Tafsir 4. An Nisa

An-Nisaa

1يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالًا كَثِيرًا وَنِسَاءً ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ الَّذِي تَسَاءَلُونَ بِهِ وَالْأَرْحَامَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَيْكُمْ رَقِيبًا
4|1|O people! Fear your Lord, who created you from a single soul, and created from it its mate, and propagated from them many men and women. And revere God whom you ask about, and the parents. Surely, God is Watchful over you.
2وَآتُوا الْيَتَامَىٰ أَمْوَالَهُمْ ۖ وَلَا تَتَبَدَّلُوا الْخَبِيثَ بِالطَّيِّبِ ۖ وَلَا تَأْكُلُوا أَمْوَالَهُمْ إِلَىٰ أَمْوَالِكُمْ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ حُوبًا كَبِيرًا
4|2|And give orphans their properties, and do not substitute the bad for the good. And do not consume their properties by combining them with yours, for that would be a serious sin.
3وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلَّا تُقْسِطُوا فِي الْيَتَامَىٰ فَانكِحُوا مَا طَابَ لَكُم مِّنَ النِّسَاءِ مَثْنَىٰ وَثُلَاثَ وَرُبَاعَ ۖ فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلَّا تَعْدِلُوا فَوَاحِدَةً أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ أَدْنَىٰ أَلَّا تَعُولُوا
4|3|If you fear you cannot act fairly towards the orphans—then marry the women you like—two, or three, or four. But if you fear you will not be fair, then one, or what you already have. That makes it more likely that you avoid bias.

 seems the context of marrying more than one wife is to look after orphans. In much the same way orphans are looked after and adopted today, whole families (minus the deceased father) appear to be able to be adopted in the form of marriage. The principle being to care for children and families , not lustful desires of a man.

عزوجل: ” فانكحوا ما طاب لكم من النساء مثنى وثلاث ورباع فإن خفتم إلا تعدلوا فواحدة ” أ ليس هذا فرض؟ قال: بلى، قال: فأخبرني عن قوله عزوجل: ” ولن تستطيعوا أن تعدلوا بين النساء ولو حرصتم فلا تميلوا كل الميل اي حكيم يتكلم بهذا فلم يكن عنده جواب فرحل إلى المدينة إلى أبي عبدالله (ع) فقال : ياهشام في غير وقت حج ولا عمرة؟ قال: نعم جعلت فداك لامر أهمني إن ابن أبي العوجاء سألني عن مسألة لم يكن عندي فيها شئ قال: وماهي؟ قال: فأخبره بالقصة فقال له أبوعبدالله (ع): أما قوله عزوجل: ” فانكحوا ماطاب لكم من النساء مثنى وثلاث ورباع فإن خفتم الا تعدلوا فواحدة ” يعني في النفقة وأما قوله: ” ولن تستطيعوا أن تعدلوا بين النساء ولو حرصتم فلا تميلوا كل الميل فتذروها كالمعلقة ” يعني في المودة، قال: فلما قدم عليه هشام بهذا الجواب وأخبره قال: والله ماهذا من عندك.  `Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Nuh b. Shu`ayb and Muhammad b. al-Hasan.  He said:  Ibn Abi ‘l-`Awja’ asked Hisham b. al-Hakam.  He said to him:  Is Allah not wise (hakeem)?  He said:  Of course, rather He is the wisest of the wise (ahkam al-hakimeen).  He said:  So inform me about His, `azza wa jalla, saying “so marry such women as seem good to you, two, three, four; but if you fear you will not be equitable, then one”(4:3) , is this not obligatory?  He said: Of course.  He said:  So inform me about His, `azza wa jalla, saying “You will not be able to be equitable between your wives, be you ever so eager; yet do not be altogether partial.”(4:129)  What kind of hakeem would speak like this?  So he did not have an answer, so he travelled to Madina to Abu `Abdillah (as).  So he said:  Oh Hisham, in other than the time of Hajj, and not `Umra?  He said:  Yes, may I be your sacrifice.  (It is) for a matter that has distressed me.  Ibn Abi ‘l-`Awja’ asked me about an issue that there is nothing with me (regarding it).  He said:  And what is it?  He said:  So I told him the story.  So Abu `Abdillah (as) said to him:  As to His, `azza wa jalla, saying “so marry such women as seem good to you, two, three, four; but if you fear you will not be equitable, then one”, meaning in maintenance (an-nafaqa).  As to His, `azza wa jalla, saying “You will not be able to be equitable between your wives, be you ever so eager; yet do not be altogether partial so that you leave her as it were suspended” meaning in love (al-muwadda).  He said:  So when Hisham came with this answer, and informed him, he said:  By Allah, this is not from you.

 
4وَآتُوا النِّسَاءَ صَدُقَاتِهِنَّ نِحْلَةً ۚ فَإِن طِبْنَ لَكُمْ عَن شَيْءٍ مِّنْهُ نَفْسًا فَكُلُوهُ هَنِيئًا مَّرِيئًا
4|4|Give women their dowries graciously. But if they willingly forego some of it, then consume it with enjoyment and pleasure.
5وَلَا تُؤْتُوا السُّفَهَاءَ أَمْوَالَكُمُ الَّتِي جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ قِيَامًا وَارْزُقُوهُمْ فِيهَا وَاكْسُوهُمْ وَقُولُوا لَهُمْ قَوْلًا مَّعْرُوفًا
4|5|Do not give the immature your money which God has assigned to you for support. But provide for them from it, and clothe them, and speak to them with kind words.
6وَابْتَلُوا الْيَتَامَىٰ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا بَلَغُوا النِّكَاحَ فَإِنْ آنَسْتُم مِّنْهُمْ رُشْدًا فَادْفَعُوا إِلَيْهِمْ أَمْوَالَهُمْ ۖ وَلَا تَأْكُلُوهَا إِسْرَافًا وَبِدَارًا أَن يَكْبَرُوا ۚوَمَن كَانَ غَنِيًّا فَلْيَسْتَعْفِفْ ۖ وَمَن كَانَ فَقِيرًا فَلْيَأْكُلْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ۚ فَإِذَا دَفَعْتُمْ إِلَيْهِمْ أَمْوَالَهُمْ فَأَشْهِدُوا عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ حَسِيبًا
4|6|Test the orphans until they reach the age of marriage. If you find them to be mature enough, hand over their properties to them. And do not consume it extravagantly or hastily before they grow up. The rich shall not charge any wage, but the poor may charge fairly. When you hand over their properties to them, have it witnessed for them. God suffices as a Reckoner.
7لِّلرِّجَالِ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا تَرَكَ الْوَالِدَانِ وَالْأَقْرَبُونَ وَلِلنِّسَاءِ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا تَرَكَ الْوَالِدَانِ وَالْأَقْرَبُونَ مِمَّا قَلَّ مِنْهُ أَوْ كَثُرَ ۚ نَصِيبًا مَّفْرُوضًا
4|7|Men receive a share of what their parents and relatives leave, and women receive a share of what their parents and relatives leave; be it little or much—a legal share.
8وَإِذَا حَضَرَ الْقِسْمَةَ أُولُو الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينُ فَارْزُقُوهُم مِّنْهُ وَقُولُوا لَهُمْ قَوْلًا مَّعْرُوفًا
4|8|If the distribution is attended by the relatives, and the orphans, and the needy, give them something out of it, and speak to them kindly.
9وَلْيَخْشَ الَّذِينَ لَوْ تَرَكُوا مِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّةً ضِعَافًا خَافُوا عَلَيْهِمْ فَلْيَتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَلْيَقُولُوا قَوْلًا سَدِيدًا
4|9|Those who are concerned about the fate of their weak children, in case they leave them behind, should fear God, and speak appropriate words.
10إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ أَمْوَالَ الْيَتَامَىٰ ظُلْمًا إِنَّمَا يَأْكُلُونَ فِي بُطُونِهِمْ نَارًا ۖ وَسَيَصْلَوْنَ سَعِيرًا
4|10|Those who consume the wealth of orphans illicitly consume only fire into their bellies; and they will roast in a Blaze.
11يُوصِيكُمُ اللَّهُ فِي أَوْلَادِكُمْ ۖ لِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الْأُنثَيَيْنِ ۚ فَإِن كُنَّ نِسَاءً فَوْقَ اثْنَتَيْنِ فَلَهُنَّ ثُلُثَا مَا تَرَكَ ۖ وَإِن كَانَتْ وَاحِدَةً فَلَهَا النِّصْفُ ۚ وَلِأَبَوَيْهِ لِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِّنْهُمَا السُّدُسُ مِمَّا تَرَكَ إِن كَانَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ ۚ فَإِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهُ وَلَدٌ وَوَرِثَهُ أَبَوَاهُ فَلِأُمِّهِ الثُّلُثُ ۚ فَإِن كَانَ لَهُ إِخْوَةٌ فَلِأُمِّهِ السُّدُسُ ۚ مِن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصِي بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ ۗ آبَاؤُكُمْ وَأَبْنَاؤُكُمْ لَا تَدْرُونَ أَيُّهُمْ أَقْرَبُ لَكُمْ نَفْعًا ۚ فَرِيضَةً مِّنَ اللَّهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا
4|11|God instructs you regarding your children: The male receives the equivalent of the share of two females. If they are daughters, more than two, they get two-thirds of what he leaves. If there is only one, she gets one-half. As for the parents, each gets one-sixth of what he leaves, if he had children. If he had no children, and his parents inherit from him, his mother gets one-third. If he has siblings, his mother gets one-sixth. After fulfilling any bequest and paying off debts. Your parents and your children—you do not know which are closer to you in welfare. This is God’s Law. God is Knowing and Judicious.
12۞ وَلَكُمْ نِصْفُ مَا تَرَكَ أَزْوَاجُكُمْ إِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهُنَّ وَلَدٌ ۚ فَإِن كَانَ لَهُنَّ وَلَدٌ فَلَكُمُ الرُّبُعُ مِمَّا تَرَكْنَ ۚ مِن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصِينَ بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ ۚ وَلَهُنَّ الرُّبُعُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُمْ إِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّكُمْ وَلَدٌ ۚ فَإِن كَانَ لَكُمْ وَلَدٌ فَلَهُنَّ الثُّمُنُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُم ۚ مِّن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ تُوصُونَ بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ ۗ وَإِن كَانَ رَجُلٌ يُورَثُ كَلَالَةً أَوِ امْرَأَةٌ وَلَهُ أَخٌ أَوْ أُخْتٌ فَلِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِّنْهُمَا السُّدُسُ ۚ فَإِن كَانُوا أَكْثَرَ مِن ذَٰلِكَ فَهُمْ شُرَكَاءُ فِي الثُّلُثِ ۚ مِن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصَىٰ بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ غَيْرَ مُضَارٍّ ۚ وَصِيَّةً مِّنَ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَلِيمٌ
4|12|You get one-half of what your wives leave behind, if they had no children. If they had children, you get one-fourth of what they leave. After fulfilling any bequest and paying off debts. They get one-fourth of what you leave behind, if you have no children. If you have children, they get one-eighth of what you leave. After fulfilling any bequest and paying off debts. If a man or woman leaves neither parents nor children, but has a brother or sister, each of them gets one-sixth. If there are more siblings, they share one-third. After fulfilling any bequest and paying off debts, without any prejudice. This is a will from God. God is Knowing and Clement.
13تِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ ۚ وَمَن يُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ يُدْخِلْهُ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ
4|13|These are the bounds set by God. Whoever obeys God and His Messenger, He will admit him into Gardens beneath which rivers flow, to abide therein forever. That is the great attainment.
14وَمَن يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَيَتَعَدَّ حُدُودَهُ يُدْخِلْهُ نَارًا خَالِدًا فِيهَا وَلَهُ عَذَابٌ مُّهِينٌ
4|14|But whoever disobeys God and His Messenger, and oversteps His bounds, He will admit him into a Fire, wherein he abides forever, and he will have a shameful punishment.
15وَاللَّاتِي يَأْتِينَ الْفَاحِشَةَ مِن نِّسَائِكُمْ فَاسْتَشْهِدُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ أَرْبَعَةً مِّنكُمْ ۖ فَإِن شَهِدُوا فَأَمْسِكُوهُنَّ فِي الْبُيُوتِ حَتَّىٰ يَتَوَفَّاهُنَّ الْمَوْتُ أَوْ يَجْعَلَ اللَّهُ لَهُنَّ سَبِيلًا
4|15|Those of your women who commit lewdness, you must have four witnesses against them, from among you. If they testify, confine them to the homes until death claims them, or God makes a way for them.
 

Refer to any form of female sexual immorality, such as unmarried interactions with men or women.

 

16وَاللَّذَانِ يَأْتِيَانِهَا مِنكُمْ فَآذُوهُمَا ۖ فَإِن تَابَا وَأَصْلَحَا فَأَعْرِضُوا عَنْهُمَا ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ تَوَّابًا رَّحِيمًا
4|16|If two men among you commit it, punish them both. But if they repent and reform, leave them alone. God is Redeemer, Full of Mercy.
 

Refer to any form of male sexual immorality, such as unmarried interactions with men or women.

 
17إِنَّمَا التَّوْبَةُ عَلَى اللَّهِ لِلَّذِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ السُّوءَ بِجَهَالَةٍ ثُمَّ يَتُوبُونَ مِن قَرِيبٍ فَأُولَٰئِكَ يَتُوبُ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا
4|17|Repentance is available from God for those who commit evil out of ignorance, and then repent soon after. These—God will relent towards them. God is Knowing and Wise.
 

H 122, Ch. 15, h 3
Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father and Muhammad ibn ’Isma‘il from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan, both from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Jamil ibn Darraj who has said the following. “(Imam) abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) has said, “When the soul reaches here, pointing to his throat, there will be no chance for learned persons to repent. He recited this verse; “God will only accept the repentance of those who commit evil in ignorance, if they repent immediately. God is All-knowing and All-wise (4:17)”

 
18وَلَيْسَتِ التَّوْبَةُ لِلَّذِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ السَّيِّئَاتِ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا حَضَرَ أَحَدَهُمُ الْمَوْتُ قَالَ إِنِّي تُبْتُ الْآنَ وَلَا الَّذِينَ يَمُوتُونَ وَهُمْ كُفَّارٌ ۚأُولَٰئِكَ أَعْتَدْنَا لَهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا
4|18|But repentance is not available for those who commit evils, until when death approaches one of them, he says, “Now I repent,” nor for those who die as disbelievers. These—We have prepared for them a painful torment.
 

Cant sin all through life knowingly, then ask for forgiveness at the end of life, like Saddam Hussein etc. Also shows how Islam is a process, not simply a belief or label. If you haven’t done anything which Islam calls for, you cant reasonably expect to be a Muslim, or forgiven. 

 

19يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا يَحِلُّ لَكُمْ أَن تَرِثُوا النِّسَاءَ كَرْهًا ۖ وَلَا تَعْضُلُوهُنَّ لِتَذْهَبُوا بِبَعْضِ مَا آتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ إِلَّا أَن يَأْتِينَ بِفَاحِشَةٍ مُّبَيِّنَةٍ ۚ وَعَاشِرُوهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ۚ فَإِن كَرِهْتُمُوهُنَّ فَعَسَىٰ أَن تَكْرَهُوا شَيْئًا وَيَجْعَلَ اللَّهُ فِيهِ خَيْرًا كَثِيرًا
4|19|O you who believe! It is not permitted for you to inherit women against their will. And do not coerce them in order to take away some of what you had given them, unless they commit a proven adultery. And live with them in kindness. If you dislike them, it may be that you dislike something in which God has placed much good.
20وَإِنْ أَرَدتُّمُ اسْتِبْدَالَ زَوْجٍ مَّكَانَ زَوْجٍ وَآتَيْتُمْ إِحْدَاهُنَّ قِنطَارًا فَلَا تَأْخُذُوا مِنْهُ شَيْئًا ۚ أَتَأْخُذُونَهُ بُهْتَانًا وَإِثْمًا مُّبِينًا
4|20|If you wish to replace one wife with another, and you have given one of them a fortune, take nothing back from it. Would you take it back fraudulently and sinfully?
21وَكَيْفَ تَأْخُذُونَهُ وَقَدْ أَفْضَىٰ بَعْضُكُمْ إِلَىٰ بَعْضٍ وَأَخَذْنَ مِنكُم مِّيثَاقًا غَلِيظًا
4|21|And how can you take it back, when you have been intimate with one another, and they have received from you a solid commitment?
22وَلَا تَنكِحُوا مَا نَكَحَ آبَاؤُكُم مِّنَ النِّسَاءِ إِلَّا مَا قَدْ سَلَفَ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ فَاحِشَةً وَمَقْتًا وَسَاءَ سَبِيلًا
4|22|Do not marry women whom your fathers married, except what is already past. That is improper, indecent, and a bad custom.
23حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمْ أُمَّهَاتُكُمْ وَبَنَاتُكُمْ وَأَخَوَاتُكُمْ وَعَمَّاتُكُمْ وَخَالَاتُكُمْ وَبَنَاتُ الْأَخِ وَبَنَاتُ الْأُخْتِ وَأُمَّهَاتُكُمُ اللَّاتِي أَرْضَعْنَكُمْ وَأَخَوَاتُكُم مِّنَ الرَّضَاعَةِ وَأُمَّهَاتُ نِسَائِكُمْ وَرَبَائِبُكُمُ اللَّاتِي فِي حُجُورِكُم مِّن نِّسَائِكُمُ اللَّاتِي دَخَلْتُم بِهِنَّ فَإِن لَّمْ تَكُونُوا دَخَلْتُم بِهِنَّ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَحَلَائِلُ أَبْنَائِكُمُ الَّذِينَ مِنْ أَصْلَابِكُمْ وَأَن تَجْمَعُوا بَيْنَ الْأُخْتَيْنِ إِلَّا مَا قَدْ سَلَفَ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا
4|23|Forbidden for you are your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your paternal aunts, your maternal aunts, your brother’s daughters, your sister’s daughters, your foster-mothers who nursed you, your sisters through nursing, your wives’ mothers, and your stepdaughters in your guardianship—born of wives you have gone into—but if you have not gone into them, there is no blame on you. And the wives of your genetic sons, and marrying two sisters simultaneously. Except what is past. God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
24۞ وَالْمُحْصَنَاتُ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ إِلَّا مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ ۖ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ ۚ وَأُحِلَّ لَكُم مَّا وَرَاءَ ذَٰلِكُمْ أَن تَبْتَغُوا بِأَمْوَالِكُم مُّحْصِنِينَ غَيْرَ مُسَافِحِينَ ۚ فَمَا اسْتَمْتَعْتُم بِهِ مِنْهُنَّ فَآتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةً ۚ وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِيمَا تَرَاضَيْتُم بِهِ مِن بَعْدِ الْفَرِيضَةِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا
4|24|And all married women, except those you rightfully possess. This is God’s decree, binding upon you. Permitted for you are those that lie outside these limits, provided you seek them in legal marriage, with gifts from your property, seeking marriage not fornication. If you wish to enjoy them, then give them their dowry—a legal obligation. You commit no error by agreeing to any change to the dowry. God is All-Knowing, Most Wise.
 

