak to them on the Day of Resurrection, nor will He purify them, and they will have a painful punishment.
175أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ اشْتَرَوُا الضَّلَالَةَ بِالْهُدَىٰ وَالْعَذَابَ بِالْمَغْفِرَةِ ۚ فَمَا أَصْبَرَهُمْ عَلَى النَّارِ
2|175|It is they who exchange guidance for error, and forgiveness for punishment. But why are they patient for the Fire?
 

H 2401, CH 107, h 2
A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid
from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa from ‘Abd Allah ibn Muskan from those he has
mentioned (in his book) from abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme
covenant, who has said the following:
“About the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy,
‘What has made them remain so patient in the fire?’ (2:175) The
Imam said, ‘What has made them so patiently do something that
they know will lead them to the fire?’”

 
176ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ نَزَّلَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ ۗ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ اخْتَلَفُوا فِي الْكِتَابِ لَفِي شِقَاقٍ بَعِيدٍ
2|176|That is because God has revealed the Book in truth; and those who differ about the Book are in deep discord.
177۞ لَّيْسَ الْبِرَّ أَن تُوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ قِبَلَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ وَلَٰكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةِ وَالْكِتَابِ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ وَآتَى الْمَالَ عَلَىٰ حُبِّهِ ذَوِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيلِ وَالسَّائِلِينَ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَأَقَامَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَى الزَّكَاةَ وَالْمُوفُونَ بِعَهْدِهِمْ إِذَا عَاهَدُوا ۖ وَالصَّابِرِينَ فِي الْبَأْسَاءِ وَالضَّرَّاءِ وَحِينَ الْبَأْسِ ۗ أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ صَدَقُوا ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُتَّقُونَ
2|177|Righteousness does not consist of turning your faces towards the East and the West. But righteous is he who believes in God, and the Last Day, and the angels, and the Scripture, and the prophets. Who gives money, though dear, to near relatives, and orphans, and the needy, and the homeless, and the beggars, and for the freeing of slaves; those who perform the prayers, and pay the obligatory charity, and fulfill their promise when they promise, and patiently persevere in the face of persecution, hardship, and in the time of conflict. These are the sincere; these are the pious.
 

Being Muslim is not simply praying, all aspects of life need to be compatible with the moral code.

 

178يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِصَاصُ فِي الْقَتْلَى ۖ الْحُرُّ بِالْحُرِّ وَالْعَبْدُ بِالْعَبْدِ وَالْأُنثَىٰ بِالْأُنثَىٰ ۚ فَمَنْ عُفِيَ لَهُ مِنْ أَخِيهِ شَيْءٌ فَاتِّبَاعٌ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَأَدَاءٌ إِلَيْهِ بِإِحْسَانٍ ۗ ذَٰلِكَ تَخْفِيفٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَرَحْمَةٌ ۗ فَمَنِ اعْتَدَىٰ بَعْدَ ذَٰلِكَ فَلَهُ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ
2|178|O you who believe! Retaliation for the murdered is ordained upon you: the free for the free, the slave for the slave, the female for the female. But if he is forgiven by his kin, then grant any reasonable demand, and pay with good will. This is a concession from your Lord, and a mercy. But whoever commits aggression after that, a painful torment awaits him.
 
From Tafisr Al Mizan : 
 

QUR’AN: 0 you who believe! Retaliation is prescribed for you in the matter of the slain; the free for the free…:

The verse is addressed to the believers. It means that the law promulgated herein applies to the Muslims only. As regards the non-Muslims – whether under protection of an Islamic State or not – the verse is silent about them. Some people think that this verse has abrogated the verse 5:45 (life is for life); because it does not allow killing of a free person for a slave, or of a man for a woman. But actually there is no room for this supposition. The position of this verse vis-à-vis the verse 5:45 is like that of an explanation vis-à-vis its text.

al- Qisas (retaliation) is the masdar of qassa yuqassu(he followed, he follows); an Arab says: qassa atharahu (he followed someone’s tracks). Another derivative is al-qassas (story-teller) – it is as though he follows the tracks of the past generations. Retaliation is called al-qisas because it follows the footsteps of the offender, giving him a punishment similar to that which he had inflicted upon his victim.

QUR’AN: but if any remission is made to any one by his (ag­grieved) brother: Its literal translation is: then whoever is remitted any thing by his brother. “Whoever” refers to the murderer; the heir/s of the murdered person may waive his/their right of retali­ation. Therefore, “any thing” refers to that right; it is used here as a common noun, in order that the rule may cover all possibil­ities, whether there was a full remission or partial. Let us say, for example, that there are many heirs and only some of them waive their right; then there shall be no retaliation; instead the blood money will be imposed. The heir of the murdered person who has the right of retaliation) has extraordinarily been described here as the “brother” of the murderer; this expression has been used to awaken the feeling of love and kindness in the heart of the aggrieved party, and gives a hint to him that remission and forgiveness is highly preferable in the eyes of Allah.

QUR’AN: then (the demand for the blood wit) should be made according to the usage, and payment should be made to him in a good manner:

Its literal translation is: then following according to usage, and payment to him in a good manner. Both phrase are subjects with their predicates implied. Thus literally it would mean: then it is obligatory on the aggrieved “brother” to follow that remission with demand for the blood-money according to usage; and it is obligatory on the murderer to pay it to the aggrieved brother, that is, heir of the slain, in a good manner without any annoying delay.

QUR’AN: this is alleviation from your Lord and a mercy:

The permission to commute the retaliation into blood-money is alleviation from your Lord, and therefore, once effected, it cannot be changed. The heir of the slain person cannot revert to retaliation after granting remission. If he transgresses the limit and retaliates after remission, then he shall have a painful chastisement.

QUR’AN: And there is life for you in the retaliation, 0 men of understanding, that you guard yourselves(against evil):

This verse points to the philosophy of this legislation. It aims at removing a possible misunderstanding that – because Allah has allowed remission and blood-money, and also because remission expands the circle of mercy and affection – remission is more in con­formity with public weal and social good. The verse shows that, although remission is alleviation based on mercy, common good and society’s peace depend on the retaliation. The only guarantee of life is the law of retaliation, and not remission, blood-money, or any other thing. Man has to accept this fact, if he has understanding. “that you may guard yourselves” that is, from murder. It gives the basic of the law of retaliation.

The scholars have said that the verse, “and there is life for you in the retaliation,” is one of the most eloquent in its clarity, and the most refined in rhetoric, in addition to its having many other fine literary points, like brevity – it has so few words and such a small number of total letters – fluency of style and clarity of composition. It combines the force of argument with beauty of meaning, the fineness of proof with clarity of result.

Before this verse was revealed, the Arabs were fond of some adages and maxims (on the subject of murder and retaliation), of whose rhetoric and fluency they were very proud. For example: ‘To kill some is to keep alive all’, and ‘To increase killing is to decrease killing’. And the most remarkable in their eyes was the sentence: ‘Killing stamps out killing.’ But when this verse was revealed all were forgotten. Some of its distinguishing points are as follows: The verse has fewer letters, and is easy to pronounce. “the retaliation” with definite article is a proper noun, while “life ” is common noun – it shows that the resulting good is greater and more widespread than the retaliation. It explains the result in clear words and describes the real philosophy of the law, that is, the life. It unambiguously shows by what means the desired result can be obtained: Obviously, it is the retaliation that leads to life, and not the killing. (After all, many killings are done unjustly, and they do not lead to life, they are negation of life.) The word, “retaliation,” covers also other punishments besides killing, that is, the reprisal in the matter of injury, etc. – and such retributions too lead to the society’s life. The word conveys another extra meaning, as it shows that the retribution has resulted from unjust killing. (Compare it with their maxim, “Killing stamps out killing”, which does not give any idea that “killing” refers to any punishment.) Then there is an exhortation in this sentence, as it points to a life reserved for the people, whom they are oblivious of; it behooves them to take hold of it as it really belongs to them; it is as if someone tells you: There is a property belonging to you with so-and-so, or in such and such a place. Lastly, the opening word of the verse, that is, “for you” makes it clear to the men of understanding that the law-giver only desires to protect their interest, and no benefit is ever to accrue to him.

These are a few of the fine points found in this verse. The scholars have mentioned some more points, which may be seen in the books of rhetoric. The fact is, the more deeply you look at this verse, the more dazzled you shall be by its brilliance and radiance; and the word of Allah is the highest.

Traditions

as-Sadiq (a.s.) said about the word of Allah, the free for the free: “A free man shall not be killed for the slave’ but he shall be beaten a severe beating and be fined the blood-money of the slave. And if a man kills a woman, and the heirs of the slain (woman) want to kill him, they shall pay half of his blood-money to the man’s heirs.” (al-Ayyashi)

al-Halabi narrates from as-Sadiq (a.s.). He says: “I asked him about the word of Allah the Mighty, the Great: but he who forgoes it, it shall be an expiation for him (5:45); he (the Imam) said: ‘His sins shall be expiated, as much as he forgives.’ And I asked him about the word of Allah, the Mighty, the Great: but if any remission is made to anyone by his (aggrieved)brother, then (the demand for the blood wit) should be made according to usage, and payment should be made to him in a good manner. He said: ‘He who has got the right (i.e. the aggrieved party) should not put his brother (i.e. the murderer) in difficulty, when he has made settlement with him concerning the blood-money; and he who has got the duty (of paying the blood-money) should not delay in its payment when he has ability to do so; and he should pay it to him in a good manner.’ And I asked him about the word of Allah, the Mighty, the Great: sowhoever exceeds the limit, he shall have a painful chastisement. He said: ‘It refers to a man who accepts blood-money or forgives, or makes compromise, then exceeds the limit (and kills the murderer); so he shall be killed as Allah, the Mighty, the Great, has said.'” (al-Kafi)

 
179وَلَكُمْ فِي الْقِصَاصِ حَيَاةٌ يَا أُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ
2|179|There is life for you in retaliation, O people of understanding, so that you may refrain.
 
There is a principle that punishments must be a deterrent.
 
180كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذَا حَضَرَ أَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ إِن تَرَكَ خَيْرًا الْوَصِيَّةُ لِلْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالْأَقْرَبِينَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ۖ حَقًّا عَلَى الْمُتَّقِينَ
2|180|It is decreed for you: when death approaches one of you, and he leaves wealth, to make a testament in favor of the parents and the relatives, fairly and correctly—a duty upon the righteous.
 

The creation of a will is decreed for people.

 

181فَمَن بَدَّلَهُ بَعْدَمَا سَمِعَهُ فَإِنَّمَا إِثْمُهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ يُبَدِّلُونَهُ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
2|181|But whoever changes it after he has heard it, the guilt is upon those who change it. God is All-Hearing, All-Knowing.
182فَمَنْ خَافَ مِن مُّوصٍ جَنَفًا أَوْ إِثْمًا فَأَصْلَحَ بَيْنَهُمْ فَلَا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
2|182|Should someone suspect bias or injustice on the part of a testator, and then reconciles between them, he commits no sin. God is Forgiving and Merciful.
183يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ
2|183|O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you, as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become righteous.
184أَيَّامًا مَّعْدُودَاتٍ ۚ فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ ۚ وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُ فِدْيَةٌ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ ۖفَمَن تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًا فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّهُ ۚ وَأَن تَصُومُوا خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ ۖ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
2|184|For a specified number of days. But whoever among you is sick, or on a journey, then a number of other days. For those who are able: a ransom of feeding a needy person. But whoever volunteers goodness, it is better for him. But to fast is best for you, if you only knew.
185شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِي أُنزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِّنَ الْهُدَىٰ وَالْفُرْقَانِ ۚ فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ ۖ وَمَن كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ ۗ يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلَا يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ وَلِتُكْمِلُوا الْعِدَّةَ وَلِتُكَبِّرُوا اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ
2|185|Ramadan is the month in which the Quran was revealed. Guidance for humanity, and clear portents of guidance, and the Criterion. Whoever of you witnesses the month, shall fast it. But whoever is sick, or on a journey, then a number of other days. God desires ease for you, and does not desire hardship for you, that you may complete the number, and celebrate God for having guided you, so that you may be thankful.
 

