Tafsir 6. Al-An’aam

Al-An’aam

 
1الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَجَعَلَ الظُّلُمَاتِ وَالنُّورَ ۖ ثُمَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِرَبِّهِمْ يَعْدِلُونَ
6|1|Praise be to God, Who created the heavens and the earth, and made the darkness and the light. Yet those who disbelieve ascribe equals to their Lord.
 
darkness in the Quran is often associated with the fear or evil of the unknown. It can be thought if as the opportunity for evil. Whereas the light is good itself. They are not polar opposites. The light is good, darkness is only the potential for evil. Consider surah falaq.
 
2هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُم مِّن طِينٍ ثُمَّ قَضَىٰ أَجَلًا ۖ وَأَجَلٌ مُّسَمًّى عِندَهُ ۖ ثُمَّ أَنتُمْ تَمْتَرُونَ
6|2|It is He who created you from clay, then decided a term—a term determined by him. Yet you doubt.

H 367, Ch. 24, h 4
It is narrated from Muhammad ibn Yahya from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Faddal from ibn Bukayr from Zurara from humran from abu Ja‘far (a.s.) who has said the following. “I asked the Imam about the words of Allah, “It is He who has created you from clay to live for a life-time and the span of your life is only known to Him. . . .” (6:2) The Imam said, “There are two appointed times. One is is a definite time and the other is the conditional one.”

 

eg definite is the one with Allah that is known by Him, it will happen. Conditional is that which is dependent on our behavior, eg someone may jump of the bridge and die, this is conditional, there is a causal chain that needs to be established. The definite knowledge is aware of the exact start and end of this chain.

 

3وَهُوَ اللَّهُ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَفِي الْأَرْضِ ۖ يَعْلَمُ سِرَّكُمْ وَجَهْرَكُمْ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا تَكْسِبُونَ
6|3|He is God in the heavens and the earth. He knows what you keep secret and what you make public; and He knows what you earn.
 
The literalists would have some trouble with this verse, God is in heaven and Earth?. They can only make sense of this verse if they take it allegorically or interpret not as God, but His knowledge, and this is also an interpretation and not a literal meaning.
 
4وَمَا تَأْتِيهِم مِّنْ آيَةٍ مِّنْ آيَاتِ رَبِّهِمْ إِلَّا كَانُوا عَنْهَا مُعْرِضِينَ
6|4|Not one of their Lord’s signs comes to them, but they turn away from it.
5فَقَدْ كَذَّبُوا بِالْحَقِّ لَمَّا جَاءَهُمْ ۖ فَسَوْفَ يَأْتِيهِمْ أَنبَاءُ مَا كَانُوا بِهِ يَسْتَهْزِئُونَ
6|5|They denied the truth when it has come to them; but soon will reach them the news of what they used to ridicule.
6أَلَمْ يَرَوْا كَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا مِن قَبْلِهِم مِّن قَرْنٍ مَّكَّنَّاهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ مَا لَمْ نُمَكِّن لَّكُمْ وَأَرْسَلْنَا السَّمَاءَ عَلَيْهِم مِّدْرَارًا وَجَعَلْنَا الْأَنْهَارَ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهِمْ فَأَهْلَكْنَاهُم بِذُنُوبِهِمْ وَأَنشَأْنَا مِن بَعْدِهِمْ قَرْنًا آخَرِينَ
6|6|Have they not considered how many generations We destroyed before them? We had established them on earth more firmly than We established you, and We sent the clouds pouring down abundant rain on them, and We made rivers flow beneath them. But We destroyed them for their sins, and established other civilizations after them.
 
The civilisation that were destroyed, if they were based on falsehood, then ultimately they will collapse. Eg if a group are corrupt, it’s only a matter of time before things fall apart. It’s interesting that the good , moral way to live is also the way to have a prosperous permanent community.
 
No matter how much resources or advancement, all people end up dead and all civilisations end up falling. People appear to be using their life to acquire goods or status, where as this is worthless in the grand scheme. There is no escaping death.
 
7وَلَوْ نَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْكَ كِتَابًا فِي قِرْطَاسٍ فَلَمَسُوهُ بِأَيْدِيهِمْ لَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا إِنْ هَٰذَا إِلَّا سِحْرٌ مُّبِينٌ
6|7|Had We sent down upon you a book on paper, and they had touched it with their hands, those who disbelieve would have said, “This is nothing but plain magic.”
 

6:7 same as 8,9 religion needs to be rational. Can’t expect people to be taught go act rationally if the message arrives irrationally.

 

8وَقَالُوا لَوْلَا أُنزِلَ عَلَيْهِ مَلَكٌ ۖ وَلَوْ أَنزَلْنَا مَلَكًا لَّقُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ ثُمَّ لَا يُنظَرُونَ
6|8|And they say, “Why was an angel not sent down to him.” Had We sent down an angel, the matter would have been settled, and they would not have been reprieved.
 

6:8,9 the test is that humanity must choose to be good without force or supernatural influence, but rather they should choose to do good because of sound rational reasons eg being moral is the right thing to do.