Marriage is not the same as fornication. Marriage is a legal agreement between a man and women, with the agreed exchange of dowry from the man to the woman. Fornication is a purely lustful act with no proper legal status, therefore there is no thought to any repercussions, such as children or maintenance of the lady.

 

25وَمَن لَّمْ يَسْتَطِعْ مِنكُمْ طَوْلًا أَن يَنكِحَ الْمُحْصَنَاتِ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ فَمِن مَّا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُم مِّن فَتَيَاتِكُمُ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِإِيمَانِكُم ۚ بَعْضُكُم مِّن بَعْضٍ ۚ فَانكِحُوهُنَّ بِإِذْنِ أَهْلِهِنَّ وَآتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ مُحْصَنَاتٍ غَيْرَ مُسَافِحَاتٍ وَلَا مُتَّخِذَاتِ أَخْدَانٍ ۚ فَإِذَا أُحْصِنَّ فَإِنْ أَتَيْنَ بِفَاحِشَةٍ فَعَلَيْهِنَّ نِصْفُ مَا عَلَى الْمُحْصَنَاتِ مِنَ الْعَذَابِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَنْ خَشِيَ الْعَنَتَ مِنكُمْ ۚ وَأَن تَصْبِرُوا خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
4|25|If any of you lack the means to marry free believing women, he may marry one of the believing maids under your control. God is well aware of your faith. You are from one another. Marry them with the permission of their guardians, and give them their recompense fairly—to be protected—neither committing adultery, nor taking lovers. When they are married, if they commit adultery, their punishment shall be half that of free women. That is for those among you who fear falling into decadence. But to practice self-restraint is better for you. God is Most Forgiving, Most Merciful.
26يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُبَيِّنَ لَكُمْ وَيَهْدِيَكُمْ سُنَنَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ وَيَتُوبَ عَلَيْكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ
4|26|God intends to make things clear to you, and to guide you in the ways of those before you, and to redeem you. God is Most Knowing, Most Wise.
27وَاللَّهُ يُرِيدُ أَن يَتُوبَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَيُرِيدُ الَّذِينَ يَتَّبِعُونَ الشَّهَوَاتِ أَن تَمِيلُوا مَيْلًا عَظِيمًا
4|27|God intends to redeem you, but those who follow their desires want you to turn away utterly.
28يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ أَن يُخَفِّفَ عَنكُمْ ۚ وَخُلِقَ الْإِنسَانُ ضَعِيفًا
4|28|God intends to lighten your burden, for the human being was created weak.
 

humans incline to certain things , for example, food, lust, wealth, power etc Islam legislates a sustainable and moral way of fulfilling the desires.

 

29يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَأْكُلُوا أَمْوَالَكُم بَيْنَكُم بِالْبَاطِلِ إِلَّا أَن تَكُونَ تِجَارَةً عَن تَرَاضٍ مِّنكُمْ ۚ وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُمْ رَحِيمًا
4|29|O you who believe! Do not consume each other’s wealth illicitly, but trade by mutual consent. And do not kill yourselves, for God is Merciful towards you.
30وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَٰلِكَ عُدْوَانًا وَظُلْمًا فَسَوْفَ نُصْلِيهِ نَارًا ۚ وَكَانَ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرًا
4|30|Whoever does that, out of hostility and wrongdoing, We will cast him into a Fire. And that would be easy for God.
31إِن تَجْتَنِبُوا كَبَائِرَ مَا تُنْهَوْنَ عَنْهُ نُكَفِّرْ عَنكُمْ سَيِّئَاتِكُمْ وَنُدْخِلْكُم مُّدْخَلًا كَرِيمًا
4|31|If you avoid the worst of what you are forbidden, We will remit your sins, and admit you by a Gate of Honor.
 

Appears to reject the position of the Khawarij, who make takfir on muslims for their actions.

 

32وَلَا تَتَمَنَّوْا مَا فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ بِهِ بَعْضَكُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ ۚ لِّلرِّجَالِ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا اكْتَسَبُوا ۖ وَلِلنِّسَاءِ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا اكْتَسَبْنَ ۚ وَاسْأَلُوا اللَّهَ مِن فَضْلِهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا
4|32|Do not covet what God has given to some of you in preference to others. For men is a share of what they have earned, and for women is a share of what they have earned. And ask God of his bounty. God has knowledge of everything.
 

Dont be depressed or jealous about your financial position. 

 

33وَلِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا مَوَالِيَ مِمَّا تَرَكَ الْوَالِدَانِ وَالْأَقْرَبُونَ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ عَقَدَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ فَآتُوهُمْ نَصِيبَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ شَهِيدًا
4|33|To everyone We have assigned beneficiaries in what is left by parents and relatives. Those with whom you have made an agreement, give them their share. God is Witness over all things.
 

H 568, Ch. 26, h 1
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from al-Hasan ibn Mahbub who has said that he asked abu al-Hassan al-Rida (a.s.) about the meaning of the words of Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High. “We have chosen heirs for every legacy that parents and relatives may leave. Let those who have been promised a bequest receive their share of the legacy. . . .” (4:33) It is a refrence to the Imams (a.s.) With the Imams (a.s.) Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, has established your covenants.”
1. There have been a variety of interpretations of who are the last group of heirs mentioned in this verse, i.e., those with whom you have sworn compact, and, as a result of this, and so as to reconcile these various interpretations with the law, it has at different times been asserted that this verse was abrogated or that it was not. For example, see at.-Taban, at-Taf~ir, vol.5,

 
34الرِّجَالُ قَوَّامُونَ عَلَى النِّسَاءِ بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ وَبِمَا أَنفَقُوا مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ ۚ فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ حَافِظَاتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ اللَّهُ ۚ وَاللَّاتِي تَخَافُونَ نُشُوزَهُنَّ فَعِظُوهُنَّ وَاهْجُرُوهُنَّ فِي الْمَضَاجِعِ وَاضْرِبُوهُنَّ ۖ فَإِنْ أَطَعْنَكُمْ فَلَا تَبْغُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ سَبِيلًا ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيًّا كَبِيرًا
4|34|Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, as God has given some of them an advantage over others, and because they spend out of their wealth. The good women are obedient, guarding what God would have them guard. As for those from whom you fear disloyalty, admonish them, and abandon them in their beds, then strike them. But if they obey you, seek no way against them. God is Sublime, Great.
 

what is the nature of strike them?

 

Some have said it does not mean “strike” physically, but the word is used in 38:44 to mean “strike”.

 

For DARABA to mean turn away from someone or move away, it must be followed by AAN (3an). This is established by the Arabic language and a few examples in the Quran, for example 43:5. It can also mean to travel but it must be followed by FI, see 4:94.

DARABA in 4:34 means TO HIT, however i would argue that the verse, let alone the whole sura is worded in a way that limits this measure to the level of a deterrent only.

4:34-35″and (as to) those on whose part you fear nushuz, admonish them, and leave them alone in the sleeping-places, and beat them; then if they obey you, do not seek a way against them; surely Allah is High, Great. And if you fear a breach between the two, then appoint a judge from his people and a judge from her people; if they both desire agreement, Allah will effect harmony between them; surely Allah is Knowing, Aware”

This verse is not promoting and neither did it invent domestic violence. The Quran canalizes such behavior by preventing an immediate jump to beating, by giving a very stringent procedure to prevent reaching that point. Men, if they beat their wives, they do so out of anger, and afterwards try and justify it by saying religion allows it. What the Quran is doing is changing their psyche, by preventing them from beating their wives in the original get go, and it does so in a context where it is reforming the status of women and appealing to men’s taqwa/God consciousnesses with verses setting the natural order of Men-Women relationships.
Verses such as 30:21 and others “And one of His signs is that He created mates for you from yourselves that you may find rest in them, and He put between you love and compassion; most surely there are signs in this for a people who reflect” which point the fact that men and women naturally deal in terms of love and compassion, meaning domestic violence is against the natural order of things.

In 4:34 Man is referred to as qawwam of the woman which means that in addition to his financial responsibilities he has a trust and is meant to protect it. In the concept of male honor, let alone Arab honor, this primarily means preventing any physical harm or injury. All verses in relation to husband-wife relationship extends out of this principle. As is obvious, domestic violence has nothing to do with the notion of qawwam, meaning the verse itself stipulates that proper treatment of a woman is exactly the opposite of hurting a women. This is why the Quran then goes on to provide an exhaustive means to prevent hitting in the first place.

Nushuz is disobedience so as to destabilize the household “guarding the unseen as Allah has guarded”, not male-female relations in general. It is not to be applied in cases of typical disagreements that arise normally during a marriage which is why the verse then says that if the wife desists from her nushuz, ie destabilization of the household “do not seek a way against them; surely Allah is High, Great”.

First, the verse urges admonishement. This actually reveals that the Quran wants to engage the situation rationally, appealing to the intellect of the woman which was considered lower than a man’s. “those on whose part you fear nushuz” KHAWF means fear of credible danger, as is consistent with all its occurrences in the Quran. So, it is not fear as in suspicion/Dhann. Dhann is to hold an opinion upon uncertain evidence. KHAWF is a fear about probable significant danger. Then what if the credible reason for fear was not correct? Then that is the reason for ITHOOHUNNA/admonish them. When you give advice, you give the advice and listen to what they have to say. Therefore if the reason for the fear is diffused, then the problem is diffused.

If that doesn’t work, the Quran tells the husband to distance himself physically, by not sharing the bed for example which is an appeal to the emotion of the women.

Most men, the vast majority, will not even think of beating their wives even after all the gradual steps aiming at stopping her nushuz have failed. 99% of couples will simply divorce at that point. However, the verse has specifically mentioned the option of beating in order to address the issue of violent men, those who have a propensity for such behavior. These men, when they become violent, it is due to intense, impulsive anger and this is what the verse, let alone the whole sura with its reforming of the status of women and appeal to man’s sense of responsibility and taqwa, deals with.
In a situation where a husband fears nushuz from his wife, ie transgression of the bounds of “guarding the unseen” which is a grave situation for any man of any culture, equal to backstabbing, a violent husband will immediately think of beating her, but the verse blocks his impulse and tells him to engage the situation rationally by first reasoning with his wife then refrain from physical contact “admonish them, and leave them alone in the sleeping-places”. These 2 successive steps are crucial and effective at curbing a violent man’s impulses and give him, as well as his wife, the time to cool-down and think.

This is where step 3 comes into play to serve as a deterrent.

The wife who stubbornly wants to keep going with her highly injurious attitude towards her husband knows that she just wasted 2 chances at solving the situation peacefully and rationally and that now, if she wants to stay in the same household she has no choice but to mend her ways or face physical punishment.
So even before reaching step 3, the wife with whom the appeal to her intellect and emotion through steps 1 and 2 did not work, who wants to stay in the same household and knows that her attitude was highly injurious will refrain by herself, thus settling the dispute.

In a situation where, after having gone through steps 1 and 2, the wife still thinks she did nothing wrong and decides not to change anything from her attitude while staying in the same household then she still knows that her husband, who believes to have been morally injured, can resort to step 3. So what will she do at that point and what option does the Sharia give her? Will she let her husband beat her while she thinks she has done nothing wrong?
Fortunately no and this is where step 3B comes into play 4:35″And if you fear a breach between the two, then appoint a judge from his people and a judge from her people; if they BOTH desire agreement, Allah will effect harmony between them; surely Allah is Knowing, Aware”. The words are clear and give her the right to appeal to a judge who will in turn designate an arbiter from her side and her husband’s, to settle the dispute and prove her right or if she is proven wrong then she either mends her way and returns to the same household or simply divorce “if they BOTH desire agreement”. The verse however clearly prefers reconciliation, as pointed in the words“Allah will effect harmony between them; surely Allah is Knowing, Aware”. This is reiterated in 4:128 which states that in case a wife fears nushuz from her husband “there is no blame on them, if they effect a reconciliation between them, and reconciliation is better”. 4:128 also explains the important point that attempts of reconciliation should be undertaken as soon as signs of nushuz appear, not when the wife is already abused “And if a woman fears nushuz”.

The Quran, contrary to any other religious scripture deals with the issue of domestic violence in such a way that violent men cannot reach the point where they will use force. This means physical punishment is nothing but a deterrent to a woman willing to live with and be maintained by a man while being inclined to back-stab him.

 

From traditional sources we find :

 

فإن رجعت إلى فراشها فذلك و إلا ضربها ضربا غير مبرح فإن أطاعته و ضاجعته
And if she returns to her bed in that (state), and other than that beat her, beat her not violently. And if she obeys you and he sleeps with (her)

  • Source:
  • Al-Qummee, Tafseer Al-Qummee, vol. 1, pg. 137

فإن رجعت و إلا ضربها ضربا غير مبرح و قيل في معنى غير المبرح أن لا يقطع لحما و لا يكسر عظما
“and if she returns (in that state) and other than that beat her, beat her not violently and (others) say: this means not violently, and that you do not cut her flesh, and do no break her bones”

  • Source:
  • Al-Tabarasee, Majma` Al-Bayaan, vol. 3, pg. 69

وَ اهْجُرُوهُنَّ فِي الْمَضاجِعِ) روى عن ابى جعفر عليه السلام قال: يحول ظهره إليها و اضربوهن و روى عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام بأنه الضرب بالسواك)
“And forsake them in the bed”(4:34) a Narration from the 5th Imaam (as): He (should) transfer (turn) his back to her, “And Beat them” (4:34) a narration from the 5th Imaams (as): Hitting her with a miswaak

  • Source:
  • Al-Tabarasee, Majma` Al-Bayaan, vol. 3, pg. 69

تنفع الهجرة ضرباً غير شديد لا يقطع لحماً و لا يكسر عظماً ان لم
“And if there is no benefit from the migration (of the bed) hit her not hard (violently) and you do not cut her flesh and do not break her bones”

  • Source:
  • Al-FayD Al-Kashaanee, Tafseer Al-Saafee, vol. 1, pg. 448

 

 

 

35وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ شِقَاقَ بَيْنِهِمَا فَابْعَثُوا حَكَمًا مِّنْ أَهْلِهِ وَحَكَمًا مِّنْ أَهْلِهَا إِن يُرِيدَا إِصْلَاحًا يُوَفِّقِ اللَّهُ بَيْنَهُمَا ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا خَبِيرًا
4|35|If you fear a breach between the two, appoint an arbiter from his family and an arbiter from her family. If they wish to reconcile, God will bring them together. God is Knowledgeable, Expert.
36۞ وَاعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَلَا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا ۖ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا وَبِذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَالْجَارِ ذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْجَارِ الْجُنُبِ وَالصَّاحِبِ بِالْجَنبِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ وَمَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ مَن كَانَ مُخْتَالًا فَخُورًا
4|36|Worship God, and ascribe no partners to Him, and be good to the parents, and the relatives, and the orphans, and the poor, and the neighbor next door, and the distant neighbor, and the close associate, and the traveler, and your servants. God does not love the arrogant showoff.
37الَّذِينَ يَبْخَلُونَ وَيَأْمُرُونَ النَّاسَ بِالْبُخْلِ وَيَكْتُمُونَ مَا آتَاهُمُ اللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ ۗ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُّهِينًا
4|37|Those who are stingy, and exhort people to stinginess, and conceal what God has given them from His bounty. We have prepared for the disbelievers a disgraceful punishment.
38وَالَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُمْ رِئَاءَ النَّاسِ وَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَلَا بِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۗ وَمَن يَكُنِ الشَّيْطَانُ لَهُ قَرِينًا فَسَاءَ قَرِينًا
4|38|And those who spend their money to be seen by people, and believe neither in God nor in the Last Day. Whoever has Satan as a companion—what an evil companion.
39وَمَاذَا عَلَيْهِمْ لَوْ آمَنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَأَنفَقُوا مِمَّا رَزَقَهُمُ اللَّهُ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِهِمْ عَلِيمًا
4|39|What would they have lost, had they believed in God and the Last Day, and gave out of what God has provided for them? God knows them very well.
 