H 3556, Ch 14, h 6
Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father and Muhammad ibn al-Qasim from
Muhammad ibn Sulayman from Dawud from Hafs ibn Ghiyath who has said the
following:
“Once I asked abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme
covenant, about the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most
Holy, ‘The month of Ramadan is the month in which the Quran
was revealed, . . .’ (2:185) but there were twenty years between
its first and last (words).’ Abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine
supreme covenant, said, ‘The Holy Quran was revealed in one
piece in the month of Ramadan to Bayt al-Ma’mur, then it was
revealed in twenty years.’ The Imam said, ‘The Holy Prophet
has said, “The books of Ibrahim were revealed in the first night
of Ramadan, Torah was revealed on the sixth day of Ramadan,
Injil was revealed after thirteen nights of the month of Ramadan
had passed, al-Zabur was revealed after twenty six days were
passed from the month of Ramadan and the Holy Quran was
revealed after twenty-three days had passed from the month of
Ramadan.’”

 
186وَإِذَا سَأَلَكَ عِبَادِي عَنِّي فَإِنِّي قَرِيبٌ ۖ أُجِيبُ دَعْوَةَ الدَّاعِ إِذَا دَعَانِ ۖ فَلْيَسْتَجِيبُوا لِي وَلْيُؤْمِنُوا بِي لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْشُدُونَ
2|186|And when My servants ask you about Me, I Am near; I answer the call of the caller when he calls on Me. So let them answer Me, and have faith in Me, that they may be rightly guided.
187أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ لَيْلَةَ الصِّيَامِ الرَّفَثُ إِلَىٰ نِسَائِكُمْ ۚ هُنَّ لِبَاسٌ لَّكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لِبَاسٌ لَّهُنَّ ۗ عَلِمَ اللَّهُ أَنَّكُمْ كُنتُمْ تَخْتَانُونَ أَنفُسَكُمْ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَعَفَا عَنكُمْ ۖ فَالْآنَ بَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَابْتَغُوا مَا كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ ۚ وَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الْأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الْأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ ۖ ثُمَّ أَتِمُّوا الصِّيَامَ إِلَى اللَّيْلِ ۚ وَلَا تُبَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَأَنتُمْ عَاكِفُونَ فِي الْمَسَاجِدِ ۗ تِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ فَلَا تَقْرَبُوهَا ۗكَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ آيَاتِهِ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ
2|187|Permitted for you is intercourse with your wives on the night of the fast. They are a garment for you, and you are a garment for them. God knows that you used to betray yourselves, but He turned to you and pardoned you. So approach them now, and seek what God has ordained for you, and eat and drink until the white streak of dawn can be distinguished from the black streak. Then complete the fast until nightfall. But do not approach them while you are in retreat at the mosques. These are the limits of God, so do not come near them. God thus clarifies His revelations to the people, that they may attain piety.
188وَلَا تَأْكُلُوا أَمْوَالَكُم بَيْنَكُم بِالْبَاطِلِ وَتُدْلُوا بِهَا إِلَى الْحُكَّامِ لِتَأْكُلُوا فَرِيقًا مِّنْ أَمْوَالِ النَّاسِ بِالْإِثْمِ وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
2|188|And do not consume one another’s wealth by unjust means, nor offer it as bribes to the officials in order to consume part of other people’s wealth illicitly, while you know.
 

H 14247, Ch. 7, h 3
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from ‘Abd Allah ibn Bahr from ‘Abd
Allah ibn Muskan from abu Basir who has narrated the following:
“I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the meaning of the words of Allah, most
Majestic, most Glorious, ‘. . . do not consume your wealth among yourselves in falsehood and throw
them to the rulers.’ (2:188) He (the Imam) said, ‘O abu Basir, Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious,
knows that among the nations there are unjust rulers who commit injustice. He has not thereby meant
the rulers of justice but He has meant the unjust rulers. O abu Muhammad, if you have a certain right
on a man and you call him before the judges of justice but he refuses and wants to take you before the
unjust rulers and judges for judgment for him, he is one of those who has gone for justice before the
transgressors. This is mentioned in the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious. “. . . have you
considered those who think they have believed in what Allah has sent before you, they like to seek
judgment before the transgressors when they are commanded to reject the transgressors, the devil.”
(4:60)’”

 
189۞ يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْأَهِلَّةِ ۖ قُلْ هِيَ مَوَاقِيتُ لِلنَّاسِ وَالْحَجِّ ۗ وَلَيْسَ الْبِرُّ بِأَن تَأْتُوا الْبُيُوتَ مِن ظُهُورِهَا وَلَٰكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنِ اتَّقَىٰ ۗ وَأْتُوا الْبُيُوتَ مِنْ أَبْوَابِهَا ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ
2|189|They ask you about the crescents. Say, “They are timetables for people, and for the Hajj.” It is not virtuous that you approach homes from their backs, but virtue is to be pious. So approach homes from their doors, and observe God, that you may succeed.
190وَقَاتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ الَّذِينَ يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ وَلَا تَعْتَدُوا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُعْتَدِينَ
2|190|And fight in the cause of God those who fight you, but do not commit aggression; God does not love the aggressors.
191وَاقْتُلُوهُمْ حَيْثُ ثَقِفْتُمُوهُمْ وَأَخْرِجُوهُم مِّنْ حَيْثُ أَخْرَجُوكُمْ ۚ وَالْفِتْنَةُ أَشَدُّ مِنَ الْقَتْلِ ۚ وَلَا تُقَاتِلُوهُمْ عِندَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ حَتَّىٰ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ فِيهِ ۖ فَإِن قَاتَلُوكُمْ فَاقْتُلُوهُمْ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ جَزَاءُ الْكَافِرِينَ
2|191|And kill them wherever you overtake them, and expel them from where they had expelled you. Oppression is more serious than murder. But do not fight them at the Sacred Mosque, unless they fight you there. If they fight you, then kill them. Such is the retribution of the disbelievers.
192فَإِنِ انتَهَوْا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
2|192|But if they cease, then God is Forgiving and Merciful.
193وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّىٰ لَا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ وَيَكُونَ الدِّينُ لِلَّهِ ۖ فَإِنِ انتَهَوْا فَلَا عُدْوَانَ إِلَّا عَلَى الظَّالِمِينَ
2|193|And fight them until there is no oppression, and worship becomes devoted to God alone. But if they cease, then let there be no hostility except against the oppressors.
194الشَّهْرُ الْحَرَامُ بِالشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ وَالْحُرُمَاتُ قِصَاصٌ ۚ فَمَنِ اعْتَدَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ فَاعْتَدُوا عَلَيْهِ بِمِثْلِ مَا اعْتَدَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الْمُتَّقِينَ
2|194|The sacred month for the sacred month; and sacrilege calls for retaliation. Whoever commits aggression against you, retaliate against him in the same measure as he has committed against you. And be conscious of God, and know that God is with the righteous.
195وَأَنفِقُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَلَا تُلْقُوا بِأَيْدِيكُمْ إِلَى التَّهْلُكَةِ ۛ وَأَحْسِنُوا ۛ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِينَ
2|195|And spend in the cause of God, and do not throw yourselves with your own hands into ruin, and be charitable. God loves the charitable.
 
use of hands suggests your activities and influence which is directly from you
 
196وَأَتِمُّوا الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلَّهِ ۚ فَإِنْ أُحْصِرْتُمْ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ ۖ وَلَا تَحْلِقُوا رُءُوسَكُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَبْلُغَ الْهَدْيُ مَحِلَّهُ ۚ فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضًا أَوْ بِهِ أَذًى مِّن رَّأْسِهِ فَفِدْيَةٌ مِّن صِيَامٍ أَوْ صَدَقَةٍ أَوْ نُسُكٍ ۚ فَإِذَا أَمِنتُمْ فَمَن تَمَتَّعَ بِالْعُمْرَةِ إِلَى الْحَجِّ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ ۚ فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلَاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ فِي الْحَجِّ وَسَبْعَةٍ إِذَا رَجَعْتُمْ ۗ تِلْكَ عَشَرَةٌ كَامِلَةٌ ۗ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَن لَّمْ يَكُنْ أَهْلُهُ حَاضِرِي الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ
2|196|And carry out the Hajj and the Umrah for God. But if you are prevented, then whatever is feasible of offerings. And do not shave your heads until the offering has reached its destination. Whoever of you is sick, or has an injury of the head, then redemption of fasting, or charity, or worship. When you are secure: whoever continues the Umrah until the Hajj, then whatever is feasible of offering. But if he lacks the means, then fasting for three days during the Hajj and seven when you have returned, making ten in all. This is for he whose household is not present at the Sacred Mosque. And remain conscious of God, and know that God is stern in retribution.
197الْحَجُّ أَشْهُرٌ مَّعْلُومَاتٌ ۚ فَمَن فَرَضَ فِيهِنَّ الْحَجَّ فَلَا رَفَثَ وَلَا فُسُوقَ وَلَا جِدَالَ فِي الْحَجِّ ۗ وَمَا تَفْعَلُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ يَعْلَمْهُ اللَّهُ ۗ وَتَزَوَّدُوا فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ الزَّادِ التَّقْوَىٰ ۚ وَاتَّقُونِ يَا أُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ
2|197|The Hajj is during specific months. Whoever decides to perform the Hajj—there shall be no sexual relations, nor misconduct, nor quarrelling during the Hajj. And whatever good you do, God knows it. And take provisions, but the best provision is righteousness. And be mindful of Me, O people of understanding.
198لَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَبْتَغُوا فَضْلًا مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ ۚ فَإِذَا أَفَضْتُم مِّنْ عَرَفَاتٍ فَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ عِندَ الْمَشْعَرِ الْحَرَامِ ۖ وَاذْكُرُوهُ كَمَا هَدَاكُمْ وَإِن كُنتُم مِّن قَبْلِهِ لَمِنَ الضَّالِّينَ
2|198|You commit no error by seeking bounty from your Lord. When you disperse from Arafat, remember God at the Sacred Landmark. And remember Him as He has guided you. Although, before that, you were of those astray.
199ثُمَّ أَفِيضُوا مِنْ حَيْثُ أَفَاضَ النَّاسُ وَاسْتَغْفِرُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
2|199|Then disperse from where the people disperse, and ask God for forgiveness. God is Most Forgiving, Most Merciful.
200فَإِذَا قَضَيْتُم مَّنَاسِكَكُمْ فَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ كَذِكْرِكُمْ آبَاءَكُمْ أَوْ أَشَدَّ ذِكْرًا ۗ فَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا وَمَا لَهُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلَاقٍ
2|200|When you have completed your rites, remember God as you remember your parents, or even more. Among the people is he who says, “Our Lord, give us in this world,” yet he has no share in the Hereafter.
201وَمِنْهُم مَّن يَقُولُ رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَفِي الْآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ
2|201|And among them is he who says, “Our Lord, give us goodness in this world, and goodness in the Hereafter, and protect us from the torment of the Fire.”
202أُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمْ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا كَسَبُوا ۚ وَاللَّهُ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ
2|202|These will have a share of what they have earned. God is swift in reckoning.
203۞ وَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ فِي أَيَّامٍ مَّعْدُودَاتٍ ۚ فَمَن تَعَجَّلَ فِي يَوْمَيْنِ فَلَا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ وَمَن تَأَخَّرَ فَلَا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ ۚ لِمَنِ اتَّقَىٰ ۗ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّكُمْ إِلَيْهِ تُحْشَرُونَ
2|203|And remember God during the designated days. But whoever hurries on in two days commits no wrong, and whoever stays on commits no wrong—provided he maintains righteousness. And obey God, and know that to Him you will be gathered.
204وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يُعْجِبُكَ قَوْلُهُ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَيُشْهِدُ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ مَا فِي قَلْبِهِ وَهُوَ أَلَدُّ الْخِصَامِ
2|204|Among the people is he whose speech about the worldly life impresses you, and he calls God to witness what is in his heart, while he is the most hostile of adversaries.
205وَإِذَا تَوَلَّىٰ سَعَىٰ فِي الْأَرْضِ لِيُفْسِدَ فِيهَا وَيُهْلِكَ الْحَرْثَ وَالنَّسْلَ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْفَسَادَ
2|205|When he gains power, he strives to spread corruption on earth, destroying properties and lives. God does not like corruption.
206وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُ اتَّقِ اللَّهَ أَخَذَتْهُ الْعِزَّةُ بِالْإِثْمِ ۚ فَحَسْبُهُ جَهَنَّمُ ۚ وَلَبِئْسَ الْمِهَادُ
2|206|And when he is told, “Beware of God,” his pride leads him to more sin. Hell is enough for him—a dreadful abode.
207وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَشْرِي نَفْسَهُ ابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاتِ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ رَءُوفٌ بِالْعِبَادِ
2|207|And among the people is he who sells himself seeking God’s approval. God is kind towards the servants.
 