 

9وَلَوْ جَعَلْنَاهُ مَلَكًا لَّجَعَلْنَاهُ رَجُلًا وَلَلَبَسْنَا عَلَيْهِم مَّا يَلْبِسُونَ
6|9|Had We made him an angel, We would have made him a man, and confused them when they are already confused.
10وَلَقَدِ اسْتُهْزِئَ بِرُسُلٍ مِّن قَبْلِكَ فَحَاقَ بِالَّذِينَ سَخِرُوا مِنْهُم مَّا كَانُوا بِهِ يَسْتَهْزِئُونَ
6|10|Messengers before you were ridiculed, but those who mocked them became besieged by what they ridiculed.
11قُلْ سِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ ثُمَّ انظُرُوا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الْمُكَذِّبِينَ
6|11|Say, “Travel the earth and observe the final fate of the deniers.”
12قُل لِّمَن مَّا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ قُل لِّلَّهِ ۚ كَتَبَ عَلَىٰ نَفْسِهِ الرَّحْمَةَ ۚ لَيَجْمَعَنَّكُمْ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ ۚ الَّذِينَ خَسِرُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ فَهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ
6|12|Say, “To whom belongs what is in the heavens and the earth?” Say, “To God.” He has inscribed for Himself mercy. He will gather you to the Day of Resurrection, in which there is no doubt. Those who lost their souls do not believe.
13۞ وَلَهُ مَا سَكَنَ فِي اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ ۚ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ
6|13|To Him belongs whatever rests in the night and the day. He is the Hearing, the Knowing.
14قُلْ أَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ أَتَّخِذُ وَلِيًّا فَاطِرِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَهُوَ يُطْعِمُ وَلَا يُطْعَمُ ۗ قُلْ إِنِّي أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَكُونَ أَوَّلَ مَنْ أَسْلَمَ ۖ وَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ
6|14|Say, “Shall I take for myself a protector other than God, Originator of the heavens and the earth, and He feeds and is not fed?” Say, “I am instructed to be the first of those who submit.” And do not be among the idolaters.
 
to take anyone as the ultimate source of your protection is polytheism.
 
15قُلْ إِنِّي أَخَافُ إِنْ عَصَيْتُ رَبِّي عَذَابَ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ
6|15|Say, “I fear, should I defy my Lord, the punishment of a tremendous Day.”
16مَّن يُصْرَفْ عَنْهُ يَوْمَئِذٍ فَقَدْ رَحِمَهُ ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْمُبِينُ
6|16|Whoever is spared on that Day—He had mercy on him. That is the clear victory.
17وَإِن يَمْسَسْكَ اللَّهُ بِضُرٍّ فَلَا كَاشِفَ لَهُ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ وَإِن يَمْسَسْكَ بِخَيْرٍ فَهُوَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
6|17|If God touches you with adversity, none can remove it except He. And if He touches you with good—He is Capable of everything.
18وَهُوَ الْقَاهِرُ فَوْقَ عِبَادِهِ ۚ وَهُوَ الْحَكِيمُ الْخَبِيرُ
6|18|He is the Supreme over His servants. He is the Wise, the Expert.
19قُلْ أَيُّ شَيْءٍ أَكْبَرُ شَهَادَةً ۖ قُلِ اللَّهُ ۖ شَهِيدٌ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكُمْ ۚ وَأُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنُ لِأُنذِرَكُم بِهِ وَمَن بَلَغَ ۚ أَئِنَّكُمْ لَتَشْهَدُونَ أَنَّ مَعَ اللَّهِ آلِهَةً أُخْرَىٰ ۚ قُل لَّا أَشْهَدُ ۚ قُلْ إِنَّمَا هُوَ إِلَٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ وَإِنَّنِي بَرِيءٌ مِّمَّا تُشْرِكُونَ
6|19|Say, “What thing is more solemn in testimony?” Say, “God is Witness between you and me. This Quran was revealed to me, that I may warn you with it, and whomever it may reach. Do you indeed testify that there are other gods with God?” Say, “I myself do not testify.” Say, “He is but One God, and I am innocent of your idolatry.”
20الَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ يَعْرِفُونَهُ كَمَا يَعْرِفُونَ أَبْنَاءَهُمُ ۘ الَّذِينَ خَسِرُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ فَهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ
6|20|Those to whom We have given the Book recognize it as they recognize their own children; but those who have lost their souls do not believe.
21وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَىٰ عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا أَوْ كَذَّبَ بِآيَاتِهِ ۗ إِنَّهُ لَا يُفْلِحُ الظَّالِمُونَ
6|21|Who does greater wrong than someone who fabricates lies against God, or denies His revelations? The wrongdoers will not succeed.
22وَيَوْمَ نَحْشُرُهُمْ جَمِيعًا ثُمَّ نَقُولُ لِلَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا أَيْنَ شُرَكَاؤُكُمُ الَّذِينَ كُنتُمْ تَزْعُمُونَ
6|22|On the Day when We gather them all together, then say to the idolaters, “Where are your idols, those you used to claim?”
23ثُمَّ لَمْ تَكُن فِتْنَتُهُمْ إِلَّا أَن قَالُوا وَاللَّهِ رَبِّنَا مَا كُنَّا مُشْرِكِينَ
6|23|Then their only argument will be to say, “By God, our Lord, we were not idolaters.”
 
those that are guilty of polytheism may not be aware what they are doing is actually polytheism. When they call to others to help them, “outside” of the scope of God, this is shirk.
 