Pascal’s wager, the benefit of faith in God is better than not believing and being proved wrong.
 
40إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَظْلِمُ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ ۖ وَإِن تَكُ حَسَنَةً يُضَاعِفْهَا وَيُؤْتِ مِن لَّدُنْهُ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا
4|40|God does not commit an atom’s weight of injustice; and if there is a good deed, He doubles it, and gives from His Presence a sublime compensation.
41فَكَيْفَ إِذَا جِئْنَا مِن كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ بِشَهِيدٍ وَجِئْنَا بِكَ عَلَىٰ هَٰؤُلَاءِ شَهِيدًا
4|41|Then how will it be, when We bring a witness from every community, and We bring you as a witness against these?
 

H 477, Ch. 1, h
Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from ya‘qub ibn Yazid from Ziyad al-Qandi from Suma‘a who has said that Imam abu ‘Abdallah has said the following about the words of Allah in the Holy Quran. “How will it be when We call for a witness from every nation and have you, (Muhammad), testify against them all?” (4:41) The Imam (a.s.) said that this verse is was revealed about the followers of Prophet Muhammad (s.a.) in particular. In every generation of these people there will an Imam from our family who would bear witness over their activities and Prophet Muhammad himself will bear witness over us.”

 
42يَوْمَئِذٍ يَوَدُّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَعَصَوُا الرَّسُولَ لَوْ تُسَوَّىٰ بِهِمُ الْأَرْضُ وَلَا يَكْتُمُونَ اللَّهَ حَدِيثًا
4|42|On that Day, those who disbelieved and disobeyed the Messenger will wish that the earth were leveled over them. They will conceal nothing from God.

43يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَقْرَبُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَارَىٰ حَتَّىٰ تَعْلَمُوا مَا تَقُولُونَ وَلَا جُنُبًا إِلَّا عَابِرِي سَبِيلٍ حَتَّىٰ تَغْتَسِلُوا ۚ وَإِن كُنتُم مَّرْضَىٰ أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَاءَ أَحَدٌ مِّنكُم مِّنَ الْغَائِطِ أَوْ لَامَسْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَلَمْ تَجِدُوا مَاءً فَتَيَمَّمُوا صَعِيدًا طَيِّبًا فَامْسَحُوا بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَفُوًّا غَفُورًا

4|43|O you who believe! Do not approach the prayer while you are intoxicated, so that you know what you say; nor after sexual discharge, until you have bathed—unless you are travelling. If you are sick, or traveling, or one of you comes from the toilet, or you have touched (intercourse) a women, and cannot find water, find clean sand and wipe your faces and your hands with it. God is Pardoning and Forgiving.

 
 

 [al-Kafi] Muhammad b. Ya`qub from Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad from Hammad b. `Isa from al-Husayn b. al-Mukhtar from Abu Usama Zayd the oil vendor.  He said: I said to Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام: The saying of Allah عزّ وجلّ “Do not approach salat while you are intoxicated”.  So he said: The intoxication of sleep.

 

 [al-`Ayyashi] And from Mansur b. Hazim from Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام.  He said: The touch is intercourse. 

 

 

44أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا نَصِيبًا مِّنَ الْكِتَابِ يَشْتَرُونَ الضَّلَالَةَ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن تَضِلُّوا السَّبِيلَ
4|44|Have you not considered those who were given a share of the Book? They buy error, and wish you would lose the way.
45وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِأَعْدَائِكُمْ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ وَلِيًّا وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ نَصِيرًا
4|45|But God knows your enemies best. God is sufficient as a Protector, and God is sufficient as a Supporter.
46مِّنَ الَّذِينَ هَادُوا يُحَرِّفُونَ الْكَلِمَ عَن مَّوَاضِعِهِ وَيَقُولُونَ سَمِعْنَا وَعَصَيْنَا وَاسْمَعْ غَيْرَ مُسْمَعٍ وَرَاعِنَا لَيًّا بِأَلْسِنَتِهِمْ وَطَعْنًا فِي الدِّينِ ۚ وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا وَاسْمَعْ وَانظُرْنَا لَكَانَ خَيْرًا لَّهُمْ وَأَقْوَمَ وَلَٰكِن لَّعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا
4|46|Among the Jews are some who take words out of context, and say, “We hear and we disobey”, and “Hear without listening”, and “Observe us,” twisting with their tongues and slandering the religion. Had they said, “We hear and we obey”, and “Listen”, and “Give us your attention,” it would have been better for them, and more upright. But God has cursed them for their disbelief; they do not believe except a little.
47يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ آمِنُوا بِمَا نَزَّلْنَا مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا مَعَكُم مِّن قَبْلِ أَن نَّطْمِسَ وُجُوهًا فَنَرُدَّهَا عَلَىٰ أَدْبَارِهَا أَوْ نَلْعَنَهُمْ كَمَا لَعَنَّا أَصْحَابَ السَّبْتِ ۚ وَكَانَ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ مَفْعُولًا
4|47|O you who were given the Book! Believe in what We sent down, confirming what you have, before We obliterate faces and turn them inside out, or curse them as We cursed the Sabbath-breakers. The command of God is always done.
 

There are traditions that suggest this verse refers to the army of the Sufyani, who will be swallowed up at Baydaa, all but 3 of them, who will have their faces completed distorted.

 
48إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ افْتَرَىٰ إِثْمًا عَظِيمًا
4|48|God does not forgive association with Him, but He forgives anything less than that to whomever He wills. Whoever associates anything with God has devised a monstrous sin.
 

Again the position of the Khawarij is undermined, the verse implies God is forgiving to everything except polytheism. This refers to those who die as a polytheist. Those who repent sincerely Allah may forgive them, as the Jews who took the calf for worship were also forgiven see 4:153.

 
49أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يُزَكُّونَ أَنفُسَهُم ۚ بَلِ اللَّهُ يُزَكِّي مَن يَشَاءُ وَلَا يُظْلَمُونَ فَتِيلًا
4|49|Have you not considered those who claim purity for themselves? Rather, God purifies whom He wills, and they will not be wronged a whit.
50انظُرْ كَيْفَ يَفْتَرُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ الْكَذِبَ ۖ وَكَفَىٰ بِهِ إِثْمًا مُّبِينًا
4|50|See how they devise lies against God. That alone is an outright sin.
51أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا نَصِيبًا مِّنَ الْكِتَابِ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْجِبْتِ وَالطَّاغُوتِ وَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا هَٰؤُلَاءِ أَهْدَىٰ مِنَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا سَبِيلًا
4|51|Have you not considered those who were given a share of the Book? They believe in superstition and evil powers, and say of those who disbelieve, “These are better guided on the way than the believers.”

 

There is no basis for superstition or magical powers.

 

 

52أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ لَعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ ۖ وَمَن يَلْعَنِ اللَّهُ فَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُ نَصِيرًا
4|52|Those are they whom God has cursed. Whomever God curses, you will find no savior for him.
53أَمْ لَهُمْ نَصِيبٌ مِّنَ الْمُلْكِ فَإِذًا لَّا يُؤْتُونَ النَّاسَ نَقِيرًا
4|53|Or do they own a share of the kingdom? Then they would not give people a speck.
 
 
 
54أَمْ يَحْسُدُونَ النَّاسَ عَلَىٰ مَا آتَاهُمُ اللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ ۖ فَقَدْ آتَيْنَا آلَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَآتَيْنَاهُم مُّلْكًا عَظِيمًا
4|54|Or do they envy the people for what God has given them of His grace? We have given the family of Abraham the Book and wisdom, and We have given them a great kingdom.
 

H 527, Ch. 15, h 3
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id
from al-Nadr ibn Suwayd from Yahya al-Halabi from Muhammad al-Ahwal from Humran
ibn A‘yan who has said that when he asked Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) about the meaning of
the words of Allah that say, “We have given to the family of Abraham the Book, Wisdom,
and a great Kingdom.” (4:54) The Imams (a.s.) said, “It means Prophet-hood.” I then asked
about the meaning of ‘wisdom’. The Imams (a.s.) said, “It means understanding and
judgment.” I then asked about the meaning of ‘great kingdom.’ The Imams (a.s.) said, “It
means obedience.”

 

H 529, Ch. 16, h 5
Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Muhammad ibn abu ‘Umayr from ‘Umar
ibn Udhayna from Burayd al-‘IJli from abu Ja’far (a.s.) who has said the following about the
words of Allah, the Most Holy, “”We have given to the family of Abraham the Book,
Wisdom, and a great Kingdom.” (4:54)
“Great kingdom means that He set Imamat (leadership) in the descendants of Abraham,
Whoever would obey them he has obeyed Allah and whoever would disobey them has
disobeyed Allah and thus is the great kingdom.”

 

H 465, Ch. 8, h 6
Ahmad ibn Muhammad has narrated from Muhammad ibn abu ‘Umayr from Sayf ibn ibn ‘Umayr from abu al-Sabah al-Kinani who has said that Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who has said the following. “We are a people obedience to whom is obligatory by the command of Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High. The Anfal (twenty percent in tax) is for us and we have been given the authority to choose the best out of the property seized from the enemy. We are the people very firmly established in knowledge. We are the ones who are considered as subject to the jealousy of people in the following verse of the holy Quran, “Are they jealous of the favors that God has done to some people? . . . (4:54)

 
55فَمِنْهُم مَّنْ آمَنَ بِهِ وَمِنْهُم مَّن صَدَّ عَنْهُ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِجَهَنَّمَ سَعِيرًا
4|55|Among them are those who believed in it, and among them are those who held back from it. Hell is a sufficient Inferno.
56إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِنَا سَوْفَ نُصْلِيهِمْ نَارًا كُلَّمَا نَضِجَتْ جُلُودُهُم بَدَّلْنَاهُمْ جُلُودًا غَيْرَهَا لِيَذُوقُوا الْعَذَابَ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا
4|56|Those who reject Our revelations—We will scorch them in a Fire. Every time their skins are cooked, We will replace them with other skins, so they will experience the suffering. God is Most Powerful, Most Wise.
57وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ سَنُدْخِلُهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ۖ لَّهُمْ فِيهَا أَزْوَاجٌ مُّطَهَّرَةٌ ۖوَنُدْخِلُهُمْ ظِلًّا ظَلِيلًا
4|57|As for those who believe and do good deeds, We will admit them into Gardens beneath which rivers flow, abiding therein forever. They will have purified spouses therein, and We will admit them into a shady shade.
58۞ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَن تُؤَدُّوا الْأَمَانَاتِ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهَا وَإِذَا حَكَمْتُم بَيْنَ النَّاسِ أَن تَحْكُمُوا بِالْعَدْلِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ نِعِمَّا يَعِظُكُم بِهِ ۗإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ سَمِيعًا بَصِيرًا
4|58|God instructs you to give back things entrusted to you to their owners. And when you judge between people, judge with justice. God’s instructions to you are excellent. God is All-Hearing, All-Seeing.

 

H 463, Ch. 8, h 4
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from Hammad ibn ‘Isa from al-Husayn ibn al_Mukhtar from some of our people from Imam abu Ja’far (a.s.) about the words of Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, “We gave them a great kingdom” 4:58, it means the obedience that is obligatory.”

 
59يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ ۖ فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلًا
4|59|O you who believe! Obey God and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. And if you dispute over anything, refer it to God and the Messenger, if you believe in God and the Last Day. That is best, and a most excellent determination.
 

In Kifayatu ‘l-athar, there is a tradition from Jabir ibn ‘Abdillah al-Ansari, in explanation of this verse. When it was revealed, Jabir said to the Prophet: “We know Allah and the Prophet, but who are those vested with authority whose obedience has been conjoined to that of Allah and yourself ? ” The Prophet said: ” They are my caliphs and the Imams of the Muslims after me. The first of them is ‘Ali, then Hasan, then Husayn, then ‘A1i, son of Husayn; then Muhammad, son of ‘A1i, who has been mentioned as al-Baqir in the Torah. O Jabir! You will meet him. When you see him, convey mysalam (greetings) to him. He will be succeeded by his son Ja’far as-Sadiq (the Truthful); then Musa, son of Ja’far; then ‘A1i, son of Musa; then Muhammad, son of ‘A1i; then ‘A1i, son of Muhammad; then Hasan, son of ‘Ali. “He will be followed by his son whose name and patronym (kunyah) will be the same as mine. He will be Hujjatu-llah (Proof of Allah) on theearth, and Baqiyyatu-llah (the one spared by Allah to maintain the cause of faith) among mankind. He will conquer the whole world from east to west. So long will he remain hidden from the eyes of his followers and friends that the belief in his imamah Will remain only in those hearts which have been tested by Allah for faith. ” Jabir said: “O Messenger of Allah! Will his followers benefit from his seclusion? The Prophet said “Yes! by Him Who sent me with prophethood! They will be guided by his light, and benefit from his wilaayah (love; authority) during his seclusions just as people benefit from the sun even when-it is hidden in a cloud O Jabir! This is from the hidden secrets of Allah and the treasured knowledge of-Allah. So guard it except from the people (who deserve to know )Another theory of those that are the possess of Amr, this literally means, those that posses command, now this command maybe a type of direct kun fa yakoon power, the power of miracles.

This verse also mentions that if you differ, refer to Allah (Quran) and The Messenger SAW, this means that the Quran and the messenger are not the same thing, this does not mean that they contradict, but rather they may not have the same information, so something maybe within the hadith but not mentioned in the Quran. What is also significant is that the issue of who is in authority should also be referred back to the Quran and Sunnah, there is plenty of evidence for Imam Ali AS beyond the designated leader after the Prophet SAW.

H 475, Ch. 8, h 16
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Muhammad
ibn Khalid al-Barqi from al-Qasim ibn Muhammad al-Jawhari from al-Husayn ibn abu al-‘Ala’ who has said the following. “I asked Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.), ‘Is obedience to the successor (of the holy Prophet) obligatory?” The Imam (a.s.) said, “Yes, it is they about whom Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, has said, “Believers, obey God, His Messenger, and your (qualified) leaders. . . (4:59) It is they about whom Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, has said, “Only God, His Messenger, and the true believers who are steadfast in prayer and pay alms, while they kneel during prayer, are your guardians (5:55).

H 525, Ch. 16, h 1
Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Amir al-Ash’ari has narrated from MuAlia ibn Muhammad who has said that al-Hasan ibn Ali al-Washsha’ narrated to him from Ahmad ibn ‘A’idh from ibn ’Udhayna from Burayd al-‘Ijli who said that he asked abu Ja’far
(a.s.) about the meaning of the following words of Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, “Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those who possess (Divine) authority among you.” (4:59 Holy Quran). The read the following words of Allah. “Have you seen how those who had been given a share of the Book believe in idols and Satan and who say, “The disbelievers are better guided than the believers” (4:51) ‘The say that the leaders of misguidance and those who call people to Hell’ “God has condemned them. No one can help one whom God has condemned. (4:52) Do they have a share in the Kingdom (Divine authority and Imamat)? Even if they did, they would not have given the smallest thing to the people.” (4:53) ” People is a reference to us and the word ‘Naqir’ means the seed inside the nutt.” The Imams (a.s.) explained and added. “Do they envy the favors that God has done to some people?” ‘We are the ones who are envied because of the Divine authority that Allah has given us exclusively.’ The Imams (a.s.) commented. “We have given to the family of Abraham the Book, Wisdom, and a great Kingdom (4:54). Allah says that from the descendants of Abraham He has made His Messengers, Prophets and Imams. How is it that these people acknowledge the case about the descents of Abraham but they refuse to accept the leadership (Imamat) in the family of Muhammad?’ The Imams (a.s.) further explained. “Some have believed, others have disbelieved and tried to prevent people from believing. For these people, only the intense fire of hell is a sufficient punishment (4:55). We will make those who reject Our revelations suffer in hell fire. As soon as the fire destroys their skins, We will give them new skins so that they may suffer more of the torment. God is Majestic and All-wise.” (4:56 Holy Quran)

 
60أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يَزْعُمُونَ أَنَّهُمْ آمَنُوا بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ يُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَحَاكَمُوا إِلَى الطَّاغُوتِ وَقَدْ أُمِرُوا أَن يَكْفُرُوا بِهِ وَيُرِيدُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَن يُضِلَّهُمْ ضَلَالًا بَعِيدًا
4|60|Have you not observed those who claim that they believe in what was revealed to you, and in what was revealed before you, yet they seek Satanic sources for legislation, in spite of being commanded to reject them? Satan means to mislead them far away.
 