This verse is in praise of Amir al Mumineen, Ali Ibn Abu Talib AS, who slept in the Prophets SAW bed to confuse the assassins. What is interesting is that they found Imam Ali AS fast asleep without any fear or care, even though he knew that people would come to kill him that very night.

 
208يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ادْخُلُوا فِي السِّلْمِ كَافَّةً وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ ۚ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ
2|208|O you who believe! Enter into submission, wholeheartedly, and do not follow the footsteps of Satan; he is to you an outright enemy.
209فَإِن زَلَلْتُم مِّن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْكُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
2|209|But if you slip after the proofs have come to you, know that God is Powerful and Wise.
210هَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّا أَن يَأْتِيَهُمُ اللَّهُ فِي ظُلَلٍ مِّنَ الْغَمَامِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ وَقُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ ۚ وَإِلَى اللَّهِ تُرْجَعُ الْأُمُورُ
2|210|Are they waiting for God Himself to come to them in the shadows of the clouds, together with the angels, and thus the matter is settled? All things are returned to God.
 

There is a mockery of the non Muslim view of God, the Greek God in the heavens surrounded by angels.

 
211سَلْ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ كَمْ آتَيْنَاهُم مِّنْ آيَةٍ بَيِّنَةٍ ۗ وَمَن يُبَدِّلْ نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ
2|211|Ask the Children of Israel how many clear signs We have given them. Whoever alters the blessing of God after it has come to him—God is severe in retribution.
212زُيِّنَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا وَيَسْخَرُونَ مِنَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ۘ وَالَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا فَوْقَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَرْزُقُ مَن يَشَاءُ بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ
2|212|Beautified is the life of this world for those who disbelieve, and they ridicule those who believe. But the righteous will be above them on the Day of Resurrection. God provides to whomever He wills without measure.
213كَانَ النَّاسُ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً فَبَعَثَ اللَّهُ النَّبِيِّينَ مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ وَأَنزَلَ مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ فِيمَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ ۚ وَمَا اخْتَلَفَ فِيهِ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ أُوتُوهُ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ بَغْيًا بَيْنَهُمْ ۖ فَهَدَى اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لِمَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ مِنَ الْحَقِّ بِإِذْنِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ
2|213|Humanity used to be one community; then God sent the prophets, bringing good news and giving warnings. And He sent down with them the Scripture, with the truth, to judge between people regarding their differences. But none differed over it except those who were given it—after the proofs had come to them—out of mutual envy between them. Then God guided those who believed to the truth they had disputed, in accordance with His will. God guides whom He wills to a straight path.
 

humanity existed before prophets, they were one community, perhaps this means united in falsehood, or ignorance, or truth. Would make sense if they were bad, as angels knew about humanity before Adam was made a caliph.

 

214أَمْ حَسِبْتُمْ أَن تَدْخُلُوا الْجَنَّةَ وَلَمَّا يَأْتِكُم مَّثَلُ الَّذِينَ خَلَوْا مِن قَبْلِكُم ۖ مَّسَّتْهُمُ الْبَأْسَاءُ وَالضَّرَّاءُ وَزُلْزِلُوا حَتَّىٰ يَقُولَ الرَّسُولُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَعَهُ مَتَىٰ نَصْرُ اللَّهِ ۗ أَلَا إِنَّ نَصْرَ اللَّهِ قَرِيبٌ
2|214|Or do you expect to enter Paradise before the example of those who came before you had reached you? Adversity and hardship had afflicted them, and they were so shaken up, that the Messenger and those who believed with him said, “When is God’s victory?” Indeed, God’s victory is near.
215يَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا يُنفِقُونَ ۖ قُلْ مَا أَنفَقْتُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ فَلِلْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالْأَقْرَبِينَ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ ۗ وَمَا تَفْعَلُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ بِهِ عَلِيمٌ
2|215|They ask you what they should give. Say, “Whatever charity you give is for the parents, and the relatives, and the orphans, and the poor, and the wayfarer. Whatever good you do, God is aware of it.
216كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِتَالُ وَهُوَ كُرْهٌ لَّكُمْ ۖ وَعَسَىٰ أَن تَكْرَهُوا شَيْئًا وَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ ۖ وَعَسَىٰ أَن تُحِبُّوا شَيْئًا وَهُوَ شَرٌّ لَّكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ
2|216|Fighting is ordained for you, even though you dislike it. But it may be that you dislike something while it is good for you, and it may be that you like something while it is bad for you. God knows, and you do not know.
217يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ قِتَالٍ فِيهِ ۖ قُلْ قِتَالٌ فِيهِ كَبِيرٌ ۖ وَصَدٌّ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَكُفْرٌ بِهِ وَالْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَإِخْرَاجُ أَهْلِهِ مِنْهُ أَكْبَرُ عِندَ اللَّهِ ۚ وَالْفِتْنَةُ أَكْبَرُ مِنَ الْقَتْلِ ۗ وَلَا يَزَالُونَ يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَرُدُّوكُمْ عَن دِينِكُمْ إِنِ اسْتَطَاعُوا ۚ وَمَن يَرْتَدِدْ مِنكُمْ عَن دِينِهِ فَيَمُتْ وَهُوَ كَافِرٌ فَأُولَٰئِكَ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ
2|217|They ask you about fighting during the Holy Month. Say, “Fighting during it is deplorable; but to bar others from God’s path, and to disbelieve in Him, and to prevent access to the Holy Mosque, and to expel its people from it, are more deplorable with God. And persecution is more serious than killing. They will not cease to fight you until they turn you back from your religion, if they can. Whoever among you turns back from his religion, and dies a disbeliever—those are they whose works will come to nothing, in this life, and in the Hereafter. Those are the inmates of the Fire, abiding in it forever.
218إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَالَّذِينَ هَاجَرُوا وَجَاهَدُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أُولَٰئِكَ يَرْجُونَ رَحْمَتَ اللَّهِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
2|218|Those who believed, and those who migrated and fought for the sake of God—those look forward to God’s mercy. God is Forgiving and Merciful.
219۞ يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ ۖ قُلْ فِيهِمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَمَنَافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ وَإِثْمُهُمَا أَكْبَرُ مِن نَّفْعِهِمَا ۗ وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا يُنفِقُونَ قُلِ الْعَفْوَ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمُ الْآيَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَفَكَّرُونَ
2|219|They ask you about intoxicants and gambling. Say, “There is gross sin in them, and some benefits for people, but their sinfulness outweighs their benefit.” And they ask you about what they should give: say, “The surplus.” Thus God explains the revelations to you, so that you may think.
220فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ ۗ وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْيَتَامَىٰ ۖ قُلْ إِصْلَاحٌ لَّهُمْ خَيْرٌ ۖ وَإِن تُخَالِطُوهُمْ فَإِخْوَانُكُمْ ۚ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ الْمُفْسِدَ مِنَ الْمُصْلِحِ ۚ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَأَعْنَتَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
2|220|About this world and the next. And they ask you about orphans. Say, “Improvement for them is best. And if you intermix with them, then they are your brethren.” God knows the dishonest from the honest. Had God willed, He could have overburdened you. God is Mighty and Wise.
221وَلَا تَنكِحُوا الْمُشْرِكَاتِ حَتَّىٰ يُؤْمِنَّ ۚ وَلَأَمَةٌ مُّؤْمِنَةٌ خَيْرٌ مِّن مُّشْرِكَةٍ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَتْكُمْ ۗ وَلَا تُنكِحُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَتَّىٰ يُؤْمِنُوا ۚوَلَعَبْدٌ مُّؤْمِنٌ خَيْرٌ مِّن مُّشْرِكٍ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَكُمْ ۗ أُولَٰئِكَ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى النَّارِ ۖ وَاللَّهُ يَدْعُو إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ وَالْمَغْفِرَةِ بِإِذْنِهِ ۖ وَيُبَيِّنُ آيَاتِهِ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ
2|221|Do not marry idolatresses, unless they have believed. A believing maid is better than an idolatress, even if you like her. And do not marry idolaters, unless they have believed. A believing servant is better than an idolater, even if you like him. These call to the Fire, but God calls to the Garden and to forgiveness, by His leave. He makes clear His communications to the people, that they may be mindful.
222وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْمَحِيضِ ۖ قُلْ هُوَ أَذًى فَاعْتَزِلُوا النِّسَاءَ فِي الْمَحِيضِ ۖ وَلَا تَقْرَبُوهُنَّ حَتَّىٰ يَطْهُرْنَ ۖ فَإِذَا تَطَهَّرْنَ فَأْتُوهُنَّ مِنْ حَيْثُ أَمَرَكُمُ اللَّهُ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ التَّوَّابِينَ وَيُحِبُّ الْمُتَطَهِّرِينَ
2|222|And they ask you about menstruation: say, “It is harmful, so keep away from women during menstruation. And do not approach them until they have become pure. Once they have become pure, approach them in the way God has directed you.” God loves the repentant, and He loves those who keep clean.”
223نِسَاؤُكُمْ حَرْثٌ لَّكُمْ فَأْتُوا حَرْثَكُمْ أَنَّىٰ شِئْتُمْ ۖ وَقَدِّمُوا لِأَنفُسِكُمْ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّكُم مُّلَاقُوهُ ۗ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ
2|223|Your women are cultivation for you; so approach your cultivation whenever you like, and send ahead for yourselves. And fear God, and know that you will meet Him. And give good news to the believers.
224وَلَا تَجْعَلُوا اللَّهَ عُرْضَةً لِّأَيْمَانِكُمْ أَن تَبَرُّوا وَتَتَّقُوا وَتُصْلِحُوا بَيْنَ النَّاسِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
2|224|And do not allow your oaths in God’s name to hinder you from virtue, and righteousness, and making peace between people. God is Listener and Knower.
 

H 14308, Ch. 1, h 4
A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from Yahya ibn Ibrahim from his father from abu
Salam al-Salam al-Muta‘abbid who has said the following:
“I once heard abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, saying to Sadir, ‘O Sadir, one who swears by Allah,
most Majestic, most Glorious, falsely as well as one who swears by Allah truthfully has sinned; Allah,
most Majestic, most Glorious, says, ‘Do not swear by Allah, unless you are obligated.’ (2:224)”

 
225لَّا يُؤَاخِذُكُمُ اللَّهُ بِاللَّغْوِ فِي أَيْمَانِكُمْ وَلَٰكِن يُؤَاخِذُكُم بِمَا كَسَبَتْ قُلُوبُكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ حَلِيمٌ
2|225|God does not hold you responsible for your unintentional oaths, but He holds you responsible for your intentions. God is Forgiving and Forbearing.
 

H 14348, Ch. 8, h 1
Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Harun ibn Muslim from Mas’adah ibn Sadaqah who has narrated the following:
“I once heard abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, saying, about the meaning of the words of Allah, ‘. . .
Allah will not hold you responsible for your meaningless oaths.’ (2:225) Al-Laghw, (meaningless) is a
reference to a man’s saying, ‘La wa Allah, (No, by Allah) Bala wa Allah-i, (yes, by Allah)’ and it does
not make anything binding.”