Some have said that verse 4:59 is not about authority, but judging or military rulers. Despite 4:59 being clear, eg conferencing the prophet and ALLAH. verse 60 confirms the context is about authority.
 

H 196, Ch. 21, h 9
It is narrated from him from his father from Isma’il ibn Marrar from Yunus from Dawud ibn Farqad from Mu‘alla ibn Khunays who has said the following. “I asked Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.), ‘If we receive a Hadith from first of you and from the members of your later generation which one should we follow?” The Imam replied, “Follow it until you receive it from the living Imam. When it comes from a living Imam follow his words.” The Imam than said, “We by Allah, like you to follow what is easy for you.” In another Hadith it is says, “Follow whichever the newest.”’
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Safwan ibn Yahya from Dawud ibn al-Husayn from ‘Umar ibn Hanzala who has said the following.
“I asked Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) about the two people with a dispute between them on the issue of debts or inheritance and they go to the king or the judges for a decision is it
permissible to seek such decisions?” The Imam replied, “Whoever would go to them for a judgement in a right or wrongful matter it is like seeking the judgment of the devil. Anything received through such judgment would like consuming filth even if it would one’s established right. It is because of receiving through the judgment of the devil and Allah has commanded to reject the devil, “yet choose to take their affairs to Satan for judgment even though they are commanded to deny him. Satan wants to lead them far away from the right path. (4:60)”
I said, “What should then they do?” The Imam replied, “They must look for one among you who have narrated our Hadith and have studied what is lawful and unlawful in our teachings and have learned our laws they must agree to settle their dispute according to his judgment because I have made him over you a ruler. When he may judge according to our commands and then it is not accepted from him the dissenting this judgment has ignored the commands of Allah and it is rejection of us. Rejecting us is rejecting Allah and that is up to the level of paganism and considering things equal to Allah.”
I said, “What if each one of such disputing parties would chose a man from among our people and agree to accept their judgment but these two man would come up with different judgments and they would have differences in your Hadith?”
The Imam replied, “The judgment will be the judgment of the one who has a more just, having more better understanding of the law, Fiqh, the more truthful in Hadith and the more pious of the two. The judgment of the other one will be disregarded.”
I said, “What if both (of such judges) would be just and accepted among our people and none of them would have been any preference over the other?”
The Imam replied, “One must consider and study the hadith that each one of them would narrate from us as to which has received the acceptance of all of your people. Such Hadith must be followed and the one, which rarely accepted and is not popular in your people, must be disregarded because the one popularly accepted is free of doubts. The nature of cases are of three kinds: (a) A case that is a well-known and true to follow. (b) A case that is well known to be false to stay away from. (c) And a confusing case the knowledge of which must be left to Allah and His Prophet for an answer. The holy Prophet has said, ‘There is the clearly lawful and the clearly unlawful and the confusing cases. One who stays away from the confusing ones he has protected himself against the unlawful ones. Those who follow the confusing matters they indulge in unlawful matters and will be destroyed unexpectedly.”
I said, “What if both Hadith from you would be popular and narrated by the trustworthy people from you?”
The Imam replied, “One must study to find out which one agrees with the laws of the Quran and the Sunnah and it does not agree with the laws of the those who oppose us. Such Hadith
must be accepted and the one that disagree with the laws of the Quran and the Sunnah and coincides the masses must be disregarded.”
I said, “May Allah take my soul in the service of your cause, What if both Faqih, scholars of the law would have deduced and learned their judgment from the book and the Sunnah and found that one of the Hadith agrees with the masses and the other disagrees with the masses which one must be followed?”
The Imam replied, “The one which disagrees with the masses must be followed because in it there is guidance.”
I said, “May Allah take my soul in the service of your cause, what if both Hadith would agree with the masses?”
The Imam replied, “One must study to find out of the two the one that is more agreeable to their rulers and judges must be disregarded and the other must be followed.”
I said, “What if both Hadith would agree with their rulers?”
The Imam replied, “If such would be the case it must be suspended until you meet your Imam. Restraint in confusing cases is better than indulging in destruction.

61وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ تَعَالَوْا إِلَىٰ مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ وَإِلَى الرَّسُولِ رَأَيْتَ الْمُنَافِقِينَ يَصُدُّونَ عَنكَ صُدُودًا
4|61|And when it is said to them, “Come to what God has revealed, and to the Messenger,” you see the hypocrites shunning you completely.
 

As the above hadith mentions, there is a right way to have a judgement and a wrong way, the right way is from God and His messenger, those that seek other than that are evil.

Seems to leave little room for “quranists”, those who accept the Quran but reject the Sunnah.

 

62فَكَيْفَ إِذَا أَصَابَتْهُم مُّصِيبَةٌ بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ ثُمَّ جَاءُوكَ يَحْلِفُونَ بِاللَّهِ إِنْ أَرَدْنَا إِلَّا إِحْسَانًا وَتَوْفِيقًا
4|62|How about when a disaster strikes them because what their hands have put forward, and then they come to you swearing by God: “We only intended goodwill and reconciliation”?
 
the scenario appears to be that a person meant well, but they thought they could achieve this without obeying the Messenger SAW. What they did resulted in disaster. The moral appears to be , if you believe in God, and that God is good, and He asks you to follow the Messenger SAW, then following him must also be good, and opposing him bad. By bad we mean have s bad outcome in this world as well as in terms of sin.
 
63أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ يَعْلَمُ اللَّهُ مَا فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ فَأَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ وَعِظْهُمْ وَقُل لَّهُمْ فِي أَنفُسِهِمْ قَوْلًا بَلِيغًا
4|63|They are those whom God knows what is in their hearts. So ignore them, and admonish them, and say to them concerning themselves penetrating words.
64وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا لِيُطَاعَ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ إِذ ظَّلَمُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ جَاءُوكَ فَاسْتَغْفَرُوا اللَّهَ وَاسْتَغْفَرَ لَهُمُ الرَّسُولُ لَوَجَدُوا اللَّهَ تَوَّابًا رَّحِيمًا
4|64|We did not send any messenger except to be obeyed by God’s leave. Had they, when they wronged themselves, come to you, and prayed for God’s forgiveness, and the Messenger had prayed for their forgiveness, they would have found God Relenting and Merciful.
 

The companions were advised to ask the Prophet SAW to ask Allah for forgiveness.

 

H 1019, Ch. 95, h 7
Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from ibn ’Udhayna from Zurara or Burayd who has said the following. “Abu Ja‘far (a.s.) has said, ‘Allah has addressed Amir al-Mu’minin (a.s.) in His book.” The narrator has said that asked him, “where and in which passage?” He said, “It is in His words that read, “If they ever do injustice to themselves and come to you (Muhammad) asking for God’s forgiveness and if the Messenger also was to ask God to forgive them, they would certainly find God All-forgiving and All-merciful. (4:64)
“I swear by your Lord that they will not be considered believers until they let you judge their disputes (on the issue of their agreement not to allow the leadership pass to the descendants of Hashim). Then they will find nothing in their souls to prevent them from accepting your judgment, (to condemn or forgive them) thus, submitting themselves to the will of God.” (4:65) “

 

65فَلَا وَرَبِّكَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّىٰ يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُوا فِي أَنفُسِهِمْ حَرَجًا مِّمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَيُسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا
4|65|But no, by your Lord, they will not be believer until they call you to arbitrate in their disputes, and then find within themselves no resentment regarding your decisions, and submit themselves completely.
 

To be a believer in Islam one must accept the authority God has put on the earth, in this case the Prophet Muhammad SAW, previous Prophets, such as Adam AS.

 

H 1014, Ch. 95, h 1
A number of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Barqi from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn abu Nasr from Hammad ibn ‘Uthman from ‘Abdallah al-Kahili who has said the following. “Abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) has said, ‘If a people would worship Allah only Who has no partner, maintain the prayers, pay Zakat, perform Hajj of the House and fast in the month of Ramadan but say about something that Allah or the Messenger of Allah has done, would that it had been done differently or find such feelings in their hearts in this they will be considered as polytheists. He then recited this verse of the Holy Quran. “I swear by your Lord that they will not be considered believers until they let you judge their disputes and then they will find nothing in their souls to prevent them from accepting your judgment, thus, submitting themselves to the will of God.” (4:65). Abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) then said, “You have to be submissive (before Allaah).

 

66وَلَوْ أَنَّا كَتَبْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ أَنِ اقْتُلُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ أَوِ اخْرُجُوا مِن دِيَارِكُم مَّا فَعَلُوهُ إِلَّا قَلِيلٌ مِّنْهُمْ ۖ وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ فَعَلُوا مَا يُوعَظُونَ بِهِ لَكَانَ خَيْرًا لَّهُمْ وَأَشَدَّ تَثْبِيتًا
4|66|Had We decreed for them: “Kill yourselves,” or “Leave your homes,” they would not have done it, except for a few of them. But had they done what they were instructed to do, it would have been better for them, and a firmer confirmation.
 

H , Ch. 108, h 28
Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from his father from abu Talib from Yunus ibn Bakkar from his father from Jabir from abu Ja‘far (a.s.) who has said the following. “If they had done what they had been advised to do (acknowledge Ali’s Leadership with Divine Authority), it would have been for their good and to strengthen their faith.” (4:66)

 
67وَإِذًا لَّآتَيْنَاهُم مِّن لَّدُنَّا أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا
4|67|And We would have given them from Our presence a rich compensation.
68وَلَهَدَيْنَاهُمْ صِرَاطًا مُّسْتَقِيمًا
4|68|And We would have guided them on a straight path.
69وَمَن يُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَالرَّسُولَ فَأُولَٰئِكَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِم مِّنَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَالصِّدِّيقِينَ وَالشُّهَدَاءِ وَالصَّالِحِينَ ۚ وَحَسُنَ أُولَٰئِكَ رَفِيقًا
4|69|Whoever obeys God and the Messenger—these are with those whom God has blessed—among the prophets, and the sincere, and the martyrs, and the upright. Excellent are those as companions.
 

H , Ch. 111, h 33
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from from Ahmad and ‘Abdallah sons of Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from their father from ‘Abdallah ibn ;a-Mughira from ’Isma‘il ibn abu Ziyad from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who has said the following. “Abu Talib acknowledged Islam through the expression of al-Jummal. He formed number sixty three with his hands.”
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn al-Faddal from al- Husayn ibn ‘Ulwan al-Kalbi from Ali ibn al-Hazawwar al-Ghanawi from Asbagh ibn Nubata al-Hanzali who has said the following. “I saw Amir al-Mu’minin Ali (a.s.) on the day of victory in Basra while he was riding the on the mule of the Messenger of Allah (then) he said, “O people do you want me to tell who the best of the creatures of Allah will be on the Day when He will bring all of them at one place?” Abu Ayyub al-Ansari stood up and said, “Yes, O Amir al-Mu’minin (a.s.) please explain to use. Your were present and we were absent.” The Imam (a.s.) then said, “The best of the people on the day of resurrection when will bring all people together are seven people from the descendant of ‘Abd al-Muttalib whose distinction no one except an unbeliever would deny and no one would reject except a deviant.” ‘Ammar ibn Yasir (may Allah grand him blessings) then stood up and said, “O Amir al-Mu’minin (a. s.) tell us their names so we can recognise them properly..” The Imam (a.s.) said, “The best in the creatures of Allah on the Day when He will bring all creature together are the messenger and the best of the messengers is Muhammad (s.a). The best after the prophet in his ’Umma (followers) is the executor of his will until the prophet would come. There is no doubt that the best among the executors of the wills of the prophets is the executor of the will of Prophet Muhammad (s.a). There is also no doubt that the best among the people after the executors of the will of the prophets are the martyrs and the best of the martyrs is Hamza ibn ‘Abd al- Muttalib and Ja‘far ibn abu Talib who were given two fresh wings with which they fly in Paradise. No one else besides him from this ’Umma. With this Allah honored and granted dignity t Muhammad (s.a). Also of the seven people are the two grand sons of the Holy Prophet (s.a) and al-Mahdi (a.s.). Whoever Allah would want will al-Mahdi from us Ahl al- Bayt. The he read this verse of the Holy Quran. “One who obeys God and the Messenger is the friend of the Prophets, saints, martyrs, and the righteous ones to whom God has granted His favors. They are the best friends that one can have (4:69). The favors of God are such, and He knows very well (how to reward you).” (4:70)”

 
70ذَٰلِكَ الْفَضْلُ مِنَ اللَّهِ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ عَلِيمًا
4|70|That is the grace from God. God suffices as Knower.
71يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا خُذُوا حِذْرَكُمْ فَانفِرُوا ثُبَاتٍ أَوِ انفِرُوا جَمِيعًا
4|71|O you who believe! Take your precautions, and mobilize in groups, or mobilize altogether.
72وَإِنَّ مِنكُمْ لَمَن لَّيُبَطِّئَنَّ فَإِنْ أَصَابَتْكُم مُّصِيبَةٌ قَالَ قَدْ أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيَّ إِذْ لَمْ أَكُن مَّعَهُمْ شَهِيدًا
4|72|Among you is he who lags behind. Then, when a calamity befalls you, he says, “God has favored me, that I was not martyred with them.”
73وَلَئِنْ أَصَابَكُمْ فَضْلٌ مِّنَ اللَّهِ لَيَقُولَنَّ كَأَن لَّمْ تَكُن بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُ مَوَدَّةٌ يَا لَيْتَنِي كُنتُ مَعَهُمْ فَأَفُوزَ فَوْزًا عَظِيمًا
4|73|But when some bounty from God comes to you, he says—as if no affection existed between you and him—“If only I had been with them, I would have achieved a great victory.”
74۞ فَلْيُقَاتِلْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ الَّذِينَ يَشْرُونَ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا بِالْآخِرَةِ ۚ وَمَن يُقَاتِلْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَيُقْتَلْ أَوْ يَغْلِبْ فَسَوْفَ نُؤْتِيهِ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا
4|74|Let those who sell the life of this world for the Hereafter fight in the cause of God. Whoever fights in the cause of God, and then is killed, or achieves victory, We will grant him a great compensation.
75وَمَا لَكُمْ لَا تُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَالْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ مِنَ الرِّجَالِ وَالنِّسَاءِ وَالْوِلْدَانِ الَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا أَخْرِجْنَا مِنْ هَٰذِهِ الْقَرْيَةِ الظَّالِمِ أَهْلُهَا وَاجْعَل لَّنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ وَلِيًّا وَاجْعَل لَّنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ نَصِيرًا
4|75|And why would you not fight in the cause of God, and the helpless men, and women, and children, cry out, “Our Lord, deliver us from this town whose people are oppressive, and appoint for us from Your Presence a Protector, and appoint for us from Your Presence a Victor.”
76الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۖ وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ الطَّاغُوتِ فَقَاتِلُوا أَوْلِيَاءَ الشَّيْطَانِ ۖ إِنَّ كَيْدَ الشَّيْطَانِ كَانَ ضَعِيفًا
4|76|Those who believe fight in the cause of God, while those who disbelieve fight in the cause of Evil. So fight the allies of the Devil. Surely the strategy of the Devil is weak.
77أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ قِيلَ لَهُمْ كُفُّوا أَيْدِيَكُمْ وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ فَلَمَّا كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْقِتَالُ إِذَا فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُمْ يَخْشَوْنَ النَّاسَ كَخَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ أَوْ أَشَدَّ خَشْيَةً ۚ وَقَالُوا رَبَّنَا لِمَ كَتَبْتَ عَلَيْنَا الْقِتَالَ لَوْلَا أَخَّرْتَنَا إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ قَرِيبٍ ۗ قُلْ مَتَاعُ الدُّنْيَا قَلِيلٌ وَالْآخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ لِّمَنِ اتَّقَىٰ وَلَا تُظْلَمُونَ فَتِيلًا
4|77|Have you not considered those who were told, “Restrain your hands, and perform your prayers, and spend in regular charity”? But when fighting was ordained for them, a faction of them feared the people as God is ought to be feared, or even more. And they said, “Our Lord, why did You ordain fighting for us? If only You would postpone it for us for a short while.” Say, “The enjoyments of this life are brief, but the Hereafter is better for the righteous, and you will not be wronged one bit.”
 

Imam Baqir AS has said in a hadith attributed to him, the first part of this ayat refers to Imam Hassan AS, when the people claimed they wanted to fight Muawiya, against the Imams guidance. The second part of this ayat refers to Imam Husain, when fighting had been advised, they then turned there backs.

 

Also important to note the use of the words “hands”, as is common is the Arabic language of the Quran, the word means power or action.

 

78أَيْنَمَا تَكُونُوا يُدْرِككُّمُ الْمَوْتُ وَلَوْ كُنتُمْ فِي بُرُوجٍ مُّشَيَّدَةٍ ۗ وَإِن تُصِبْهُمْ حَسَنَةٌ يَقُولُوا هَٰذِهِ مِنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ ۖ وَإِن تُصِبْهُمْ سَيِّئَةٌ يَقُولُوا هَٰذِهِ مِنْ عِندِكَ ۚ قُلْ كُلٌّ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ ۖ فَمَالِ هَٰؤُلَاءِ الْقَوْمِ لَا يَكَادُونَ يَفْقَهُونَ حَدِيثًا
4|78|Wherever you may be, death will catch up with you, even if you were in fortified towers. When a good fortune comes their way, they say, “This is from God.” But when a misfortune befalls them, they say, “This is from you.” Say, “All is from God.” So what is the matter with these people, that they hardly understand a thing?
 
death is inevitable, all humans die. Therefore there is no point trying to prolong life at any and all cost, but rather to live it in a moral and just way. Some seem to be of the mindset that they are going to live forever, or at least they do not consider their death, or that their life is limited. Once this fact of death is accepted, it will change your world view.
 
79مَّا أَصَابَكَ مِنْ حَسَنَةٍ فَمِنَ اللَّهِ ۖ وَمَا أَصَابَكَ مِن سَيِّئَةٍ فَمِن نَّفْسِكَ ۚ وَأَرْسَلْنَاكَ لِلنَّاسِ رَسُولًا ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ شَهِيدًا
4|79|Whatever good happens to you is from God, and whatever bad happens to you is from your own self. We sent you to humanity as a messenger, and God is Witness enough.
 

H 383, Ch. 26, h6 Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn abu Nasr who said that (Imam) abu al-Hassan al-Rida has said the following: “Allah said, ‘O son of Adam through My wish you came into existence and it is you who wish for yourself whatever you wish. Through My power you fulfill your obligations and through My bounties you receive strength to disobey Me. I made you to hear and see and be strong. Whatever good you receive is from Allah and whatever evil afflicts you is from your own self. It is because I deserve credit in your good deeds and you are held responsible for your bad deeds. This is because I am not asked what I do but they are held responsible for what they do.’”

Some have said, “I thought everything was from Allah?” (39:62) , Allah is the original creator of everything, and sustains everything, but deeds are owned by the individual. For example, Allah is responsible for a hammer being in existence, a man can use that hammer to build a poor person a house in charity , in line with Allah’s guidance, this good deed is at the directive of Allah. If someone was to use the hammer to hurt an innocent person, Allah is still the creator of the hammer, but that individual who chose to use the hammer to hurt someone is the source of that evil.  Allah has created everything good, (32:7)

 

80مَّن يُطِعِ الرَّسُولَ فَقَدْ أَطَاعَ اللَّهَ ۖ وَمَن تَوَلَّىٰ فَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ عَلَيْهِمْ حَفِيظًا
4|80|Whoever obeys the Messenger is obeying God. And whoever turns away—We did not send you as a watcher over them.
 

The source of the Prophets SAW commands are Allah, He says, “Obey Allâh and the Messenger and perhaps you will be shown mercy.” (3:132) “If you obey him, you will be guided … ” (24:54) “Whoever obeys the Messenger has obeyed Allâh … ” (4:79) “That what the Messenger brings you and leave what he forbids you … ” (59:7) “Whoever obeys Allâh and the Messenger is with those whom Allâh has blessed.” (4:68) “We did not send any Messenger but for him to be obeyed by the permission of Allâh.” (4:63)

 

H 354, Ch. 23, h 2
A number of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn abu Nasr from Safwan al-Jammal from Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) the following. “I asked Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) about the words of Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, “Everything will be destroyed except God. . . .” (28:88) The Imam (a.s.) said, “It means whoever comes to Allah through obeying His commandments, i.e. following Prophet Muhammad (s.a.) is the face (the aspect of Allah’s relation with people) of Allah that does not perish. So also is His words, “One who obeys the Messenger has certainly obeyed God . . .” (4:80)

 

Also for those that say the Messenger is not infallible, they must realise that by obeying the Messenger, Allah says they are obeying Him, so Allah Himself has guaranteed what the Messenger has brought.

 

H 358, Ch. 23, h 6
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from Muhammad ibn Isma‘il ibn Bazi‘a from his uncle, Hamza ibn Bazi‘a from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who has said
the following about the words of Allah. “When they invoked Our anger, (43:54). We took revenge on them . . .” (43:55). “Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, does not become frustrated the way we do. But He has created friends for his-Own-self who become frustrated and at times happy. They are created. They worship (Allah). He has designed their happiness to be His Own happiness and their anger as His-Own anger. It is because He has assigned them to guide people to Him and serve as proof of His existence. For this reason such conditions belong to them. This does not reach Allah the way it reaches people. The meaning is what just mentioned. He has also said, “Whoever would humiliate My friends such people have declared war against Me with challenge.” He has also said, “One who obeys the Messenger has certainly obeyed God. . . .” (4:80). “Those who pledge obedience to you are, in fact, pledging obedience to God. The hands of God are above their hands. . . .” (48:10). All of these and other similar ones mean what I just said. The same is the case with anger and happiness and other such matters. Had it been possible for frustration and anger to reach Allah one could have said that one-day Allah will banish altogether. It is because if anger and frustration would reach Him changes also would take place in Him and, thus, He will not remain safe from banishment. As a result, there would exist no distinction between the created and the Creator, between the Almighty and those subject to such might and power. No distinction would remain between the created and the Creator. Allah is far above such things, and is the Most High and Most Great. He is the Creator of all things not because he needed them. If it would be without the need then it would be impossible to limit Him with limits and conditions. Note this if Allah would will it to be so.”

 

H 692, Ch. 52, h 1
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn abu Zahir from Ali ibn Isma‘il from Safwan ibn Yahya from ‘Asim ibn Humayd from abu Ishaq al-Nahwi who has said that he went see abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) and heard him say the following. “Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, discipline and education His Messenger with His and said, “You certainly possess a great degree of moral discipline and education.” (64:4) He then let him be in charge as He, the Most Holy, the Most High, has said, “. . .whatever the Messenger brings to you, you must take it (obey) and whatever he prohibits you, you must desist from. . .” (59:7) Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, has said, “. . . whoever obeys the Messenger, he has obeyed Allah. . .” (4:80)” The narrator has said that then the Imam (a.s.) said, “The Prophet of Allah then let Ali and the Imams be the in charge (of the religious matters) and you then acknowledged it while others denied it. I swear by Allah, we love you to say when we say and remain silent when we remain silent. We are between you and Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High. Allah has not placed any goodness in the opposition to us.”
A number of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from abu Najran from ‘Asim ibn Humayd from abu Ishaq who has said that heard abu Ja‘far (a.s.) say the following. He cited a hadith similar to the above one.

 
81وَيَقُولُونَ طَاعَةٌ فَإِذَا بَرَزُوا مِنْ عِندِكَ بَيَّتَ طَائِفَةٌ مِّنْهُمْ غَيْرَ الَّذِي تَقُولُ ۖ وَاللَّهُ يَكْتُبُ مَا يُبَيِّتُونَ ۖ فَأَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ وَكِيلًا
4|81|They profess obedience, but when they leave your presence, some of them conspire something contrary to what you said. But God writes down what they conspire. So avoid them, and put your trust in God. God is Guardian enough.
82أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ ۚ وَلَوْ كَانَ مِنْ عِندِ غَيْرِ اللَّهِ لَوَجَدُوا فِيهِ اخْتِلَافًا كَثِيرًا
4|82|Do they not ponder the Quran? Had it been from any other than God, they would have found in it much discrepancy.
83وَإِذَا جَاءَهُمْ أَمْرٌ مِّنَ الْأَمْنِ أَوِ الْخَوْفِ أَذَاعُوا بِهِ ۖ وَلَوْ رَدُّوهُ إِلَى الرَّسُولِ وَإِلَىٰ أُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْهُمْ لَعَلِمَهُ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَنبِطُونَهُ مِنْهُمْ ۗ وَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَتُهُ لَاتَّبَعْتُمُ الشَّيْطَانَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا
4|83|When some news of security or alarm comes their way, they broadcast it. But had they referred it to the Messenger, and to those in authority among them, those who can draw conclusions from it would have comprehended it. Were it not for God’s blessing and mercy upon you, you would have followed the Devil, except for a few.
 

The community must refer issues to the authority structure.

 

84فَقَاتِلْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ لَا تُكَلَّفُ إِلَّا نَفْسَكَ ۚ وَحَرِّضِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۖ عَسَى اللَّهُ أَن يَكُفَّ بَأْسَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ۚ وَاللَّهُ أَشَدُّ بَأْسًا وَأَشَدُّ تَنكِيلًا
4|84|So fight in the cause of God; you are responsible only for yourself. And rouse the believers. Perhaps God will restrain the might of those who disbelieve. God is Stronger in Might, and More Punishing.
85مَّن يَشْفَعْ شَفَاعَةً حَسَنَةً يَكُن لَّهُ نَصِيبٌ مِّنْهَا ۖ وَمَن يَشْفَعْ شَفَاعَةً سَيِّئَةً يَكُن لَّهُ كِفْلٌ مِّنْهَا ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ مُّقِيتًا
4|85|Whoever intercedes for a good cause has a share in it, and whoever intercedes for an evil cause shares in its burdens. God keeps watch over everything.
 

The meaning of shafaa from this verse is where one adds to an existing cause. 

 

86وَإِذَا حُيِّيتُم بِتَحِيَّةٍ فَحَيُّوا بِأَحْسَنَ مِنْهَا أَوْ رُدُّوهَا ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ حَسِيبًا
4|86|When you are greeted with a greeting, respond with a better greeting, or return it. God keeps count of everything.
87اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۚ لَيَجْمَعَنَّكُمْ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ ۗ وَمَنْ أَصْدَقُ مِنَ اللَّهِ حَدِيثًا
4|87|God—there is no god except He. He will gather you to the Day of Resurrection, in which there is no doubt. And who speaks more truly than God?
88۞ فَمَا لَكُمْ فِي الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِئَتَيْنِ وَاللَّهُ أَرْكَسَهُم بِمَا كَسَبُوا ۚ أَتُرِيدُونَ أَن تَهْدُوا مَنْ أَضَلَّ اللَّهُ ۖ وَمَن يُضْلِلِ اللَّهُ فَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُ سَبِيلًا
4|88|What is the matter with you, divided into two factions regarding the hypocrites, when God Himself has overwhelmed them on account of what they did? Do you want to guide those whom God has led astray? Whomever God leads astray—you will never find for him a way.
89وَدُّوا لَوْ تَكْفُرُونَ كَمَا كَفَرُوا فَتَكُونُونَ سَوَاءً ۖ فَلَا تَتَّخِذُوا مِنْهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ حَتَّىٰ يُهَاجِرُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۚ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَخُذُوهُمْ وَاقْتُلُوهُمْ حَيْثُ وَجَدتُّمُوهُمْ ۖ وَلَا تَتَّخِذُوا مِنْهُمْ وَلِيًّا وَلَا نَصِيرًا
4|89|They would love to see you disbelieve, just as they disbelieve, so you would become equal. So do not befriend any of them, unless they emigrate in the way of God. If they turn away, seize them and execute them wherever you may find them; and do not take from among them allies or supporters.
90إِلَّا الَّذِينَ يَصِلُونَ إِلَىٰ قَوْمٍ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُم مِّيثَاقٌ أَوْ جَاءُوكُمْ حَصِرَتْ صُدُورُهُمْ أَن يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ أَوْ يُقَاتِلُوا قَوْمَهُمْ ۚ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَسَلَّطَهُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ فَلَقَاتَلُوكُمْ ۚ فَإِنِ اعْتَزَلُوكُمْ فَلَمْ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ وَأَلْقَوْا إِلَيْكُمُ السَّلَمَ فَمَا جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ سَبِيلًا
4|90|Except those who join people with whom you have a treaty, or those who come to you reluctant to fight you or fight their own people. Had God willed, He would have given them power over you, and they would have fought you. If they withdraw from you, and do not fight you, and offer you peace, then God assigns no excuse for you against them.
91سَتَجِدُونَ آخَرِينَ يُرِيدُونَ أَن يَأْمَنُوكُمْ وَيَأْمَنُوا قَوْمَهُمْ كُلَّ مَا رُدُّوا إِلَى الْفِتْنَةِ أُرْكِسُوا فِيهَا ۚ فَإِن لَّمْ يَعْتَزِلُوكُمْ وَيُلْقُوا إِلَيْكُمُ السَّلَمَ وَيَكُفُّوا أَيْدِيَهُمْ فَخُذُوهُمْ وَاقْتُلُوهُمْ حَيْثُ ثَقِفْتُمُوهُمْ ۚ وَأُولَٰئِكُمْ جَعَلْنَا لَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ سُلْطَانًا مُّبِينًا
4|91|You will find others who want security from you, and security from their own people. But whenever they are tempted into civil discord, they plunge into it. So if they do not withdraw from you, nor offer you peace, nor restrain their hands, seize them and execute them wherever you find them. Against these, We have given you clear authorization.
92وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ أَن يَقْتُلَ مُؤْمِنًا إِلَّا خَطَأً ۚ وَمَن قَتَلَ مُؤْمِنًا خَطَأً فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةٍ وَدِيَةٌ مُّسَلَّمَةٌ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهِ إِلَّا أَن يَصَّدَّقُوا ۚ فَإِن كَانَ مِن قَوْمٍ عَدُوٍّ لَّكُمْ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةٍ ۖ وَإِن كَانَ مِن قَوْمٍ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُم مِّيثَاقٌ فَدِيَةٌ مُّسَلَّمَةٌ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهِ وَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةٍ ۖ فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ تَوْبَةً مِّنَ اللَّهِ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا
4|92|Never should a believer kill another believer, unless by error. Anyone who kills a believer by error must set free a believing slave, and pay compensation to the victim’s family, unless they remit it as charity. If the victim belonged to a people who are hostile to you, but is a believer, then the compensation is to free a believing slave. If he belonged to a people with whom you have a treaty, then compensation should be handed over to his family, and a believing slave set free. Anyone who lacks the means must fast for two consecutive months, by way of repentance to God. God is All-Knowing, Most Wise.
93وَمَن يَقْتُلْ مُؤْمِنًا مُّتَعَمِّدًا فَجَزَاؤُهُ جَهَنَّمُ خَالِدًا فِيهَا وَغَضِبَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَلَعَنَهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُ عَذَابًا عَظِيمًا
4|93|Whoever kills a believer deliberately, the penalty for him is Hell, where he will remain forever. And God will be angry with him, and will curse him, and will prepare for him a terrible punishment.
 

what does that mean for that started civil war against the Muslims? Eg Muawiya, Aisha etc Their acts killed thousands of Muslims, deliberately. 

 

94يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا ضَرَبْتُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَتَبَيَّنُوا وَلَا تَقُولُوا لِمَنْ أَلْقَىٰ إِلَيْكُمُ السَّلَامَ لَسْتَ مُؤْمِنًا تَبْتَغُونَ عَرَضَ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا فَعِندَ اللَّهِ مَغَانِمُ كَثِيرَةٌ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ كُنتُم مِّن قَبْلُ فَمَنَّ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكُمْ فَتَبَيَّنُوا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًا
4|94|O you who believe! When you journey in the way of God, investigate, and do not say to him who offers you peace, “You are not a believer,” aspiring for the goods of this world. With God are abundant riches. You yourselves were like this before, and God bestowed favor on you; so investigate. God is well aware of what you do.
95لَّا يَسْتَوِي الْقَاعِدُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ غَيْرُ أُولِي الضَّرَرِ وَالْمُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ ۚ فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ عَلَى الْقَاعِدِينَ دَرَجَةً ۚ وَكُلًّا وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الْحُسْنَىٰ ۚ وَفَضَّلَ اللَّهُ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ عَلَى الْقَاعِدِينَ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا
4|95|Not equal are the inactive among the believers—except the disabled—and the strivers in the cause of God with their possessions and their persons. God prefers the strivers with their possessions and their persons above the inactive, by a degree. But God has promised goodness to both. Yet God favors the strivers, over the inactive, with a great reward.
96دَرَجَاتٍ مِّنْهُ وَمَغْفِرَةً وَرَحْمَةً ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا
4|96|Degrees from Him, and forgiveness, and mercy. God is Forgiving and Merciful.
97إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَوَفَّاهُمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ ظَالِمِي أَنفُسِهِمْ قَالُوا فِيمَ كُنتُمْ ۖ قَالُوا كُنَّا مُسْتَضْعَفِينَ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ قَالُوا أَلَمْ تَكُنْ أَرْضُ اللَّهِ وَاسِعَةً فَتُهَاجِرُوا فِيهَا ۚ فَأُولَٰئِكَ مَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ ۖ وَسَاءَتْ مَصِيرًا
4|97|While the angels are removing the souls of those who have wronged themselves, they will say, “What was the matter with you?” They will say, “We were oppressed in the land.” They will say, “Was God’s earth not vast enough for you to emigrate in it?” These—their refuge is Hell. What a wretched retreat!
98إِلَّا الْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ مِنَ الرِّجَالِ وَالنِّسَاءِ وَالْوِلْدَانِ لَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ حِيلَةً وَلَا يَهْتَدُونَ سَبِيلًا
4|98|Except for the weak among men, and women, and children who have no means to act, and no means to find a way out.
99فَأُولَٰئِكَ عَسَى اللَّهُ أَن يَعْفُوَ عَنْهُمْ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَفُوًّا غَفُورًا
4|99|These—God may well pardon them. God is Pardoning and Forgiving.
100۞ وَمَن يُهَاجِرْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ يَجِدْ فِي الْأَرْضِ مُرَاغَمًا كَثِيرًا وَسَعَةً ۚ وَمَن يَخْرُجْ مِن بَيْتِهِ مُهَاجِرًا إِلَى اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ثُمَّ يُدْرِكْهُ الْمَوْتُ فَقَدْ وَقَعَ أَجْرُهُ عَلَى اللَّهِ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا
4|100|Anyone who emigrates for the sake of God will find on earth many places of refuge, and plentitude. Anyone who leaves his home, emigrating to God and His Messenger, and then is overtaken by death, his compensation falls on God. God is Forgiver, Most Merciful.
 