 
226لِّلَّذِينَ يُؤْلُونَ مِن نِّسَائِهِمْ تَرَبُّصُ أَرْبَعَةِ أَشْهُرٍ ۖ فَإِن فَاءُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
2|226|Those who vow abstinence from their wives must wait for four months. But if they reconcile—God is Forgiving and Merciful.
227وَإِنْ عَزَمُوا الطَّلَاقَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
2|227|And if they resolve to divorce—God is Hearing and Knowing.
228وَالْمُطَلَّقَاتُ يَتَرَبَّصْنَ بِأَنفُسِهِنَّ ثَلَاثَةَ قُرُوءٍ ۚ وَلَا يَحِلُّ لَهُنَّ أَن يَكْتُمْنَ مَا خَلَقَ اللَّهُ فِي أَرْحَامِهِنَّ إِن كُنَّ يُؤْمِنَّ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۚ وَبُعُولَتُهُنَّ أَحَقُّ بِرَدِّهِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ إِنْ أَرَادُوا إِصْلَاحًا ۚ وَلَهُنَّ مِثْلُ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ۚ وَلِلرِّجَالِ عَلَيْهِنَّ دَرَجَةٌ ۗوَاللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
2|228|Divorced women shall wait by themselves for three periods. And it is not lawful for them to conceal what God has created in their wombs, if they believe in God and the Last Day. Meanwhile, their husbands have the better right to take them back, if they desire reconciliation. And women have rights similar to their obligations, according to what is fair. But men have a degree over them. God is Mighty and Wise.
229الطَّلَاقُ مَرَّتَانِ ۖ فَإِمْسَاكٌ بِمَعْرُوفٍ أَوْ تَسْرِيحٌ بِإِحْسَانٍ ۗ وَلَا يَحِلُّ لَكُمْ أَن تَأْخُذُوا مِمَّا آتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ شَيْئًا إِلَّا أَن يَخَافَا أَلَّا يُقِيمَا حُدُودَ اللَّهِ ۖ فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلَّا يُقِيمَا حُدُودَ اللَّهِ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَا فِيمَا افْتَدَتْ بِهِ ۗ تِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ فَلَا تَعْتَدُوهَا ۚ وَمَن يَتَعَدَّ حُدُودَ اللَّهِ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ
2|229|Divorce is allowed twice. Then, either honorable retention, or setting free kindly. It is not lawful for you to take back anything you have given them, unless they fear that they cannot maintain God’s limits. If you fear that they cannot maintain God’s limits, then there is no blame on them if she sacrifices something for her release. These are God’s limits, so do not transgress them. Those who transgress God’s limits are the unjust.
230فَإِن طَلَّقَهَا فَلَا تَحِلُّ لَهُ مِن بَعْدُ حَتَّىٰ تَنكِحَ زَوْجًا غَيْرَهُ ۗ فَإِن طَلَّقَهَا فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَا أَن يَتَرَاجَعَا إِن ظَنَّا أَن يُقِيمَا حُدُودَ اللَّهِ ۗ وَتِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ يُبَيِّنُهَا لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ
2|230|If he divorces her, she shall not be lawful for him again until she has married another husband. If the latter divorces her, then there is no blame on them for reuniting, provided they think they can maintain God’s limits. These are God’s limits; He makes them clear to people who know.
231وَإِذَا طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَبَلَغْنَ أَجَلَهُنَّ فَأَمْسِكُوهُنَّ بِمَعْرُوفٍ أَوْ سَرِّحُوهُنَّ بِمَعْرُوفٍ ۚ وَلَا تُمْسِكُوهُنَّ ضِرَارًا لِّتَعْتَدُوا ۚ وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَٰلِكَ فَقَدْ ظَلَمَ نَفْسَهُ ۚ وَلَا تَتَّخِذُوا آيَاتِ اللَّهِ هُزُوًا ۚ وَاذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَمَا أَنزَلَ عَلَيْكُم مِّنَ الْكِتَابِ وَالْحِكْمَةِ يَعِظُكُم بِهِ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ
2|231|When you divorce women, and they have reached their term, either retain them amicably, or release them amicably. But do not retain them to hurt them and commit aggression. Whoever does that has wronged himself. And do not take God’s revelations for a joke. And remember God’s favor to you, and that He revealed to you the Scripture and Wisdom to teach you. And fear God, and know that God is aware of everything.
232وَإِذَا طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَبَلَغْنَ أَجَلَهُنَّ فَلَا تَعْضُلُوهُنَّ أَن يَنكِحْنَ أَزْوَاجَهُنَّ إِذَا تَرَاضَوْا بَيْنَهُم بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ۗ ذَٰلِكَ يُوعَظُ بِهِ مَن كَانَ مِنكُمْ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۗ ذَٰلِكُمْ أَزْكَىٰ لَكُمْ وَأَطْهَرُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ
2|232|When you divorce women, and they have reached their term, do not prevent them from marrying their husbands, provided they agree on fair terms. Thereby is advised whoever among you believes in God and the Last Day. That is better and more decent for you. God knows, and you do not know.
233۞ وَالْوَالِدَاتُ يُرْضِعْنَ أَوْلَادَهُنَّ حَوْلَيْنِ كَامِلَيْنِ ۖ لِمَنْ أَرَادَ أَن يُتِمَّ الرَّضَاعَةَ ۚ وَعَلَى الْمَوْلُودِ لَهُ رِزْقُهُنَّ وَكِسْوَتُهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ۚ لَا تُكَلَّفُ نَفْسٌ إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا ۚ لَا تُضَارَّ وَالِدَةٌ بِوَلَدِهَا وَلَا مَوْلُودٌ لَّهُ بِوَلَدِهِ ۚ وَعَلَى الْوَارِثِ مِثْلُ ذَٰلِكَ ۗ فَإِنْ أَرَادَا فِصَالًا عَن تَرَاضٍ مِّنْهُمَا وَتَشَاوُرٍ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَا ۗ وَإِنْ أَرَدتُّمْ أَن تَسْتَرْضِعُوا أَوْلَادَكُمْ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذَا سَلَّمْتُم مَّا آتَيْتُم بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ۗ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ
2|233|Mothers may nurse their infants for two whole years, for those who desire to complete the nursing-period. It is the duty of the father to provide for them and clothe them in a proper manner. No soul shall be burdened beyond its capacity. No mother shall be harmed on account of her child, and no father shall be harmed on account of his child. The same duty rests upon the heir. If the couple desire weaning, by mutual consent and consultation, they commit no error by doing so. You commit no error by hiring nursing-mothers, as long as you pay them fairly. And be wary of God, and know that God is Seeing of what you do.
 

H 9843, Ch. 90, h 3
A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn abu Nasr from Hammad ibn
‘Uthaman who has said the following:
“I once heard abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, saying, ‘Breastfeeding after weaning is not effective.’
I then said, ‘I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause, what is al-Fatam (weaning)?’
He (the Imam) said, ‘It is the two years that Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has mentioned (in
His book).’ (2:233)”

H 10648, Ch. 37, h 3 Ali has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad from al-Halabiy who has said the following: “A pregnant divorcee must receive her maintenance until childbirth, and she has the priority to breastfeed the child for wages equal to what another woman asks. Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has said, ‘A mother must not be harmed because of her child or the father because of the child and the heirs also bear such responsibility.’ (2:233) He (the Imam) said, ‘A woman (from us) would raise her hand before her husband, when he wanted to go to bed with her, and say, ‘I do not want to allow you because I fear of becoming pregnant with my child.’ The man would say, ‘I do not want to go to bed with you for my fear of suspending you, thus killing my child.’ Allah prohibited a woman’s harming a man or a man’s harming a woman’ and His words ‘. . . the heirs also bear the same responsibility’ is a prohibition against harming the child or his mother in breastfeeding. She must not charge for breastfeeding for more than two complete years. If they with mutual agreement wean the child before such time, it is fine.’”

 
234وَالَّذِينَ يُتَوَفَّوْنَ مِنكُمْ وَيَذَرُونَ أَزْوَاجًا يَتَرَبَّصْنَ بِأَنفُسِهِنَّ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَعَشْرًا ۖ فَإِذَا بَلَغْنَ أَجَلَهُنَّ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِيمَا فَعَلْنَ فِي أَنفُسِهِنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ
2|234|As for those among you who die and leave widows behind, their widows shall wait by themselves for four months and ten days. When they have reached their term, there is no blame on you regarding what they might honorably do with themselves. God is fully acquainted with what you do.
235وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِيمَا عَرَّضْتُم بِهِ مِنْ خِطْبَةِ النِّسَاءِ أَوْ أَكْنَنتُمْ فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ ۚ عَلِمَ اللَّهُ أَنَّكُمْ سَتَذْكُرُونَهُنَّ وَلَٰكِن لَّا تُوَاعِدُوهُنَّ سِرًّا إِلَّا أَن تَقُولُوا قَوْلًا مَّعْرُوفًا ۚ وَلَا تَعْزِمُوا عُقْدَةَ النِّكَاحِ حَتَّىٰ يَبْلُغَ الْكِتَابُ أَجَلَهُ ۚ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ فَاحْذَرُوهُ ۚ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ حَلِيمٌ
2|235|You commit no error by announcing your engagement to women, or by keeping it to yourselves. God knows that you will be thinking about them. But do not meet them secretly, unless you have something proper to say. And do not confirm the marriage tie until the writing is fulfilled. And know that God knows what is in your souls, so beware of Him. And know that God is Forgiving and Forbearing.
 

H 9802, Ch. 85, h 1
Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad from al-Halabiy who has said the following:
“This is concerning my question before abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the meaning of the
words of Allah, ‘. . . but you must not secretly date (make secret appointment with) such women
(during their waiting period) unless you speak to them in a lawful manner.’ (2:235) He (the Imam)
said, ‘He is a man who speaks to the woman before she completes her waiting period saying, “I invite
you for a date in the house of so and so” and to propose marriage to her and His word, “Unless you
speak to them in a lawful way” is a reference to “proposing marriage”, “. . . but you must not decide
for marriage until the appointed waiting period is complete…” (2:235)’”

 
236لَّا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِن طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ مَا لَمْ تَمَسُّوهُنَّ أَوْ تَفْرِضُوا لَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةً ۚ وَمَتِّعُوهُنَّ عَلَى الْمُوسِعِ قَدَرُهُ وَعَلَى الْمُقْتِرِ قَدَرُهُ مَتَاعًا بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ۖ حَقًّا عَلَى الْمُحْسِنِينَ
2|236|You commit no error by divorcing women before having touched them, or before having set the dowry for them. And compensate them—the wealthy according to his means, and the poor according to his means—with a fair compensation, a duty upon the doers of good.
237وَإِن طَلَّقْتُمُوهُنَّ مِن قَبْلِ أَن تَمَسُّوهُنَّ وَقَدْ فَرَضْتُمْ لَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةً فَنِصْفُ مَا فَرَضْتُمْ إِلَّا أَن يَعْفُونَ أَوْ يَعْفُوَ الَّذِي بِيَدِهِ عُقْدَةُ النِّكَاحِ ۚ وَأَن تَعْفُوا أَقْرَبُ لِلتَّقْوَىٰ ۚ وَلَا تَنسَوُا الْفَضْلَ بَيْنَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ
2|237|If you divorce them before you have touched them, but after you had set the dowry for them, give them half of what you specified—unless they forego the right, or the one in whose hand is the marriage contract foregoes it. But to forego is nearer to piety. And do not forget generosity between one another. God is seeing of everything you do.
238حَافِظُوا عَلَى الصَّلَوَاتِ وَالصَّلَاةِ الْوُسْطَىٰ وَقُومُوا لِلَّهِ قَانِتِينَ
2|238|Guard your prayers, and the middle prayer, and stand before God in devotion.
239فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ فَرِجَالًا أَوْ رُكْبَانًا ۖ فَإِذَا أَمِنتُمْ فَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ كَمَا عَلَّمَكُم مَّا لَمْ تَكُونُوا تَعْلَمُونَ
2|239|But if you are in fear, then on foot, or riding. And when you are safe, remember God, as He taught you what you did not know.
240وَالَّذِينَ يُتَوَفَّوْنَ مِنكُمْ وَيَذَرُونَ أَزْوَاجًا وَصِيَّةً لِّأَزْوَاجِهِم مَّتَاعًا إِلَى الْحَوْلِ غَيْرَ إِخْرَاجٍ ۚ فَإِنْ خَرَجْنَ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي مَا فَعَلْنَ فِي أَنفُسِهِنَّ مِن مَّعْرُوفٍ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
2|240|Those of you who die and leave wives behind—a will shall provide their wives with support for a year, provided they do not leave. If they leave, you are not to blame for what they do with themselves, provided it is reasonable. God is Mighty and Wise.
241وَلِلْمُطَلَّقَاتِ مَتَاعٌ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ۖ حَقًّا عَلَى الْمُتَّقِينَ
2|241|And divorced women shall be provided for, equitably—a duty upon the righteous.
242كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ آيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ
2|242|God thus explains His revelations to you, so that you may understand.
243۞ أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ خَرَجُوا مِن دِيَارِهِمْ وَهُمْ أُلُوفٌ حَذَرَ الْمَوْتِ فَقَالَ لَهُمُ اللَّهُ مُوتُوا ثُمَّ أَحْيَاهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَذُو فَضْلٍ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَشْكُرُونَ
2|243|Have you not considered those who fled their homes, by the thousands, fearful of death? God said to them, “Die.” Then He revived them. God is Gracious towards the people, but most people are not appreciative.
 

Shaykh Abu Ja’far: Our belief concerning resurrection is that it is a fact. Verily Allah, the Mighty and Glorious, has said in His Mighty Book: “Bethink thou (0 Muhammad) of those of old, who went forth from their habitations in their thousands, fearing death, and Allah said unto them: Die, and then He brought them back to life” [2, 243]. These people were the residents of 70,000 houses, and they were visited by the plague each year. The rich, on account of their opulence, used to go out; while the poor would remain on account of their poverty. So the plague used to attack lightly those that went; while it raged severely among those that remained. Now those that remained would say: If only we had departed, surely the plague would not have come upon us. And those that went would say: Had we stayed, it would have attacked us, even as it has attacked them. So they all agreed to depart from their houses collectively when the time of the plague was nigh. Then they all went out and camped on the banks (of a river). And when they had put down their belongings, Allah cried to them: Die, and they perished, one and all. And the passers-by swept them off from the road, and they remained in that condition as long as Allah willed. One of the prophets of Israel named Jeremiah passed by them. He said: If Thou willest, 0 my Lord, Thou couldst revivify, them so that they may inhabit Thy cities, and beget Thy slaves, and worship Thee with those who worship Thee. And Allah through a revelation asked him: Do you wish that for your sake I should bring them back to life ? The Prophet said: Yea, 0 my Lord. So Allah revivified them for his sake and sent them with him.

An example of Rajah.

 
244وَقَاتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
2|244|Fight in the cause of God, and know that God is Hearing and Knowing.
245مَّن ذَا الَّذِي يُقْرِضُ اللَّهَ قَرْضًا حَسَنًا فَيُضَاعِفَهُ لَهُ أَضْعَافًا كَثِيرَةً ۚ وَاللَّهُ يَقْبِضُ وَيَبْسُطُ وَإِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ
2|245|Who is he who will offer God a generous loan, so He will multiply it for him manifold? God receives and amplifies, and to Him you will be returned.
246أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الْمَلَإِ مِن بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ مِن بَعْدِ مُوسَىٰ إِذْ قَالُوا لِنَبِيٍّ لَّهُمُ ابْعَثْ لَنَا مَلِكًا نُّقَاتِلْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۖ قَالَ هَلْ عَسَيْتُمْ إِن كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِتَالُ أَلَّا تُقَاتِلُوا ۖ قَالُوا وَمَا لَنَا أَلَّا نُقَاتِلَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَقَدْ أُخْرِجْنَا مِن دِيَارِنَا وَأَبْنَائِنَا ۖ فَلَمَّا كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْقِتَالُ تَوَلَّوْا إِلَّا قَلِيلًا مِّنْهُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالظَّالِمِينَ
2|246|Have you not considered the notables of the Children of Israel after Moses? When they said to a prophet of theirs, “Appoint a king for us, and we will fight in the cause of God.” He said, “Is it possible that, if fighting was ordained for you, you would not fight?” They said, “Why would we not fight in the cause of God, when we were driven out of our homes, along with our children?” But when fighting was ordained for them, they turned away, except for a few of them. But God is aware of the wrongdoers.
247وَقَالَ لَهُمْ نَبِيُّهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ بَعَثَ لَكُمْ طَالُوتَ مَلِكًا ۚ قَالُوا أَنَّىٰ يَكُونُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ عَلَيْنَا وَنَحْنُ أَحَقُّ بِالْمُلْكِ مِنْهُ وَلَمْ يُؤْتَ سَعَةً مِّنَ الْمَالِ ۚ قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اصْطَفَاهُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَزَادَهُ بَسْطَةً فِي الْعِلْمِ وَالْجِسْمِ ۖ وَاللَّهُ يُؤْتِي مُلْكَهُ مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ
2|247|Their prophet said to them, “God has appointed Talut (Saul) to be your king.” They said, “How can he have authority over us, when we are more worthy of authority than he, and he was not given plenty of wealth?” He said, “God has chosen him over you, and has increased him in knowledge and stature.” God bestows His sovereignty upon whomever He wills. God is Embracing and Knowing.
 

Allah appoints authority within the communities.

 

248وَقَالَ لَهُمْ نَبِيُّهُمْ إِنَّ آيَةَ مُلْكِهِ أَن يَأْتِيَكُمُ التَّابُوتُ فِيهِ سَكِينَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَبَقِيَّةٌ مِّمَّا تَرَكَ آلُ مُوسَىٰ وَآلُ هَارُونَ تَحْمِلُهُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَةً لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ
2|248|And their prophet said to them, “The proof of his kingship is that the Ark will be restored to you, bringing tranquility from your Lord, and relics left by the family of Moses and the family of Aaron. It will be carried by the angels. In that is a sign for you, if you are believers.”
 

H 621, Ch. 38, h 1
A number of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Ali ibn al-
Hakam from Mu’awiya ibn Wahab from Sa‘id al-Samman who has said the following. “I was
in the presence of abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) when two people from the Zaydia sect came to him.
They asked, “Is there with you an Imam obedience to whom is obligatory?” The narrator has
said that the Imams (a.s.) said, “No, there no one as such.” They then said, “Reliable people
have informed us about you that you issue fatwas and that you affirm and speak of it. We can
point out what their names are. They are very pious alert people. They are such that can not
be rejected. The Imams (a.s.) became angry and said, “I have not ordered them to say so.”
When the two men notice anger from the face of The Imams (a.s.) they left.”
The Imams (a.s.) then asked me, “Do you know these two?” I said, “Yes, I know them. They
are from our Suq (shopping center). They belong to the Zaydia sect and they think that the
sword of the Holy Prophet (s.a.) is with ‘Abdallah ibn al-Hassan.” The Imams (a.s.) said,
“They have lied, may Allah condemn them. I swear by Allah, ‘Abdallah ibn al-Hassan has not
seen it with his own eyes, not even of his eyes has seen it. Even his father had seen it except if
he might have seen it with Imam Ali ibn al-Husayn (a.s.). If they are truthful let them say
what kind of mark does its hilt have and what is the mark on its blade?
With me is the sword of the Messenger of Allah, with me is the flag of the Messenger, his
coat of arms, his Lamam (pennon) and his helmet. If they are truthful let them say what kind
of mark does the coat of arms of the Messenger of Allah has? With me is the flag of the
Messenger of Allah, the victorious. With me is the Staff of Moses. With me is the ring of
Solomon son of David. With me is tray on Moses used to offer offerings. With me is the
name that whenever the Messenger of Allah would place it between the Muslims and pagans
no arrow from the pagans would reach the Muslims. With me is the similar object that angels
brought.” Perhaps The Imams (a.s.) has hinted to the following verse. ‘Their Prophet further
told them, “As the evidence of his authority, he will bring to you the Ark which will be a
comfort to you from your Lord and a legacy of the household of Moses and Aaron. It will be
carried by the angels. This is the evidence for you if you have faith.’ (2:248)
The case of the Arms with us is like the case of the Ark in the Israelites. Whichever family
would have had the Ark at their door-front that family would receive prophet-hood. To
whoever of us the Arms are transferred he receives Imamat (leadership with Divine
authority). My father wore the coats of arms of the Messenger of Allah. It would reach the
earth and leave marks. I wore it also and it reached the earth and sometimes it would not.
When the one from us who, will rise to establish the authority of Allah on earth, will come it
will fit him perfectly, if Allah would so will.”

 
249فَلَمَّا فَصَلَ طَالُوتُ بِالْجُنُودِ قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ مُبْتَلِيكُم بِنَهَرٍ فَمَن شَرِبَ مِنْهُ فَلَيْسَ مِنِّي وَمَن لَّمْ يَطْعَمْهُ فَإِنَّهُ مِنِّي إِلَّا مَنِ اغْتَرَفَ غُرْفَةً بِيَدِهِ ۚ فَشَرِبُوا مِنْهُ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا مِّنْهُمْ ۚ فَلَمَّا جَاوَزَهُ هُوَ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَعَهُ قَالُوا لَا طَاقَةَ لَنَا الْيَوْمَ بِجَالُوتَ وَجُنُودِهِ ۚ قَالَ الَّذِينَ يَظُنُّونَ أَنَّهُم مُّلَاقُو اللَّهِ كَم مِّن فِئَةٍ قَلِيلَةٍ غَلَبَتْ فِئَةً كَثِيرَةً بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ مَعَ الصَّابِرِينَ
2|249|When Saul set out with the troops, he said, “God will be testing you with a river. Whoever drinks from it does not belong with me. But whoever does not drink from it, does belong with me, except for whoever scoops up a little with his hand.” But they drank from it, except for a few of them. Then, when he crossed it, he and those who believed with him, they said, “We have no strength to face Goliath and his troops today.” But those who knew that they would meet God said, “How many a small group has defeated a large group by God’s will. God is with the steadfast.”
250وَلَمَّا بَرَزُوا لِجَالُوتَ وَجُنُودِهِ قَالُوا رَبَّنَا أَفْرِغْ عَلَيْنَا صَبْرًا وَثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَنَا وَانصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ
2|250|And when they confronted Goliath and his troops, they said, “Our Lord, pour down patience on us, and strengthen our foothold, and support us against the faithless people.”
251فَهَزَمُوهُم بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ وَقَتَلَ دَاوُودُ جَالُوتَ وَآتَاهُ اللَّهُ الْمُلْكَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَعَلَّمَهُ مِمَّا يَشَاءُ ۗ وَلَوْلَا دَفْعُ اللَّهِ النَّاسَ بَعْضَهُم بِبَعْضٍ لَّفَسَدَتِ الْأَرْضُ وَلَٰكِنَّ اللَّهَ ذُو فَضْلٍ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ
2|251|And they defeated them by God’s leave, and David killed Goliath, and God gave him sovereignty and wisdom, and taught him as He willed. Were it not for God restraining the people, some by means of others, the earth would have gone to ruin. But God is gracious towards mankind.
252تِلْكَ آيَاتُ اللَّهِ نَتْلُوهَا عَلَيْكَ بِالْحَقِّ ۚ وَإِنَّكَ لَمِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ
 
Juz 3
 
2|252|These are God’s revelations, which We recite to you in truth. You are one of the messengers.
253۞ تِلْكَ الرُّسُلُ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ ۘ مِّنْهُم مَّن كَلَّمَ اللَّهُ ۖ وَرَفَعَ بَعْضَهُمْ دَرَجَاتٍ ۚ وَآتَيْنَا عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ الْبَيِّنَاتِ وَأَيَّدْنَاهُ بِرُوحِ الْقُدُسِ ۗ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا اقْتَتَلَ الَّذِينَ مِن بَعْدِهِم مِّن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ وَلَٰكِنِ اخْتَلَفُوا فَمِنْهُم مَّنْ آمَنَ وَمِنْهُم مَّن كَفَرَ ۚ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا اقْتَتَلُوا وَلَٰكِنَّ اللَّهَ يَفْعَلُ مَا يُرِيدُ
2|253|These messengers: We gave some advantage over others. To some of them God spoke directly, and some He raised in rank. We gave Jesus son of Mary the clear miracles, and We strengthened him with the Holy Spirit. Had God willed, those who succeeded them would not have fought one another, after the clear signs had come to them; but they disputed; some of them believed, and some of them disbelieved. Had God willed, they would not have fought one another; but God does whatever He desires.
 