H 984, Ch. 89, h 2
Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman who has said that narrated to us Hammad from ‘Abd al-A‘la’ who has said the following. “I asked abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) about the statement of Sunni Muslims (al-‘Amma) that says the Messenger of Allah has said, “If a person would die without having an Imam his death would be as if he has died as the death of ignorance (pre-Islamic age of darkness)” The Imam (a.s.) said, ” That is very true, by Allah.” I then asked, “what if the Imam would pass away and a person is in Khurasan and does not know who the executor of the will of the Imam (a.s.) is, is this good excuse for him?” He (the Imam (a.s.) said, “No, that is not a good reason. When the Imam leaves this world the authority of the executor nof his applies to those would live in the area. Also the obligation search and learn about one’s duties apply to those who are not in area but who learned about the passing away of the Imam. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Gracious, has said, “Not all believers have to become specialists in religious learning. Why do not some people from each group of believers seek to become specialists in religious learning and, after completing their studies, guide their group so that they will have fear of God.” (9:122) I then said, “What if they did went out to find out but some of them would die before they could find out?” He said, “Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Gracious, has said, “. . . and one who dies, after having abandoned his home to get near to God and His Messenger, will receive his reward from God. . . .” (4:100) I if some of them would reach your town but would find out that you have closed your door and the curtains are drawn closed. You would not call them to yourself and there is no one to guide them to you. How then the will know about you?” He said, “They would know about me through the book that
Allah has revealed.” I then asked, “How Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Gracious, has said it?” He said, “I know that you have spoken to me about before this day also.” I said, “That is right.” He then said, “Recall what Allah has said about Ali (a.s) and what the Messenger of Allah said to him about Hassan and Husayn and What Allah has specially said about Ali (a.s) and what the Messenger of Allah has said about him about his will to him and hid appointing him and their sufferings and the acknowledgements of al-Hassan and al- Husayn of such facts. Recall the will of al-Hassan and his delivering it to al-Husayn. Allah has said, “The Prophet has more authority over the believers than themselves. His wives are their mothers. The relatives are closer to each other, according to the Book of God, . .” .(33:6)
I then said, “People speak about abu Ja‘far‘far (a.s) and say, “How is it that Imamat (leadership with Divine authority has stepped out for him from among all the sons of his father even though they are all relatives and older than him and those younger than him did receive it just because they were younger?”
He said, “The one would possess this matter (Leadership with Divine Authority) can be recognized through three evidence that are not found with other people. He must have greater priority to the preceding Imam and that he would be the executor of the will of the preceding Imam. With him there must be the Armaments of the Messenger of Allah and the document of his will. This document is with me and no one disputes it.” I then asked, “Is that kept secret and hidden for fear from the rulers?” He said, “There is nothing secret and hidden for which there is no clear evidence available. What is there my father entrusted to me. When he wasw about to leave this world he asked me to call people to bear testimony for him. I then called four people from Quraysh among them was Nafi‘ salve of ‘Abdallah ibn ‘Umar. My father said, “Write down, ‘This is how the will of Jacob to his children reads, “God has chosen this religion for you. You must not leave this world unless you are a Muslim (submitted to the will of the Lord of the Universe).” (2:132) Muhammad ibn Ali made the same kind of will to his son, Ja‘far ibn Muhammad annd commanded him to shroud him in his own gown which he would use during his Friday prayers. That his own turban must be used for him, that the surface of his grave should be given a square shape, raised three inches from the ground and thereafter leave it that much only. Thereafter he wrpped up the document of the will and asked the witnesses to leave saying, “May Allah grant you blessings. When they left I asked, “What was in it O father, that asked them to bear testimony to?” He said, “I did not like that you will be defeated and people will say, ‘He left this world without a will. I wanted it to be a supporting authority for you. This the fact that help one who comes to the town and asks, “To who did so and so made a will? And it is said to him, “The will was made to so and so.” I then asked, “What he (Imam) would partners in the will?” He said, “You must ask him. He will explain it to you.”

 
101وَإِذَا ضَرَبْتُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَقْصُرُوا مِنَ الصَّلَاةِ إِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَن يَفْتِنَكُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ۚ إِنَّ الْكَافِرِينَ كَانُوا لَكُمْ عَدُوًّا مُّبِينًا
4|101|When you travel in the land, there is no blame on you for shortening the prayers, if you fear that the disbelievers may harm you. The disbelievers are your manifest enemies.
102وَإِذَا كُنتَ فِيهِمْ فَأَقَمْتَ لَهُمُ الصَّلَاةَ فَلْتَقُمْ طَائِفَةٌ مِّنْهُم مَّعَكَ وَلْيَأْخُذُوا أَسْلِحَتَهُمْ فَإِذَا سَجَدُوا فَلْيَكُونُوا مِن وَرَائِكُمْ وَلْتَأْتِ طَائِفَةٌ أُخْرَىٰ لَمْ يُصَلُّوا فَلْيُصَلُّوا مَعَكَ وَلْيَأْخُذُوا حِذْرَهُمْ وَأَسْلِحَتَهُمْ ۗ وَدَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَوْ تَغْفُلُونَ عَنْ أَسْلِحَتِكُمْ وَأَمْتِعَتِكُمْ فَيَمِيلُونَ عَلَيْكُم مَّيْلَةً وَاحِدَةً ۚ وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِن كَانَ بِكُمْ أَذًى مِّن مَّطَرٍ أَوْ كُنتُم مَّرْضَىٰ أَن تَضَعُوا أَسْلِحَتَكُمْ ۖوَخُذُوا حِذْرَكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ أَعَدَّ لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُّهِينًا
4|102|When you are among them, and you stand to lead them in prayer, let a group of them stand with you, and let them hold their weapons. Then, when they have done their prostrations, let them withdraw to the rear, and let another group, that have not prayed yet, come forward and pray with you; and let them take their precautions and their weapons. Those who disbelieve would like you to neglect your weapons and your equipment, so they can attack you in a single assault. You commit no error, if you are hampered by rain or are sick, by putting down your weapons; but take precautions. Indeed, God has prepared for the disbelievers a demeaning punishment.
103فَإِذَا قَضَيْتُمُ الصَّلَاةَ فَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ قِيَامًا وَقُعُودًا وَعَلَىٰ جُنُوبِكُمْ ۚ فَإِذَا اطْمَأْنَنتُمْ فَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ ۚ إِنَّ الصَّلَاةَ كَانَتْ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ كِتَابًا مَّوْقُوتًا
4|103|When you have completed the prayer, remember God, standing, or sitting, or on your sides. And when you feel secure, perform the prayer. The prayer is obligatory for believers at specific times.
104وَلَا تَهِنُوا فِي ابْتِغَاءِ الْقَوْمِ ۖ إِن تَكُونُوا تَأْلَمُونَ فَإِنَّهُمْ يَأْلَمُونَ كَمَا تَأْلَمُونَ ۖ وَتَرْجُونَ مِنَ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَرْجُونَ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا
4|104|And do not falter in the pursuit of the enemy. If you are aching, they are aching as you are aching, but you expect from God what they cannot expect. God is Knowledgeable and Wise.
105إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِتَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ بِمَا أَرَاكَ اللَّهُ ۚ وَلَا تَكُن لِّلْخَائِنِينَ خَصِيمًا
4|105|We have revealed to you the Scripture, with the truth, so that you judge between people in accordance with what God has shown you. And do not be an advocate for the traitors.
 

H 699, Ch. 52, h 8
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Hassan who has said the following. “I found in the Nawadir (works) of Muhammad ibn Sinan narrated from ‘Abdallah ibn Sinan who has said that abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) has said the following. “No, I swear by Allah, that He has no made anyone of His creatures the in charge except the Messenger of Allah and the Imams (a.s.). Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, has said, ” We have sent down to you the Book with the truth, so that you may judge between the people by that which Allah has shown you (4:105) and it is continued to be valid and in full force with the executors of his will.”

 
106وَاسْتَغْفِرِ اللَّهَ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا
4|106|And ask God for forgiveness. God is Forgiver and Merciful.
107وَلَا تُجَادِلْ عَنِ الَّذِينَ يَخْتَانُونَ أَنفُسَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ مَن كَانَ خَوَّانًا أَثِيمًا
4|107|And do not argue on behalf of those who deceive themselves. God does not love the deceitful sinner.
108يَسْتَخْفُونَ مِنَ النَّاسِ وَلَا يَسْتَخْفُونَ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَهُوَ مَعَهُمْ إِذْ يُبَيِّتُونَ مَا لَا يَرْضَىٰ مِنَ الْقَوْلِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ مُحِيطًا
4|108|They hide from the people, but they cannot hide from God. He is with them, as they plot by night with words He does not approve. God comprehends what they do.
 

مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ الْجَعْفَرِيِّ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا الْحَسَنِ ع يَقُولُ فِي قَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى إِذْ يُبَيِّتُونَ ما لا يَرْضى‏ مِنَ الْقَوْلِ (النساء -: 108 -) قَالَ يَعْنِي فُلَاناً وَ فُلَاناً وَ أَبَا عُبَيْدَةَ بْنَ الْجَرَّاحِ

From Sulaymān al-Ja`farī said I heard Abā al-Ḥasan (عليه السلام) say about the words of Allāh (تبارك و تعالى), “When they plot by night of words which does not please Him” (Sūrah al-Nisā’: Verse 108) He (عليه السلام) said: ‘Meaning fulān (Abū Bakr), fulān (`Umar) and Abā `Ubaydah bin al-Jarrāḥ”

 
109هَا أَنتُمْ هَٰؤُلَاءِ جَادَلْتُمْ عَنْهُمْ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا فَمَن يُجَادِلُ اللَّهَ عَنْهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ أَم مَّن يَكُونُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَكِيلًا
4|109|There you are, arguing on their behalf in the present life, but who will argue with God on their behalf on the Day of Resurrection? Or who will be their representative?
110وَمَن يَعْمَلْ سُوءًا أَوْ يَظْلِمْ نَفْسَهُ ثُمَّ يَسْتَغْفِرِ اللَّهَ يَجِدِ اللَّهَ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا
4|110|Whoever commits evil, or wrongs his soul, then implores God for forgiveness, will find God Forgiving and Merciful.
111وَمَن يَكْسِبْ إِثْمًا فَإِنَّمَا يَكْسِبُهُ عَلَىٰ نَفْسِهِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا
4|111|And Whoever earns a sin, earns it against himself. God is Aware and Wise.
 

A sin is something negative to human growth, it reduces the humans ability to reach perfection and therefore an injustice against oneself.

 

112وَمَن يَكْسِبْ خَطِيئَةً أَوْ إِثْمًا ثُمَّ يَرْمِ بِهِ بَرِيئًا فَقَدِ احْتَمَلَ بُهْتَانًا وَإِثْمًا مُّبِينًا
4|112|And whoever commits a mistake, or a sin, and then blames it on an innocent person, has taken a slander and a clear sin.
113وَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكَ وَرَحْمَتُهُ لَهَمَّت طَّائِفَةٌ مِّنْهُمْ أَن يُضِلُّوكَ وَمَا يُضِلُّونَ إِلَّا أَنفُسَهُمْ ۖ وَمَا يَضُرُّونَكَ مِن شَيْءٍ ۚ وَأَنزَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَعَلَّمَكَ مَا لَمْ تَكُن تَعْلَمُ ۚ وَكَانَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكَ عَظِيمًا
4|113|Were it not for God’s grace towards you, and His mercy, a faction of them would have managed to mislead you. But they only mislead themselves, and they cannot harm you in any way. God has revealed to you the Scripture and wisdom, and has taught you what you did not know. God’s goodness towards you is great.
114۞ لَّا خَيْرَ فِي كَثِيرٍ مِّن نَّجْوَاهُمْ إِلَّا مَنْ أَمَرَ بِصَدَقَةٍ أَوْ مَعْرُوفٍ أَوْ إِصْلَاحٍ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ ۚ وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَٰلِكَ ابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاتِ اللَّهِ فَسَوْفَ نُؤْتِيهِ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا
4|114|There is no good in much of their private counsels, except for him who advocates charity, or kindness, or reconciliation between people. Whoever does that, seeking God’s approval, We will give him a great compensation.
115وَمَن يُشَاقِقِ الرَّسُولَ مِن بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ الْهُدَىٰ وَيَتَّبِعْ غَيْرَ سَبِيلِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ نُوَلِّهِ مَا تَوَلَّىٰ وَنُصْلِهِ جَهَنَّمَ ۖ وَسَاءَتْ مَصِيرًا
4|115|Whoever makes a breach with the Messenger, after the guidance has become clear to him, and follows other than the path of the believers, We will direct him in the direction he has chosen, and commit him to Hell—what a terrible destination!
116إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا بَعِيدًا
4|116|God will not forgive that partners be associated with Him; but will forgive anything less than that, to whomever He wills. Anyone who ascribes partners to God has strayed into far error.
117إِن يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ إِلَّا إِنَاثًا وَإِن يَدْعُونَ إِلَّا شَيْطَانًا مَّرِيدًا
4|117|They invoke in His stead only females. In fact, they invoke none but a rebellious devil.
118لَّعَنَهُ اللَّهُ ۘ وَقَالَ لَأَتَّخِذَنَّ مِنْ عِبَادِكَ نَصِيبًا مَّفْرُوضًا
4|118|God has cursed him. And he said, “I will take to myself my due share of Your servants.”
119وَلَأُضِلَّنَّهُمْ وَلَأُمَنِّيَنَّهُمْ وَلَآمُرَنَّهُمْ فَلَيُبَتِّكُنَّ آذَانَ الْأَنْعَامِ وَلَآمُرَنَّهُمْ فَلَيُغَيِّرُنَّ خَلْقَ اللَّهِ ۚ وَمَن يَتَّخِذِ الشَّيْطَانَ وَلِيًّا مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ فَقَدْ خَسِرَ خُسْرَانًا مُّبِينًا
4|119|“And I will mislead them, and I will entice them, and I will prompt them to slit the ears of cattle, and I will prompt them to alter the creation of God.” Whoever takes Satan as a lord, instead of God, has surely suffered a profound loss.
 

The ‘alteration’ referred to in this verse is the alteration of the fitrah, the natural religion Allah created for us.

فَأَقِمْ وَجْهَكَ لِلدِّينِ حَنِيفًا فِطْرَةَ اللَّهِ الَّتِي فَطَرَ النَّاسَ عَلَيْهَا لَا تَبْدِيلَ لِخَلْقِ اللَّهِ ذَلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ وَلَكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

Then set your face upright for religion in the right state– the nature made by Allah in which He has made men; there is no altering of Allah’s creation; that is the right religion, but most people do not know [30:30]”To alter Allah’s creation” means changing Allahs religion.

If khalq is interpreted as the system planned by Allah to operate His creation and legislation, it should not be stretched out of proportion so as to jeopardise the omnipotence of the divine authority.

“To slit the ears of animals” refers to the slitting the ears of animals by invoking the names of their gods and goddesses by the pagan Arabs, so that those animals could not be slaughtered or used for gainful purposes.
Whatever the promises Shaytan makes, whatever the desires he enkindles, and whatever the hopes he rouses in men, are no more than delusions. The abode of those who follow him is hell from which they will find no escape.

Tafsir al-`Ayyashi we find:

275 ـ عن محمد بن يونس عن بعض أصحابه عن أبى عبدالله (عليه السلام) في قول الله ” و لامرنهم فليغيرن خلق الله ” قال: أمر الله بما أمر به. (3

From Muhammad b. Yunus from one of his companions from Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام regarding the saying of Allah “and surely I will command them and they will change Allah’s creation” He said: The command of Allah by what He has commanded by.