“Had God willed” implies free will is available to humanity, as God did not will, but the events happend, and we are responsible, so it must have been our will.

 

254يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَنفِقُوا مِمَّا رَزَقْنَاكُم مِّن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِيَ يَوْمٌ لَّا بَيْعٌ فِيهِ وَلَا خُلَّةٌ وَلَا شَفَاعَةٌ ۗ وَالْكَافِرُونَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ
2|254|O you who believe! Spend from what We have given you, before a Day comes in which there is neither trading, nor friendship, nor intercession. The disbelievers are the wrongdoers.
 

Some used to bury money as a form of intercession, or offer charity in their will, this is not the same as spending when you have it.

 

255اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ ۚ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ ۚ لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۗ مَن ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِندَهُ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ ۚ يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ ۖ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنْ عِلْمِهِ إِلَّا بِمَا شَاءَ ۚ وَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ ۖ وَلَا يَئُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا ۚ وَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيمُ
2|255|God! There is no god except He, the Living, the Everlasting. Neither slumber overtakes Him, nor sleep. To Him belongs everything in the heavens and everything on earth. Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His permission? He knows what is before them, and what is behind them; and they cannot grasp any of His knowledge, except as He wills. His Throne extends over the heavens and the earth, and their preservation does not burden Him. He is the Most High, the Great.
 

Our belief concerning the Chair (kursi) is that it is the receptacle of all the creatures, including the Throne (arsh), the heavens, the earth and everything else created by Allah. Now kursi according to another interpretation is knowledge (ilm). Imam Ja’far as-Sadiq was asked corning the saying of Allah, the Mighty and Glorious: “His Chair (kursi) embraced the heavens and the earth” [2,255]. He said: It (kursi) is His ilm (knowledge).

 

H 338, Ch. 20, h 4
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from al-Hajjal form Tha‘labah ibn Maymun from Zurarah ibn ’a‘yun who has said the following. “I asked Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.), ‘The heavens and the earth are (contained in His al- Kursi) under His dominion . . .’ (2:255) Do the heavens and earth contain the al-Kursi or that the latter contains the former?” He said that it is al-Kursi that contains the heavens and earth and all things are contained in al-Kursi.”

 
256لَا إِكْرَاهَ فِي الدِّينِ ۖ قَد تَّبَيَّنَ الرُّشْدُ مِنَ الْغَيِّ ۚ فَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِن بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ اسْتَمْسَكَ بِالْعُرْوَةِ الْوُثْقَىٰ لَا انفِصَامَ لَهَا ۗ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
2|256|There shall be no compulsion in religion; the right way has become distinct from the wrong way. Whoever renounces evil and believes in God has grasped the most trustworthy handle; which does not break. God is Hearing and Knowing.
 

God has made the right clear from the wrong, it is up to humanity to choose. Additional Surah 109 explains that Muslims have their views and Non Muslims have different views and each to their own. 

“Let there be no compulsion in religion”-has a very delicate meaning; it implies that compulsion in religion is impossible, because “deen” means faith and belief which are related to the heart, and it is impossible to force someone to believe in something. So, on a personal level, to force someone to believe in something is impossible.

However, on a social level, every country or state -whether Islamic or non-Islamic- has its own rules and regulations which are to be observed by the people living under that system, and that is why we see people in some Islamic countries being forced to observe the Islamic rulings like hijaab, although they might not be Muslims or believe in hijaab.

 

257اللَّهُ وَلِيُّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا يُخْرِجُهُم مِّنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ ۖ وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَوْلِيَاؤُهُمُ الطَّاغُوتُ يُخْرِجُونَهُم مِّنَ النُّورِ إِلَى الظُّلُمَاتِ ۗ أُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ
2|257|God is the Lord of those who believe; He brings them out of darkness and into light. As for those who disbelieve, their lords are the evil ones; they bring them out of light and into darkness—these are the inmates of the Fire, in which they will abide forever.
258أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِي حَاجَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ فِي رَبِّهِ أَنْ آتَاهُ اللَّهُ الْمُلْكَ إِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ رَبِّيَ الَّذِي يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ قَالَ أَنَا أُحْيِي وَأُمِيتُ ۖ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْتِي بِالشَّمْسِ مِنَ الْمَشْرِقِ فَأْتِ بِهَا مِنَ الْمَغْرِبِ فَبُهِتَ الَّذِي كَفَرَ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ
2|258|Have you not considered him who argued with Abraham about his Lord, because God had given him sovereignty? Abraham said, “My Lord is He who gives life and causes death.” He said, “I give life and cause death.” Abraham said, “God brings the sun from the East, so bring it from the West,” so the blasphemer was confounded. God does not guide the wrongdoing people.
259أَوْ كَالَّذِي مَرَّ عَلَىٰ قَرْيَةٍ وَهِيَ خَاوِيَةٌ عَلَىٰ عُرُوشِهَا قَالَ أَنَّىٰ يُحْيِي هَٰذِهِ اللَّهُ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا ۖ فَأَمَاتَهُ اللَّهُ مِائَةَ عَامٍ ثُمَّ بَعَثَهُ ۖقَالَ كَمْ لَبِثْتَ ۖ قَالَ لَبِثْتُ يَوْمًا أَوْ بَعْضَ يَوْمٍ ۖ قَالَ بَل لَّبِثْتَ مِائَةَ عَامٍ فَانظُرْ إِلَىٰ طَعَامِكَ وَشَرَابِكَ لَمْ يَتَسَنَّهْ ۖ وَانظُرْ إِلَىٰ حِمَارِكَ وَلِنَجْعَلَكَ آيَةً لِّلنَّاسِ ۖ وَانظُرْ إِلَى الْعِظَامِ كَيْفَ نُنشِزُهَا ثُمَّ نَكْسُوهَا لَحْمًا ۚ فَلَمَّا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ قَالَ أَعْلَمُ أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
2|259|Or like him who passed by a town collapsed on its foundations. He said, “How can God revive this after its demise?” Thereupon God caused him to die for a hundred years, and then resurrected him. He said, “For how long have you tarried?” He said, “I have tarried for a day, or part of a day.” He said, “No. You have tarried for a hundred years. Now look at your food and your drink—it has not spoiled—and look at your donkey. We will make you a wonder for mankind. And look at the bones, how We arrange them, and then clothe them with flesh.” So when it became clear to him, he said, “I know that God has power over all things.”
 

This is the story of Prophet Uzayr AS (know as Ezra in the west), Ezra lived between the times of King Solomon and the time of Zachariah, father of John the Baptist. Prophet Aziz(as) was his brother. The story is an excellent example of Raj’aa. This is where there is a resurrection before the day of judgement.  According to Sheikh Suduq, this may actually refer to Jeremiah.

 
260وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ رَبِّ أَرِنِي كَيْفَ تُحْيِي الْمَوْتَىٰ ۖ قَالَ أَوَلَمْ تُؤْمِن ۖ قَالَ بَلَىٰ وَلَٰكِن لِّيَطْمَئِنَّ قَلْبِي ۖ قَالَ فَخُذْ أَرْبَعَةً مِّنَ الطَّيْرِ فَصُرْهُنَّ إِلَيْكَ ثُمَّ اجْعَلْ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ جَبَلٍ مِّنْهُنَّ جُزْءًا ثُمَّ ادْعُهُنَّ يَأْتِينَكَ سَعْيًا ۚ وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
2|260|And when Abraham said, “My Lord, show me how You give life to the dead.” He said, “Have you not believed?” He said, “Yes, but to put my heart at ease.” He said, “Take four birds, and incline them to yourself, then place a part on each hill, then call to them; and they will come rushing to you. And know that God is Powerful and Wise.”
 

H 2866, CH 165, h 1
Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus from al Husayn ibn Hakam who has said the following: “Once I wrote to the virtuous servant (of Allah) saying that I had doubt and Ibrahim, peace be upon him, had said, ‘Lord, show me how you will bring the dead to life?’ (2: 260) and I would love that you show me something. The Imam wrote back to me, ‘Ibrahim was a believer. He wanted to increase his belief. You, however, have doubt and there is nothing good in doubt.’ The Imam further wrote, ‘Doubt comes when there is no certainty when certainty, comes then doubting is not permissible.’ He wrote further, ‘Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has said, “We did not find many among them keeping their promises. However, We did find many evil-doers among them.” (7:102) The Imam said, ‘It was revealed about people who doubt.’”

 
261مَّثَلُ الَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ كَمَثَلِ حَبَّةٍ أَنبَتَتْ سَبْعَ سَنَابِلَ فِي كُلِّ سُنبُلَةٍ مِّائَةُ حَبَّةٍ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يُضَاعِفُ لِمَن يَشَاءُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ
2|261|The parable of those who spend their wealth in God’s way is that of a grain that produces seven spikes; in each spike is a hundred grains. God multiplies for whom He wills. God is Bounteous and Knowing.
262الَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ لَا يُتْبِعُونَ مَا أَنفَقُوا مَنًّا وَلَا أَذًى ۙ لَّهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ
2|262|Those who spend their wealth in the way of God, and then do not follow up what they spent with reminders of their generosity or with insults, will have their reward with their Lord—they have nothing to fear, nor shall they grieve.
263۞ قَوْلٌ مَّعْرُوفٌ وَمَغْفِرَةٌ خَيْرٌ مِّن صَدَقَةٍ يَتْبَعُهَا أَذًى ۗ وَاللَّهُ غَنِيٌّ حَلِيمٌ
2|263|Kind words and forgiveness are better than charity followed by insults. God is Rich and Clement.
264يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تُبْطِلُوا صَدَقَاتِكُم بِالْمَنِّ وَالْأَذَىٰ كَالَّذِي يُنفِقُ مَالَهُ رِئَاءَ النَّاسِ وَلَا يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۖفَمَثَلُهُ كَمَثَلِ صَفْوَانٍ عَلَيْهِ تُرَابٌ فَأَصَابَهُ وَابِلٌ فَتَرَكَهُ صَلْدًا ۖ لَّا يَقْدِرُونَ عَلَىٰ شَيْءٍ مِّمَّا كَسَبُوا ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَافِرِينَ
2|264|O you who believe! Do not nullify your charitable deeds with reminders and hurtful words, like him who spends his wealth to be seen by the people, and does not believe in God and the Last Day. His likeness is that of a smooth rock covered with soil: a downpour strikes it, and leaves it bare—they gain nothing from their efforts. God does not guide the disbelieving people.
265وَمَثَلُ الَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُمُ ابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاتِ اللَّهِ وَتَثْبِيتًا مِّنْ أَنفُسِهِمْ كَمَثَلِ جَنَّةٍ بِرَبْوَةٍ أَصَابَهَا وَابِلٌ فَآتَتْ أُكُلَهَا ضِعْفَيْنِ فَإِن لَّمْ يُصِبْهَا وَابِلٌ فَطَلٌّ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ
2|265|And the parable of those who spend their wealth seeking God’s approval, and to strengthen their souls, is that of a garden on a hillside. If heavy rain falls on it, its produce is doubled; and if no heavy rain falls, then dew is enough. God is seeing of everything you do.
266أَيَوَدُّ أَحَدُكُمْ أَن تَكُونَ لَهُ جَنَّةٌ مِّن نَّخِيلٍ وَأَعْنَابٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ لَهُ فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ الثَّمَرَاتِ وَأَصَابَهُ الْكِبَرُ وَلَهُ ذُرِّيَّةٌ ضُعَفَاءُ فَأَصَابَهَا إِعْصَارٌ فِيهِ نَارٌ فَاحْتَرَقَتْ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمُ الْآيَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَفَكَّرُونَ
2|266|Would anyone of you like to have a garden of palms and vines, under which rivers flow—with all kinds of fruit in it for him, and old age has stricken him, and he has weak children—then a tornado with fire batters it, and it burns down? Thus God makes clear the signs for you, so that you may reflect.
267يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَنفِقُوا مِن طَيِّبَاتِ مَا كَسَبْتُمْ وَمِمَّا أَخْرَجْنَا لَكُم مِّنَ الْأَرْضِ ۖ وَلَا تَيَمَّمُوا الْخَبِيثَ مِنْهُ تُنفِقُونَ وَلَسْتُم بِآخِذِيهِ إِلَّا أَن تُغْمِضُوا فِيهِ ۚ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ غَنِيٌّ حَمِيدٌ
2|267|O you who believe! Give of the good things you have earned, and from what We have produced for you from the earth. And do not pick the inferior things to give away, when you yourselves would not accept it except with eyes closed. And know that God is Sufficient and Praiseworthy.
268الشَّيْطَانُ يَعِدُكُمُ الْفَقْرَ وَيَأْمُرُكُم بِالْفَحْشَاءِ ۖ وَاللَّهُ يَعِدُكُم مَّغْفِرَةً مِّنْهُ وَفَضْلًا ۗ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ
2|268|Satan promises you poverty, and urges you to immorality; but God promises you forgiveness from Himself, and grace. God is Embracing and Knowing.
269يُؤْتِي الْحِكْمَةَ مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَمَن يُؤْتَ الْحِكْمَةَ فَقَدْ أُوتِيَ خَيْرًا كَثِيرًا ۗ وَمَا يَذَّكَّرُ إِلَّا أُولُو الْأَلْبَابِ
2|269|He gives wisdom to whomever He wills. Whoever is given wisdom has been given much good. But none pays heed except those with insight.
 

H 11, Ch. 1, h 11
A number of our people has narrated Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from certain persons of his
people in a marfu‘ manner from the Holy Prophet (s.a) who has said the following.
“Allah has not distributed anything among people more excellent than intelligence. The sleeping of a
person of intelligence is better than the worshipping of an ignorant person for the whole night. Staying
of a person of intelligence at home is better than the journeying of an ignorant person in search for
success and good deeds. Allah did not sent any prophet or messenger before the completion of his
intelligence and to let it become better than the intelligence of all of his followers. Whatever a prophet
preserves in his soul is better than the achievement of all the striving people for virtue and good deeds.
People would not fulfil their obligations to Allah without having an understanding about Him. All the
worshippers will not be able to achieve with the virtue of their worships what a person of intelligence
achieves. It is the people of intelligence who are considered as people of proper understanding in chapter
2:269 of the holy Quran, “Only People of understanding realizes this.”

 
270وَمَا أَنفَقْتُم مِّن نَّفَقَةٍ أَوْ نَذَرْتُم مِّن نَّذْرٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُهُ ۗ وَمَا لِلظَّالِمِينَ مِنْ أَنصَارٍ
2|270|Whatever charity you give, or a pledge you fulfill, God knows it. The wrongdoers have no helpers.
271إِن تُبْدُوا الصَّدَقَاتِ فَنِعِمَّا هِيَ ۖ وَإِن تُخْفُوهَا وَتُؤْتُوهَا الْفُقَرَاءَ فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ ۚ وَيُكَفِّرُ عَنكُم مِّن سَيِّئَاتِكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ
2|271|If you give charity openly, that is good. But if you keep it secret, and give it to the needy in private, that is better for you. It will atone for some of your misdeeds. God is cognizant of what you do.
272۞ لَّيْسَ عَلَيْكَ هُدَاهُمْ وَلَٰكِنَّ اللَّهَ يَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ ۗ وَمَا تُنفِقُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَلِأَنفُسِكُمْ ۚ وَمَا تُنفِقُونَ إِلَّا ابْتِغَاءَ وَجْهِ اللَّهِ ۚوَمَا تُنفِقُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ يُوَفَّ إِلَيْكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تُظْلَمُونَ
2|272|Their guidance is not your responsibility, but God guides whom He wills. Any charity you give is for your own good. Any charity you give shall be for the sake of God. Any charity you give will be repaid to you in full, and you will not be wronged.
273لِلْفُقَرَاءِ الَّذِينَ أُحْصِرُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ لَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ ضَرْبًا فِي الْأَرْضِ يَحْسَبُهُمُ الْجَاهِلُ أَغْنِيَاءَ مِنَ التَّعَفُّفِ تَعْرِفُهُم بِسِيمَاهُمْ لَا يَسْأَلُونَ النَّاسَ إِلْحَافًا ۗ وَمَا تُنفِقُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ بِهِ عَلِيمٌ
2|273|It is for the poor; those who are restrained in the way of God, and unable to travel in the land. The unaware would think them rich, due to their dignity. You will recognize them by their features. They do not ask from people insistently. Whatever charity you give, God is aware of it.
 

H 456, Ch. 7, h 11
Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus from Ayyub al-Hurr from
abu Basir from Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who has said the following about the words of
Allah
‘Whoever is given wisdom he has received a great deal of goodness’ (2:273) “It means
obedience to Allah and knowin who one’s Imam is.”

 
274الَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُم بِاللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ سِرًّا وَعَلَانِيَةً فَلَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ
2|274|Those who spend their wealth by night and day, privately and publicly, will receive their reward from their Lord. They have nothing to fear, nor shall they grieve.
 

H 5704, Ch. 1, h 17
Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Ishaq ibn ‘Ammar who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, ‘. . . If you pay it privately to the needy, it is better for you. . . .’ (2:273), has said, ‘This payment is a payment other than compulsory zakat which is paid publicly and not privately.’”

 
275الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ الرِّبَا لَا يَقُومُونَ إِلَّا كَمَا يَقُومُ الَّذِي يَتَخَبَّطُهُ الشَّيْطَانُ مِنَ الْمَسِّ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا إِنَّمَا الْبَيْعُ مِثْلُ الرِّبَا ۗوَأَحَلَّ اللَّهُ الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبَا ۚ فَمَن جَاءَهُ مَوْعِظَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ فَانتَهَىٰ فَلَهُ مَا سَلَفَ وَأَمْرُهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ ۖ وَمَنْ عَادَ فَأُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖهُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ
2|275|Those who swallow usury will not rise, except as someone driven mad by Satan’s touch. That is because they say, “Commerce is like usury.” But God has permitted commerce, and has forbidden usury. Whoever, on receiving advice from his Lord, refrains, may keep his past earnings, and his case rests with God. But whoever resumes—these are the dwellers of the Fire, wherein they will abide forever.
 

This is the ruling of someone who is ignorant of the laws, he does not know that riba is unlawful and therefore judged in the same way as someone who has become mentally retarded.

 

H 8618, Ch. 50, h 3 Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Mansur from Hisham ibn Salim who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who consumes Riba’ and he considers it lawful. He (the Imam) replied, ‘It does not harm him as long as he does not consume it knowing that it is unlawful, in which case he will face the condition of one who is mentioned in the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious. “Those who take unlawful interest will stand before Allah (on the Day of Judgment) as those who suffer from a mental imbalance because of Satan’s touch; they have said that trade is just like unlawful interest. Allah has made trade lawful and has forbidden unlawful interest. One who has received advice from his Lord and has stopped committing sins will be rewarded for his previous good deeds. His affairs will be in the hands of Allah. But one who turns back to committing sins will be of the dwellers of hell wherein he will live forever.” (2:275)’”

 

276يَمْحَقُ اللَّهُ الرِّبَا وَيُرْبِي الصَّدَقَاتِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ كُلَّ كَفَّارٍ أَثِيمٍ
2|276|God condemns usury, and He blesses charities. God does not love any sinful ingrate.
 

Clearly Usury is a negative thing. It seems to be described as the opposite of charity. So usury is not trade and the opposite of charity. The punishments seem also to be extremely harsh (2:275, 3:130 etc):

 

H 8616, Ch. 50, h 1 A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hisham ibn Salim, who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘The sin of receiving one dirham of Riba’ (unlawful interest) is more serious than having carnal relations with one’s relatives (with whom marriage is unlawful).”

 

H 8617, Ch. 50, h 2 Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu Najran from ‘Asim ibn Hamid from m h ibn Qays, who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘One who consumes Riba’, one who feeds Riba’ and one who documents it, are all the same (in committing this sins).’”

 

so the Quran is indicating the usury is a serious crime. We must understand exactly what is meant by usury then, as if it is simply interest on a loan, Doesn’t Allah give interest on loans to Him? in Quran :2:245

 

Also I think this hadith is implying the same thing: 

 

H 8622, Ch. 50, h 7 A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn abu ‘Abd Allah from ‘Uthman ibn ’Isa from Sama‘ah who has said the following: “I once said to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘I have noticed that Allah, most High, has mentioned Riba’ in more than one passages of the Holy Quran. He (the Imam) asked, ‘Do you know why He has done so?’ I (the narrator) replied, ‘No, I do not know.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘It is because He wants people not to deny performing good and benevolent deeds.’”

 

I think the key point here is that there is a difference between interest and usury. It does not seem unreasonable to expect some return on giving the loan, as mentioned earlier, it is natural, Allah would do it. So what is the difference ? 

 

If someone borrows a chair, it is common decency that the man who took the chair now owes in the very least a favor or some gratitude to the chair owner. It would not be right that the chair is simply returned without even a thanks. So it seems that borrowing something and then getting something back for lending something is not in itself unusual or harmful. 

 

It seems riba in itself is not bad, but rather its effects on society, as it it permissible between father and son etc 

 

H 8628, Ch. 51, h 1 Hamid ibn Ziyad has narrated from al-Khashshab from ibn Baqqah from Mu’adh ibn Thabit from ‘Amr ibn Jumay‘ who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘There is no Riba’ between a man and his sons as well between a master and his slave.’”

 

H 8630, Ch. 51, h 3 Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yasin al-Darir from Hariz from Zurarah who has said the following: “Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Riba’ does not apply in the case of a man and his sons, his slave and his wife. Riba’ applies when you do not own certain goods.’ I then asked, ‘Does it apply between me and the pagans?’ He (the Imam) replied, ‘Yes, it applies.’ I said, ‘They are slaves.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘You do not own them. You own them along with others. You and people other than you are equal about them. What is between you and them is not of that nature; your slave is not like the slave who is your slave as well as the slave of someone other than you.’”

 

It certainly seems riba is of two types, a permissible and impermissible:

 

H 8621, Ch. 50, h 6 Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Hammad ibn ‘Isa from Ibrahim ibn ‘Umar al-Yamaniy who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that Riba’ is of two kinds: One kind is that which is consumed and the other kind is not consumed. The gift that one presents to someone in order to receive Thawab (rewards from Allah) is better. Of this kind is the Riba’ which is consumed as it is mentioned in the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, ‘The Riba’ in which you are involved so it increases in people’s property does not increase before Allah.’ (30:38) The other kind of Riba’ is that which Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has prohibited and has warned those involved in it with punishment in the fire.”

 

 

H 8625, Ch. 50, h 10 A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Faddal from ibn Bukayr from ‘Ubayd ibn Zurarah who has said the following: “I once heard abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, saying, ‘Riba’ comes in existence only in what is measured or is weighed.”

 

 

From reading all the hadiths on the matter, the impermissible riba appears to be like a trade where the trade is extremely biased to one side. 

 

H 8629, Ch. 51, h 2 Through the same chain of narrators as the previous one is the following Hadith: “The Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, has said, ‘There is no Riba’ between us and those in the state of war with us. We can receive a thousand dirham from them for just one dirham. We have permission to receive from them but we must not give them anything.’”