276 ـ عن جابر عن أبى جعفر (عليه السلام) في قول الله ” ولامرنهم فليغيرن خلق الله ” قال: دين الله (4

From Jabir from Abu Ja`far عليه السلام regarding the saying of Allah “and surely I will command them and they will change Allah’s creation” He said: The religion of Allah.

 
120يَعِدُهُمْ وَيُمَنِّيهِمْ ۖ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ إِلَّا غُرُورًا
4|120|He promises them, and he raises their expectations, but Satan promises them nothing but delusions.
121أُولَٰئِكَ مَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ وَلَا يَجِدُونَ عَنْهَا مَحِيصًا
4|121|These—their place is Hell, and they will find no escape from it.
122وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ سَنُدْخِلُهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ۖ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقًّا ۚ وَمَنْ أَصْدَقُ مِنَ اللَّهِ قِيلًا
4|122|But as for those who believe and do righteous deeds, We will admit them into gardens beneath which rivers flow, where they will abide forever. The promise of God is true—and who is more truthful in speech than God?
 

Religious purism, there is no mention of Muslims etc just those that believe and do good.

 

123لَّيْسَ بِأَمَانِيِّكُمْ وَلَا أَمَانِيِّ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ ۗ مَن يَعْمَلْ سُوءًا يُجْزَ بِهِ وَلَا يَجِدْ لَهُ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلِيًّا وَلَا نَصِيرًا
4|123|It is not in accordance with your wishes, nor in accordance with the wishes of the People of the Scripture. Whoever works evil will pay for it, and will not find for himself, besides God, any protector or savior.
124وَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِنَ الصَّالِحَاتِ مِن ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنثَىٰ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَأُولَٰئِكَ يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ وَلَا يُظْلَمُونَ نَقِيرًا
4|124|But whoever works righteousness, whether male or female, and is a believer—those will enter Paradise, and will not be wronged a whit.
 

There is no sexism in Islam, also again a reference to religious pluralism.

 

125وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ دِينًا مِّمَّنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُ لِلَّهِ وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌ وَاتَّبَعَ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا ۗ وَاتَّخَذَ اللَّهُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ خَلِيلًا
4|125|And who is better in religion than he who submits himself wholly to God, and is a doer of good, and follows the faith of Abraham the Monotheist? God has chosen Abraham for a friend.
126وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ مُّحِيطًا
4|126|To God belongs what is in the heavens and what is on earth, and God encompasses everything.
127وَيَسْتَفْتُونَكَ فِي النِّسَاءِ ۖ قُلِ اللَّهُ يُفْتِيكُمْ فِيهِنَّ وَمَا يُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الْكِتَابِ فِي يَتَامَى النِّسَاءِ اللَّاتِي لَا تُؤْتُونَهُنَّ مَا كُتِبَ لَهُنَّ وَتَرْغَبُونَ أَن تَنكِحُوهُنَّ وَالْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ مِنَ الْوِلْدَانِ وَأَن تَقُومُوا لِلْيَتَامَىٰ بِالْقِسْطِ ۚ وَمَا تَفْعَلُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِهِ عَلِيمًا
4|127|They ask you for a ruling about women. Say, “God gives you a ruling about them, and so does what is stated to you in the Book about widowed women from whom you withhold what is decreed for them, yet you desire to marry them, and about helpless children: that you should treat the orphans fairly.” Whatever good you do, God knows it.
128وَإِنِ امْرَأَةٌ خَافَتْ مِن بَعْلِهَا نُشُوزًا أَوْ إِعْرَاضًا فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَا أَن يُصْلِحَا بَيْنَهُمَا صُلْحًا ۚ وَالصُّلْحُ خَيْرٌ ۗ وَأُحْضِرَتِ الْأَنفُسُ الشُّحَّ ۚ وَإِن تُحْسِنُوا وَتَتَّقُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًا
4|128|If a woman fears maltreatment or desertion from her husband, there is no fault in them if they reconcile their differences, for reconciliation is best. Souls are prone to avarice; yet if you do what is good, and practice piety—God is Cognizant of what you do.
129وَلَن تَسْتَطِيعُوا أَن تَعْدِلُوا بَيْنَ النِّسَاءِ وَلَوْ حَرَصْتُمْ ۖ فَلَا تَمِيلُوا كُلَّ الْمَيْلِ فَتَذَرُوهَا كَالْمُعَلَّقَةِ ۚ وَإِن تُصْلِحُوا وَتَتَّقُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا
4|129|You will not be able to treat women with equal fairness, no matter how much you desire it. But do not be so biased as to leave another suspended. If you make amends, and act righteously—God is Forgiving and Merciful.
 

عزوجل: ” فانكحوا ما طاب لكم من النساء مثنى وثلاث ورباع فإن خفتم إلا تعدلوا فواحدة ” أ ليس هذا فرض؟ قال: بلى، قال: فأخبرني عن قوله عزوجل: ” ولن تستطيعوا أن تعدلوا بين النساء ولو حرصتم فلا تميلوا كل الميل اي حكيم يتكلم بهذا فلم يكن عنده جواب فرحل إلى المدينة إلى أبي عبدالله (ع) فقال : ياهشام في غير وقت حج ولا عمرة؟ قال: نعم جعلت فداك لامر أهمني إن ابن أبي العوجاء سألني عن مسألة لم يكن عندي فيها شئ قال: وماهي؟ قال: فأخبره بالقصة فقال له أبوعبدالله (ع): أما قوله عزوجل: ” فانكحوا ماطاب لكم من النساء مثنى وثلاث ورباع فإن خفتم الا تعدلوا فواحدة ” يعني في النفقة وأما قوله: ” ولن تستطيعوا أن تعدلوا بين النساء ولو حرصتم فلا تميلوا كل الميل فتذروها كالمعلقة ” يعني في المودة، قال: فلما قدم عليه هشام بهذا الجواب وأخبره قال: والله ماهذا من عندك.  `Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Nuh b. Shu`ayb and Muhammad b. al-Hasan.  He said:  Ibn Abi ‘l-`Awja’ asked Hisham b. al-Hakam.  He said to him:  Is Allah not wise (hakeem)? He said:  Of course, rather He is the wisest of the wise (ahkam al-hakimeen).  He said:  So inform me about His, `azza wa jalla, saying “so marry such women as seem good to you, two, three, four; but if you fear you will not be equitable, then one”(4:3) , is this not obligatory?  He said: Of course.  He said:  So inform me about His, `azza wa jalla, saying “You will not be able to be equitable between your wives, be you ever so eager; yet do not be altogether partial.”(4:129)  What kind of hakeem would speak like this?  So he did not have an answer, so he travelled to Madina to Abu `Abdillah (as).  So he said:  Oh Hisham, in other than the time of Hajj, and not `Umra?  He said:  Yes, may I be your sacrifice.  (It is) for a matter that has distressed me.  Ibn Abi ‘l-`Awja’ asked me about an issue that there is nothing with me (regarding it).  He said:  And what is it?  He said:  So I told him the story.  So Abu `Abdillah (as) said to him:  As to His, `azza wa jalla, saying “so marry such women as seem good to you, two, three, four; but if you fear you will not be equitable, then one”, meaning in maintenance (an-nafaqa).  As to His, `azza wa jalla, saying “You will not be able to be equitable between your wives, be you ever so eager; yet do not be altogether partial so that you leave her as it were suspended” meaning in love (al-muwadda).  He said:  So when Hisham came with this answer, and informed him, he said:  By Allah, this is not from you.

 
130وَإِن يَتَفَرَّقَا يُغْنِ اللَّهُ كُلًّا مِّن سَعَتِهِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ وَاسِعًا حَكِيمًا
4|130|And if they separate, God will enrich each from His abundance. God is Bounteous and Wise.
131وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۗ وَلَقَدْ وَصَّيْنَا الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ وَإِيَّاكُمْ أَنِ اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ وَإِن تَكْفُرُوا فَإِنَّ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَنِيًّا حَمِيدًا
4|131|To God belongs everything in the heavens and everything on earth. We have instructed those who were given the Book before you, and you, to be conscious of God. But if you refuse—to God belongs everything in the heavens and everything on earth. God is in no need, Praiseworthy.
132وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ وَكِيلًا
4|132|To God belongs everything in the heavens and everything on earth. God suffices as Manager.
133إِن يَشَأْ يُذْهِبْكُمْ أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ وَيَأْتِ بِآخَرِينَ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ ذَٰلِكَ قَدِيرًا
4|133|If He wills, He can do away with you, O people, and bring others. God is Able to do that.
134مَّن كَانَ يُرِيدُ ثَوَابَ الدُّنْيَا فَعِندَ اللَّهِ ثَوَابُ الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ سَمِيعًا بَصِيرًا
4|134|Whoever desires the reward of this world—with God is the reward of this world and the next. God is All-Hearing, All-Seeing.
135۞ يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُونُوا قَوَّامِينَ بِالْقِسْطِ شُهَدَاءَ لِلَّهِ وَلَوْ عَلَىٰ أَنفُسِكُمْ أَوِ الْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالْأَقْرَبِينَ ۚ إِن يَكُنْ غَنِيًّا أَوْ فَقِيرًا فَاللَّهُ أَوْلَىٰ بِهِمَا ۖ فَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا الْهَوَىٰ أَن تَعْدِلُوا ۚ وَإِن تَلْوُوا أَوْ تُعْرِضُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًا
4|135|O you who believe! Stand firmly for justice, as witnesses to God, even if against yourselves, or your parents, or your relatives. Whether one is rich or poor, God takes care of both. So do not follow your desires, lest you swerve. If you deviate, or turn away—then God is Aware of what you do.

H , Ch. 108, h 44
Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu‘alla ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn Asbat from Ali ibn abu Hamza from abu Basir from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) about the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Gracious. “You will soon know who is in manifest error” (67:29) This verse is addressed to those who refuse to acknowledge the Imam Ali’s Leadership with Divine Authority and the Imams after him that they are ‘in manifest error.’ Similarly they are addressed in this verse, “If you deviate from the truth in your testimony, or decline to give your testimony at all, know that God is Well Aware of what you do.” (4:135) the truth referred to is (Leadership with Divine Authority of the Imams (a.s.) They are also in the words of Allah. “We shall certainly make the unbelievers (in (Leadership with Divine Authority of Imam Ali (a.s.) suffer severe torment (in this world) and will punish them far worse than what they deserve for their deeds.” (41:27).”

A verse explaining the importance of Justice. Harvard university in USA have a plaque with this verse on it as an excellent example of Justice.

http://library.law.harvard.edu/justicequotes/explore-the-room/west/

136يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا آمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَابِ الَّذِي نَزَّلَ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَابِ الَّذِي أَنزَلَ مِن قَبْلُ ۚ وَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِاللَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا بَعِيدًا
4|136|O you who believe! Believe in God and His messenger, and the Book He sent down to His messenger, and the Book He sent down before. Whoever rejects God, His angels, His Books, His messengers, and the Last Day, has strayed far in error.
137إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ثُمَّ كَفَرُوا ثُمَّ آمَنُوا ثُمَّ كَفَرُوا ثُمَّ ازْدَادُوا كُفْرًا لَّمْ يَكُنِ اللَّهُ لِيَغْفِرَ لَهُمْ وَلَا لِيَهْدِيَهُمْ سَبِيلًا
4|137|Those who believe, then disbelieve, then believe, then disbelieve, then increase in disbelief, God will not forgive them, nor will He guide them to a way.
 

H , Ch. 108, h 41
Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu‘alla ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn ’Urama and Ali ibn ‘Abdallah from Ali ibn Hassa’n from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Kathir from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) about the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most gracious. “God will not forgive or guide to the right path those who first believe, then disbelieve, again believe and disbelieve, and then increase their disbelief.” (4:137) The Imam (a.s.) said, “It was revealed about so and so and so and so who believed in the Holy Prophet (s.a) in the beginning. They turned to disbelief when Leadership with Divine Authority of Ali was made know to them when the Holy Prophet (s.a) said, “Over whoever, I have Divine authority Ali also has Divine authority. When the Messenger of Allah passed away they turned to disbelief. They did not remain steadfast in their oath of allegiance. They increased in their disbelief through making people to pledge allegiance to them. They left nothing of the faith that once they had.”

 
138بَشِّرِ الْمُنَافِقِينَ بِأَنَّ لَهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا
4|138|Inform the hypocrites that they will have a painful punishment.
139الَّذِينَ يَتَّخِذُونَ الْكَافِرِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِن دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۚ أَيَبْتَغُونَ عِندَهُمُ الْعِزَّةَ فَإِنَّ الْعِزَّةَ لِلَّهِ جَمِيعًا
4|139|Those who ally themselves with the disbelievers instead of the believers. Do they seek glory in them? All glory belongs to God.
 

This is an oft repeating concept, authority is a major principle in Islam. The authority system is a means of allowing the masses access to guidance, starting from Allah to the Prophet and then to Imams, see 4:59.

 
140وَقَدْ نَزَّلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الْكِتَابِ أَنْ إِذَا سَمِعْتُمْ آيَاتِ اللَّهِ يُكْفَرُ بِهَا وَيُسْتَهْزَأُ بِهَا فَلَا تَقْعُدُوا مَعَهُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَخُوضُوا فِي حَدِيثٍ غَيْرِهِ ۚ إِنَّكُمْ إِذًا مِّثْلُهُمْ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ جَامِعُ الْمُنَافِقِينَ وَالْكَافِرِينَ فِي جَهَنَّمَ جَمِيعًا
4|140|He has revealed to you in the Book that when you hear God’s revelations being rejected, or ridiculed, do not sit with them until they engage in some other subject. Otherwise, you would be like them. God will gather the hypocrites and the disbelievers, into Hell, altogether.
141الَّذِينَ يَتَرَبَّصُونَ بِكُمْ فَإِن كَانَ لَكُمْ فَتْحٌ مِّنَ اللَّهِ قَالُوا أَلَمْ نَكُن مَّعَكُمْ وَإِن كَانَ لِلْكَافِرِينَ نَصِيبٌ قَالُوا أَلَمْ نَسْتَحْوِذْ عَلَيْكُمْ وَنَمْنَعْكُم مِّنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۚ فَاللَّهُ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ۗ وَلَن يَجْعَلَ اللَّهُ لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ سَبِيلًا
4|141|Those who lie in wait for you: if you attain victory from God, they say, “Were we not with you?” But if the disbelievers get a turn, they say, “Did we not side with you, and defend you from the believers?” God will judge between you on the Day of Resurrection; and God will give the disbelievers no means of overcoming the believers.
142إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ يُخَادِعُونَ اللَّهَ وَهُوَ خَادِعُهُمْ وَإِذَا قَامُوا إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ قَامُوا كُسَالَىٰ يُرَاءُونَ النَّاسَ وَلَا يَذْكُرُونَ اللَّهَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا
4|142|The hypocrites try to deceive God, but He is deceiving them. And when they stand for prayer, they stand lazily, showing off in front of people, and remembering God only a little.
 

We have in the Qur’an: “And they (the unbelievers or Jews) schemed, and Allah schemed (against them), and Allah is the best of schemers” [3, 47]; and also: “Verily the hypocrites seek to beguile Allah, but it is ,Allah Who beguileth them” [4,141]; and: ” Allah doth mock them ” [2, 14]; and we have: “Allah will deride at (sakhira) them ” [9, 80]; and we have: “They have forgotten Allah, so He hath forgotten them” [9, 68]. And the meaning of all this is that He, the Glorious and Mighty, shall requite them for their scheming (makr), beguiling (mukhada’a) mockery (istihza‘), and forgetfulness (nisyan); and that is, He will make them forget themselves, as He, the Mighty and Glorious, has said: “And be not ye as those who forgot Allah, therefore He caused them to forget their souls ” [59,19]. For in reality Allah, the Glorious and Mighty, does not scheme, nor does He beguile, deride, or forget. Exalted is Allah beyond all this by His Greatness and Glory.

 
143مُّذَبْذَبِينَ بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ لَا إِلَىٰ هَٰؤُلَاءِ وَلَا إِلَىٰ هَٰؤُلَاءِ ۚ وَمَن يُضْلِلِ اللَّهُ فَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُ سَبِيلًا
4|143|Wavering in between, neither with these, nor with those. Whomever God sends astray, you will never find for him a way.
144يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا الْكَافِرِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِن دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۚ أَتُرِيدُونَ أَن تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ سُلْطَانًا مُّبِينًا
4|144|O you who believe! Do not take disbelievers as your authority rather than believers. Do you want to give God a clear case against you?
 

Do not take disbelievers as your authority eg as a source of law or social direction etc only pure believers can be a source of moral and social guidance.

 
145إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِي الدَّرْكِ الْأَسْفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِ وَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُمْ نَصِيرًا
4|145|The hypocrites will be in the lowest level of the Fire, and you will find no helper for them.
146إِلَّا الَّذِينَ تَابُوا وَأَصْلَحُوا وَاعْتَصَمُوا بِاللَّهِ وَأَخْلَصُوا دِينَهُمْ لِلَّهِ فَأُولَٰئِكَ مَعَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۖ وَسَوْفَ يُؤْتِ اللَّهُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا
4|146|Except those who repent, and reform, and hold fast to God, and dedicate their religion to God alone. These are with the believers; and God will give the believers a great reward.
147مَّا يَفْعَلُ اللَّهُ بِعَذَابِكُمْ إِن شَكَرْتُمْ وَآمَنتُمْ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ شَاكِرًا عَلِيمًا
4|147|What would God accomplish by your punishment, if you have given thanks, and have believed? God is Appreciative and Cognizant.
148۞ لَّا يُحِبُّ اللَّهُ الْجَهْرَ بِالسُّوءِ مِنَ الْقَوْلِ إِلَّا مَن ظُلِمَ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ سَمِيعًا عَلِيمًا
4|148|God does not like the public uttering of bad language, unless someone was wronged. God is Hearing and Knowing.
149إِن تُبْدُوا خَيْرًا أَوْ تُخْفُوهُ أَوْ تَعْفُوا عَن سُوءٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَفُوًّا قَدِيرًا
4|149|If you let a good deed be shown, or conceal it, or pardon an offense—God is Pardoning and Capable.
150إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْفُرُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يُفَرِّقُوا بَيْنَ اللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيَقُولُونَ نُؤْمِنُ بِبَعْضٍ وَنَكْفُرُ بِبَعْضٍ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَّخِذُوا بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ سَبِيلًا
4|150|Those who disbelieve in God and His messengers, and want to separate between God and His messengers, and say, “We believe in some, and reject some,” and wish to take a path in between.
151أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ حَقًّا ۚ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُّهِينًا
4|151|These are the unbelievers, truly. We have prepared for the unbelievers a shameful punishment.
 

belief and disbelief is not a matter of specific prophets or rules, it is whether you accept the concept of God and doing what is good and avoiding what is wrong. The details of which are fine tuned as each prophet came. Those that rejected the newer prophets thought that their prophet’s message was correct and true for all time, in reality it was contextual, the concepts were eternal but the applied laws were temporary. As a new prophet came, the wisdom and morals did not change, but the application changed depending on the society and environment. 

 
152وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَلَمْ يُفَرِّقُوا بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُمْ أُولَٰئِكَ سَوْفَ يُؤْتِيهِمْ أُجُورَهُمْ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا
4|152|As for those who believe in God and His messengers, and make no distinction between any of them—He will give them their rewards. God is Forgiver and Merciful.
153يَسْأَلُكَ أَهْلُ الْكِتَابِ أَن تُنَزِّلَ عَلَيْهِمْ كِتَابًا مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ ۚ فَقَدْ سَأَلُوا مُوسَىٰ أَكْبَرَ مِن ذَٰلِكَ فَقَالُوا أَرِنَا اللَّهَ جَهْرَةً فَأَخَذَتْهُمُ الصَّاعِقَةُ بِظُلْمِهِمْ ۚ ثُمَّ اتَّخَذُوا الْعِجْلَ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ فَعَفَوْنَا عَن ذَٰلِكَ ۚ وَآتَيْنَا مُوسَىٰ سُلْطَانًا مُّبِينًا
4|153|The People of the Scripture challenge you to bring down to them a book from the sky. They had asked Moses for something even greater. They said, “Show us God plainly.” The thunderbolt struck them for their wickedness. Then they took the calf for worship, even after the clear proofs had come to them. Yet We pardoned that, and We gave Moses a clear authority.
 

The notion of seeing God is wicked, it is incompatible with Tauheed, God can be limited, measured or likened to other things. Its also interesting to note that the people that took the calf for worship and then changed back to Islam, were forgiven. In other verses (4:48, 116) it suggests polytheism is not forgiven. The correct understanding is that if someone is a polytheist, then they change their beliefs to that of monotheism, then they are forgiven. If they die having believed in polytheism, then this is not forgivable, at least that what is suggested. 

 

154وَرَفَعْنَا فَوْقَهُمُ الطُّورَ بِمِيثَاقِهِمْ وَقُلْنَا لَهُمُ ادْخُلُوا الْبَابَ سُجَّدًا وَقُلْنَا لَهُمْ لَا تَعْدُوا فِي السَّبْتِ وَأَخَذْنَا مِنْهُم مِّيثَاقًا غَلِيظًا
4|154|And We raised the Mount above them in accordance with their covenant, and We said to them, “Enter the gate humbly”, and We said to them, “Do not violate the Sabbath”, and We received from them a solemn pledge.
155فَبِمَا نَقْضِهِم مِّيثَاقَهُمْ وَكُفْرِهِم بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ وَقَتْلِهِمُ الْأَنبِيَاءَ بِغَيْرِ حَقٍّ وَقَوْلِهِمْ قُلُوبُنَا غُلْفٌ ۚ بَلْ طَبَعَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهَا بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا
4|155|But for their violation of their covenant, and their denial of God’s revelations, and their killing of the prophets unjustly, and their saying, “Our minds are closed.” In fact, God has sealed them for their disbelief, so they do not believe, except for a few.
156وَبِكُفْرِهِمْ وَقَوْلِهِمْ عَلَىٰ مَرْيَمَ بُهْتَانًا عَظِيمًا
4|156|And for their faithlessness, and their saying against Mary a monstrous slander.
157وَقَوْلِهِمْ إِنَّا قَتَلْنَا الْمَسِيحَ عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ وَمَا صَلَبُوهُ وَلَٰكِن شُبِّهَ لَهُمْ ۚ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ لَفِي شَكٍّ مِّنْهُ ۚ مَا لَهُم بِهِ مِنْ عِلْمٍ إِلَّا اتِّبَاعَ الظَّنِّ ۚ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ يَقِينًا
4|157|And for their saying, “We have killed the Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, the Messenger of God.” In fact, they did not kill him, nor did they crucify him, but it appeared to them as if they did. Indeed, those who differ about him are in doubt about it. They have no knowledge of it, except the following of assumptions. Certainly, they did not kill him.
 

Nabi Isa AS was not killed or crucified.

 
158بَل رَّفَعَهُ اللَّهُ إِلَيْهِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا
4|158|Rather, God raised him up to Himself. God is Mighty and Wise.
 

Does this refer to death or simply removal from the Earth? In reality it doesnt matter, Allah can bring Nabi Isa AS back regardless or not.

 

159وَإِن مِّنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ إِلَّا لَيُؤْمِنَنَّ بِهِ قَبْلَ مَوْتِهِ ۖ وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يَكُونُ عَلَيْهِمْ شَهِيدًا
4|159|There is none from the People of the Scripture but will believe in him before his death, and on the Day of Resurrection he will be a witness against them.
 

Shahr ibn Hawshab said, “Al-Hajjaj said to me, ‘There is a verse in the Book of Allah that has wearied me.’ I said, ‘O Commander! Which verse is it?’ He said, ‘His saying,

‘And there is not one of the followers of the Book but most certainly believes in this before his death, and on the day of resurrection he (Jesus) shall be a witness against them. (4:159)’

By Allah! I command a Jew and a Christian to be beheaded, then I look at them with my own eyes, but I do not see them moving their lips when they die.’ I said, ‘May Allah reform the Commander! It is not as you have interpreted it.’ He said, ‘How is it?’

I said, ‘Verily, Jesus will descend to the world before the Resurrection Day, then the people of the Jewish nation or Christian nation will not remain [on the earth] unless they believe in him before their death and will pray behind al-Mahdi.’ He said, ‘Woe unto you! Where did you bring it from?’ I said, ‘Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn al-Husayn ibn ‘Ali ibn Abu Talib (‘a) narrated it to me.’ He said, ‘By Allah! You brought it from a pure spring.’”1

2. The Apostle of Allah (S) said, “Good news for you. [He repeated it three times.] … How can the community of which I am the first perish? There are twelve persons after me who are felicitous and possess understanding and Christ Jesus the son of Mary is at the end of them. But between them, the children of confusion will perish. They are not from me and I am not from them.”2

3. The Apostle of Allah said, “How can a community perish when I am at the beginning of it, Jesus the son of Mary will be at the end of it and al-Mahdi will be in the middle of it.”3

4. Hudhayfah ibn ’Usayd al-Ghifari said, “We sat in the shadow of a wall in al-Madinah and the Apostle of Allah (S) was in a room. Then he appeared over us and said, ‘What are you doing?’ We said, ‘We are talking.’ He said, ‘About what?’ We said, ‘About the Resurrection Day (al-Sa‘ah).’

He said, ‘You will not see the Resurrection Day until you see ten signs before it, sunrise from the West, al-Dajjal and the beast of the earth, three lunar eclipses on the earth, one in the East, one in the West and one in the Arabian Peninsula and the emergence of Jesus the son of Mary (‘a) …”4

5. Abu al-Qasim al-Ta’i said, “I asked ‘Ali ibn Musa Al-Ridha’ about he who will fight with us. He said, “He who will fight with the companion of Jesus the son of Mary.”5

6. It is reported that Abu ‘Abd Allah (‘a) said, “Jesus the son of Mary is the Spirit of Allah and His Word. He was thirty-three years old in the world. Then Allah raised him to heaven. He will descend to the earth and it is he who will kill the Antichrist (Dajjal.)”6

 
160فَبِظُلْمٍ مِّنَ الَّذِينَ هَادُوا حَرَّمْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ طَيِّبَاتٍ أُحِلَّتْ لَهُمْ وَبِصَدِّهِمْ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ كَثِيرًا
4|160|Due to wrongdoing on the part of the Jews, We forbade them good things that used to be lawful for them; and for deterring many from God’s path.
161وَأَخْذِهِمُ الرِّبَا وَقَدْ نُهُوا عَنْهُ وَأَكْلِهِمْ أَمْوَالَ النَّاسِ بِالْبَاطِلِ ۚ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ مِنْهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا
4|161|And for their taking usury, although they were forbidden it; and for their consuming people’s wealth dishonestly. We have prepared for the faithless among them a painful torment.
162لَّٰكِنِ الرَّاسِخُونَ فِي الْعِلْمِ مِنْهُمْ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ ۚ وَالْمُقِيمِينَ الصَّلَاةَ ۚ وَالْمُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ أُولَٰئِكَ سَنُؤْتِيهِمْ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا
4|162|But those among them firmly rooted in knowledge, and the believers, believe in what was revealed to you, and in what was revealed before you; and the observers of prayers, and the givers of charity, and the believers in God and the Last Day—upon these We will bestow an immense reward.
163۞ إِنَّا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ كَمَا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ نُوحٍ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ مِن بَعْدِهِ ۚ وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطِ وَعِيسَىٰ وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُونُسَ وَهَارُونَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ ۚ وَآتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ زَبُورًا
4|163|We have inspired you, as We had inspired Noah and the prophets after him. And We inspired Abraham, and Ishmael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the Patriarchs, and Jesus, and Job, and Jonah, and Aaron, and Solomon. And We gave David the Psalms.
164وَرُسُلًا قَدْ قَصَصْنَاهُمْ عَلَيْكَ مِن قَبْلُ وَرُسُلًا لَّمْ نَقْصُصْهُمْ عَلَيْكَ ۚ وَكَلَّمَ اللَّهُ مُوسَىٰ تَكْلِيمًا
4|164|Some messengers We have already told you about, while some messengers We have not told you about. And God spoke to Moses directly.
165رُّسُلًا مُّبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ لِئَلَّا يَكُونَ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَى اللَّهِ حُجَّةٌ بَعْدَ الرُّسُلِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا
4|165|Messengers delivering good news, and bringing warnings; so that people may have no excuse before God after the coming of the messengers. God is Powerful and Wise.
166لَّٰكِنِ اللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ بِمَا أَنزَلَ إِلَيْكَ ۖ أَنزَلَهُ بِعِلْمِهِ ۖ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ يَشْهَدُونَ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ شَهِيدًا
4|166|But God bears witness to what He revealed to you. He revealed it with His knowledge. And the angels bear witness. Though God is a sufficient witness.
167إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَصَدُّوا عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ قَدْ ضَلُّوا ضَلَالًا بَعِيدًا
4|167|Those who disbelieve and repel from God’s path have gone far astray.
168إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَظَلَمُوا لَمْ يَكُنِ اللَّهُ لِيَغْفِرَ لَهُمْ وَلَا لِيَهْدِيَهُمْ طَرِيقًا
4|168|Those who disbelieve and transgress; God is not about to forgive them, nor will He guide them to any path.
169إِلَّا طَرِيقَ جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ۚ وَكَانَ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرًا
4|169|Except to the path of Hell, where they will dwell forever. And that is easy for God.
170يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ قَدْ جَاءَكُمُ الرَّسُولُ بِالْحَقِّ مِن رَّبِّكُمْ فَآمِنُوا خَيْرًا لَّكُمْ ۚ وَإِن تَكْفُرُوا فَإِنَّ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚوَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا
4|170|O people! The Messenger has come to you with the truth from your Lord, so believe—that is best for you. But if you disbelieve, to God belongs everything in the heavens and the earth. God is Omniscient and Wise.
171يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لَا تَغْلُوا فِي دِينِكُمْ وَلَا تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ إِلَّا الْحَقَّ ۚ إِنَّمَا الْمَسِيحُ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَكَلِمَتُهُ أَلْقَاهَا إِلَىٰ مَرْيَمَ وَرُوحٌ مِّنْهُ ۖ فَآمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ ۖ وَلَا تَقُولُوا ثَلَاثَةٌ ۚ انتَهُوا خَيْرًا لَّكُمْ ۚ إِنَّمَا اللَّهُ إِلَٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ ۖ سُبْحَانَهُ أَن يَكُونَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ ۘ لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۗ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ وَكِيلًا
4|171|O People of the Scripture! Do not exaggerate in your religion, and do not say about God except the truth. The Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, is the Messenger of God, and His Word that He conveyed to Mary, and a Spirit from Him. So believe in God and His messengers, and do not say, “Three.” Refrain—it is better for you. God is only one God. Glory be to Him—that He should have a son. To Him belongs everything in the heavens and the earth, and God is a sufficient Protector.
172لَّن يَسْتَنكِفَ الْمَسِيحُ أَن يَكُونَ عَبْدًا لِّلَّهِ وَلَا الْمَلَائِكَةُ الْمُقَرَّبُونَ ۚ وَمَن يَسْتَنكِفْ عَنْ عِبَادَتِهِ وَيَسْتَكْبِرْ فَسَيَحْشُرُهُمْ إِلَيْهِ جَمِيعًا
4|172|The Messiah does not disdain to be a servant of God, nor do the favored angels. Whoever disdains His worship, and is too arrogant—He will round them up to Himself altogether.
173فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ فَيُوَفِّيهِمْ أُجُورَهُمْ وَيَزِيدُهُم مِّن فَضْلِهِ ۖ وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ اسْتَنكَفُوا وَاسْتَكْبَرُوا فَيُعَذِّبُهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا وَلَا يَجِدُونَ لَهُم مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلِيًّا وَلَا نَصِيرًا
4|173|But as for those who believe and do good works, He will pay them their wages in full, and will increase His grace for them. But as for those who disdain and are too proud, He will punish them with an agonizing punishment. And they will find for themselves, apart from God, no lord and no savior.
174يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ قَدْ جَاءَكُم بُرْهَانٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَأَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكُمْ نُورًا مُّبِينًا
4|174|O people! A proof has come to you from your Lord, and We sent down to you a clear light.
175فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَاعْتَصَمُوا بِهِ فَسَيُدْخِلُهُمْ فِي رَحْمَةٍ مِّنْهُ وَفَضْلٍ وَيَهْدِيهِمْ إِلَيْهِ صِرَاطًا مُّسْتَقِيمًا
4|175|As for those who believe in God, and hold fast to Him, He will admit them into mercy and grace from Him, and will guide them to Himself in a straight path.
176يَسْتَفْتُونَكَ قُلِ اللَّهُ يُفْتِيكُمْ فِي الْكَلَالَةِ ۚ إِنِ امْرُؤٌ هَلَكَ لَيْسَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ وَلَهُ أُخْتٌ فَلَهَا نِصْفُ مَا تَرَكَ ۚ وَهُوَ يَرِثُهَا إِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهَا وَلَدٌ ۚ فَإِن كَانَتَا اثْنَتَيْنِ فَلَهُمَا الثُّلُثَانِ مِمَّا تَرَكَ ۚ وَإِن كَانُوا إِخْوَةً رِّجَالًا وَنِسَاءً فَلِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الْأُنثَيَيْنِ ۗ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ أَن تَضِلُّوا ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ
4|176|They ask you for a ruling. Say, “God gives you a ruling concerning the person who has neither parents nor children.” If a man dies, and leaves no children, and he had a sister, she receives one-half of what he leaves. And he inherits from her if she leaves no children. But if there are two sisters, they receive two-thirds of what he leaves. If the siblings are men and women, the male receives the share of two females.” God makes things clear for you, lest you err. God is Aware of everything.
Medina Minds Team

Medina Minds Team

A group of contributors who are working to publicize the reality of Islam and Muslims.

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