 

H 8630, Ch. 51, h 3 Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yasin al-Darir from Hariz from Zurarah who has said the following: “Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Riba’ does not apply in the case of a man and his sons, his slave and his wife. Riba’ applies when you do not own certain goods.’ I then asked, ‘Does it apply between me and the pagans?’ He (the Imam) replied, ‘Yes, it applies.’ I said, ‘They are slaves.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘You do not own them. You own them along with others. You and people other than you are equal about them. What is between you and them is not of that nature; your slave is not like the slave who is your slave as well as the slave of someone other than you.’”

 

H 8625, Ch. 50, h 10 A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Faddal from ibn Bukayr from ‘Ubayd ibn Zurarah who has said the following: “I once heard abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, saying, ‘Riba’ comes in existence only in what is measured or is weighed.”

 
277إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ لَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ
2|277|Those who believe, and do good deeds, and pray regularly, and give charity—they will have their reward with their Lord; they will have no fear, nor shall they grieve.
278يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَذَرُوا مَا بَقِيَ مِنَ الرِّبَا إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ
2|278|O you who believe! Fear God, and forgo what remains of usury, if you are believers.
279فَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلُوا فَأْذَنُوا بِحَرْبٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ۖ وَإِن تُبْتُمْ فَلَكُمْ رُءُوسُ أَمْوَالِكُمْ لَا تَظْلِمُونَ وَلَا تُظْلَمُونَ
2|279|If you do not, then take notice of a war by God and His Messenger. But if you repent, you may keep your capital, neither wronging, nor being wronged.
 
H 8620, Ch. 50, h 5 Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad from al-Halabiy who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that once a man came to my father and said, ‘I have inherited a certain amount of property and I knew the owner from whom I inherited received Raba’ and I know with certainty there is Riba’ in it and I do not feel happy to consume it because of my knowledge about it. I asked the scholars of law of Iraq about it and they said, ‘It is not lawful to consume it.’ Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, said, ‘If you know exactly Riba’ property in it and you know the owner also, you must separate it and return to the owner. If it is mixed you can consume it in good health and pleasure. It is your property but you must stay away from what the previous owner would do. The Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, granted relief to what is passed and prohibited from Riba’ in coming times. If one is ignorant he is exempt, until he comes to know of the unlawfulness of Riba’. Once a person learns that Riba’ is unlawful and punishment becomes necessary if one consumes Riba’ just as it (punishment) is necessary for one who has consumed Riba’.’”
 
280وَإِن كَانَ ذُو عُسْرَةٍ فَنَظِرَةٌ إِلَىٰ مَيْسَرَةٍ ۚ وَأَن تَصَدَّقُوا خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ ۖ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
2|280|But if he is in hardship, then deferment until a time of ease. But to remit it as charity is better for you, if you only knew.
 

H 6100, Ch. 30, h 3
A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ali ibn Asbat from Ya’qub ibn Salim who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that you must leave alone a borrower who has difficulty repaying a loan, just as Allah does (extend the due time for payment of loan if the borrower has difficulty repaying. . . ” (see (2:280)).

 
281وَاتَّقُوا يَوْمًا تُرْجَعُونَ فِيهِ إِلَى اللَّهِ ۖ ثُمَّ تُوَفَّىٰ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَّا كَسَبَتْ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ
2|281|And guard yourselves against a Day when you will be returned to God; then each soul will be rewarded fully for what it has earned, and they will not be wronged.
282يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا تَدَايَنتُم بِدَيْنٍ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى فَاكْتُبُوهُ ۚ وَلْيَكْتُب بَّيْنَكُمْ كَاتِبٌ بِالْعَدْلِ ۚ وَلَا يَأْبَ كَاتِبٌ أَن يَكْتُبَ كَمَا عَلَّمَهُ اللَّهُ ۚ فَلْيَكْتُبْ وَلْيُمْلِلِ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ الْحَقُّ وَلْيَتَّقِ اللَّهَ رَبَّهُ وَلَا يَبْخَسْ مِنْهُ شَيْئًا ۚ فَإِن كَانَ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ الْحَقُّ سَفِيهًا أَوْ ضَعِيفًا أَوْ لَا يَسْتَطِيعُ أَن يُمِلَّ هُوَ فَلْيُمْلِلْ وَلِيُّهُ بِالْعَدْلِ ۚ وَاسْتَشْهِدُوا شَهِيدَيْنِ مِن رِّجَالِكُمْ ۖ فَإِن لَّمْ يَكُونَا رَجُلَيْنِ فَرَجُلٌ وَامْرَأَتَانِ مِمَّن تَرْضَوْنَ مِنَ الشُّهَدَاءِ أَن تَضِلَّ إِحْدَاهُمَا فَتُذَكِّرَ إِحْدَاهُمَا الْأُخْرَىٰ ۚ وَلَا يَأْبَ الشُّهَدَاءُ إِذَا مَا دُعُوا ۚ وَلَا تَسْأَمُوا أَن تَكْتُبُوهُ صَغِيرًا أَوْ كَبِيرًا إِلَىٰ أَجَلِهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ أَقْسَطُ عِندَ اللَّهِ وَأَقْوَمُ لِلشَّهَادَةِ وَأَدْنَىٰ أَلَّا تَرْتَابُوا ۖ إِلَّا أَن تَكُونَ تِجَارَةً حَاضِرَةً تُدِيرُونَهَا بَيْنَكُمْ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَلَّا تَكْتُبُوهَا ۗ وَأَشْهِدُوا إِذَا تَبَايَعْتُمْ ۚ وَلَا يُضَارَّ كَاتِبٌ وَلَا شَهِيدٌ ۚ وَإِن تَفْعَلُوا فَإِنَّهُ فُسُوقٌ بِكُمْ ۗ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۖ وَيُعَلِّمُكُمُ اللَّهُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ
2|282|O you who believe! When you incur debt among yourselves for a certain period of time, write it down. And have a scribe write in your presence, in all fairness. And let no scribe refuse to write, as God has taught him. So let him write, and let the debtor dictate. And let him fear God, his Lord, and diminish nothing from it. But if the debtor is mentally deficient, or weak, or unable to dictate, then let his guardian dictate with honesty. And call to witness two men from among you. If two men are not available, then one man and two women whose testimony is acceptable to all—if one of them fails to remember, the other would remind her. Witnesses must not refuse when called upon. And do not think it too trivial to write down, whether small or large, including the time of repayment. That is more equitable with God, and stronger as evidence, and more likely to prevent doubt—except in the case of a spot transaction between you—then there is no blame on you if you do not write it down. And let there be witnesses whenever you conclude a contract, and let no harm be done to either scribe or witness. If you do that, it is corruption on your part. And fear God. God teaches you. God is aware of everything.
 

H 14108, Ch. 2, h 3
A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from Muhammad ibn alFudayl who has narrated the following: “This is about the meaning of the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious. ‘. . . the witnesses must not refuse to testify when they are summoned to testify,’ (2:282) abu al-Hassan, ‘Alayhi alSalam, has said, ‘When the man calls you to testify for him about a loan or a right, it is not proper for you to refuse and step back to delay.’”

 
283۞ وَإِن كُنتُمْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ وَلَمْ تَجِدُوا كَاتِبًا فَرِهَانٌ مَّقْبُوضَةٌ ۖ فَإِنْ أَمِنَ بَعْضُكُم بَعْضًا فَلْيُؤَدِّ الَّذِي اؤْتُمِنَ أَمَانَتَهُ وَلْيَتَّقِ اللَّهَ رَبَّهُ ۗ وَلَا تَكْتُمُوا الشَّهَادَةَ ۚ وَمَن يَكْتُمْهَا فَإِنَّهُ آثِمٌ قَلْبُهُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ عَلِيمٌ
2|283|If you are on a journey, and cannot find a scribe, then a security deposit should be handed over. But if you trust one another, let the trustee fulfill his trust, and let him fear God, his Lord. And do not conceal testimony. Whoever conceals it is sinner at heart. God is aware of what you do.
 

H 14113, Ch. 3, h 2
Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hisham ibn Salim who has narrated the following: “About the meaning of the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, ‘. . . one who hides a testimony his heart is sinful,’ (2: 283) abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘It is after having witnessed a case.’”

 
284لِّلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۗ وَإِن تُبْدُوا مَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ أَوْ تُخْفُوهُ يُحَاسِبْكُم بِهِ اللَّهُ ۖ فَيَغْفِرُ لِمَن يَشَاءُ وَيُعَذِّبُ مَن يَشَاءُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
2|284|To God belongs everything in the heavens and the earth. Whether you reveal what is within your selves, or conceal it, God will call you to account for it. He forgives whom He wills, and He punishes whom He wills. God is Able to do all things.
285آمَنَ الرَّسُولُ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مِن رَّبِّهِ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ ۚ كُلٌّ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّن رُّسُلِهِ ۚ وَقَالُوا سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا ۖ غُفْرَانَكَ رَبَّنَا وَإِلَيْكَ الْمَصِيرُ
2|285|The Messenger has believed in what was revealed to him from his Lord, as did the believers. They all have believed in God, and His angels, and His scriptures, and His messengers: “We make no distinction between any of His messengers.” And they say, “We hear and we obey. Your forgiveness, our Lord. To you is the destiny.”
 

No distinction in terms of their beliefs, but there were given different attributes and methods according to the people of their times see 2:253 

 
286لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا ۚ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا مَا اكْتَسَبَتْ ۗ رَبَّنَا لَا تُؤَاخِذْنَا إِن نَّسِينَا أَوْ أَخْطَأْنَا ۚ رَبَّنَا وَلَا تَحْمِلْ عَلَيْنَا إِصْرًا كَمَا حَمَلْتَهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِنَا ۚ رَبَّنَا وَلَا تُحَمِّلْنَا مَا لَا طَاقَةَ لَنَا بِهِ ۖ وَاعْفُ عَنَّا وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا وَارْحَمْنَا ۚ أَنتَ مَوْلَانَا فَانصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ
2|286|God does not burden any soul beyond its capacity. To its credit is what it earns, and against it is what it commits. “Our Lord, do not condemn us if we forget or make a mistake. Our Lord, do not burden us as You have burdened those before us. Our Lord, do not burden us with more than we have strength to bear; and pardon us, and forgive us, and have mercy on us. You are our Lord and Master, so help us against the disbelieving people.”
 

H 3039, CH 202, h 1
Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu’alla ibn Muhammad from abu Dawud al-Mustriq who has that narrated to him ‘Amr ibn Marwan who has said the following: “I heard abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, saying, ‘The Messenger of Allah has said, “My followers are exempt from responsibility for four things: Acting mistakenly, forgetting, being coerced and compelled, and for failing to act. This has been mentioned in the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, ‘Lord, do not hold us responsible for our forgetfulness and mistakes. Lord, do not lay upon us the burden that You laid upon those who lived before us. Lord, do not lay upon us what we cannot afford. Ignore and forgive our sins. Have mercy upon us. You are our Lord. Help us against the unbelievers,’ (2:286) also in His words, ‘No one verbally denounces his faith in Allah, unless he is forced, but his heart is confident with his faith. . . .’” (16:106)

 

Says the Shaykh Abu Ja’far: Our belief concerning the obligation to obey the law (taklif) is that Allah imposes upon His slaves (mankind) only such legal obligations as are within their power (to obey), for He says:

“Allah tasketh not a soul beyond its capacity” (Qur’an 2:286).

Now (in the Arabic idiom) wus’ (capacity, scope) indicates a lesser degree of potentiality thantaqa (strength). And (Imam Ja’far) as-Sadiq has said: I swear by Allah, Allah has not burdened His slaves, save to a lesser extent than their capacity.

For He has only imposed upon them five prayers during the course of a day and night; and only thirty days of fast during the year; and only five out of every two hundred dirhams (aszakat); and only one pilgrimage during the course of a lifetime, although the full extent of their capacity is greater.

 

 

 
Medina Minds Team

Medina Minds Team

A group of contributors who are working to publicize the reality of Islam and Muslims.

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