24انظُرْ كَيْفَ كَذَبُوا عَلَىٰ أَنفُسِهِمْ ۚ وَضَلَّ عَنْهُم مَّا كَانُوا يَفْتَرُونَ
6|24|Look how they lied to themselves. And what they invented deserted them.
25وَمِنْهُم مَّن يَسْتَمِعُ إِلَيْكَ ۖ وَجَعَلْنَا عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ أَكِنَّةً أَن يَفْقَهُوهُ وَفِي آذَانِهِمْ وَقْرًا ۚ وَإِن يَرَوْا كُلَّ آيَةٍ لَّا يُؤْمِنُوا بِهَا ۚ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا جَاءُوكَ يُجَادِلُونَكَ يَقُولُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا إِنْ هَٰذَا إِلَّا أَسَاطِيرُ الْأَوَّلِينَ
6|25|Among them are those who listen to you; but We place covers over their hearts, to prevent them from understanding it, and heaviness in their ears. Even if they see every sign, they will not believe in it. Until, when they come to you, to argue with you, those who disbelieve will say, “These are nothing but myths of the ancients.”
 

These are those that only listen to argue, not for genuine debate, but to just deny without reason or logic. They have the choice to believe or not, but choosing not to believe is described as Allah blocking you from belief, they may normally be rational people, but when it comes to religion and morality, they do not accept reason and instead choose to disagree without evidence, eg their hearts and senses are blocked, they are acting without thought or sense. They may infact be aware of the reason and logic of what Islam promotes, but they are choosing to argue against it in an illogical manner.

 

26وَهُمْ يَنْهَوْنَ عَنْهُ وَيَنْأَوْنَ عَنْهُ ۖ وَإِن يُهْلِكُونَ إِلَّا أَنفُسَهُمْ وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ
6|26|They keep others from it, and avoid it themselves; but they ruin only their own souls, and they do not realize.
27وَلَوْ تَرَىٰ إِذْ وُقِفُوا عَلَى النَّارِ فَقَالُوا يَا لَيْتَنَا نُرَدُّ وَلَا نُكَذِّبَ بِآيَاتِ رَبِّنَا وَنَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ
6|27|If only you could see, when they are made to stand before the Fire; they will say, “If only we could be sent back, and not reject the revelations of our Lord, and be among the faithful.”
28بَلْ بَدَا لَهُم مَّا كَانُوا يُخْفُونَ مِن قَبْلُ ۖ وَلَوْ رُدُّوا لَعَادُوا لِمَا نُهُوا عَنْهُ وَإِنَّهُمْ لَكَاذِبُونَ
6|28|What they used to conceal before will become clear to them. And even if they were sent back, they would revert to what they were forbidden. They are liars.
29وَقَالُوا إِنْ هِيَ إِلَّا حَيَاتُنَا الدُّنْيَا وَمَا نَحْنُ بِمَبْعُوثِينَ
6|29|And they say, “There is nothing but our life in this world, and we will not be resurrected.”
30وَلَوْ تَرَىٰ إِذْ وُقِفُوا عَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ ۚ قَالَ أَلَيْسَ هَٰذَا بِالْحَقِّ ۚ قَالُوا بَلَىٰ وَرَبِّنَا ۚ قَالَ فَذُوقُوا الْعَذَابَ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْفُرُونَ
6|30|If only you could see, when they are stationed before their Lord. He will say, “Is this not real?” They will say, “Yes indeed, by our Lord.” He will say, “Then taste the torment for having disbelieved.”
31قَدْ خَسِرَ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِلِقَاءِ اللَّهِ ۖ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا جَاءَتْهُمُ السَّاعَةُ بَغْتَةً قَالُوا يَا حَسْرَتَنَا عَلَىٰ مَا فَرَّطْنَا فِيهَا وَهُمْ يَحْمِلُونَ أَوْزَارَهُمْ عَلَىٰ ظُهُورِهِمْ ۚ أَلَا سَاءَ مَا يَزِرُونَ
6|31|Losers are those who deny the encounter with God. Then, when the Hour comes upon them suddenly, they will say, “Alas for us, how we have neglected it.” And they will carry their burdens on their backs—evil is what they carry.
32وَمَا الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا إِلَّا لَعِبٌ وَلَهْوٌ ۖ وَلَلدَّارُ الْآخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ لِّلَّذِينَ يَتَّقُونَ ۗ أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُونَ
6|32|The life of this world is nothing but game and distraction, but the Home of the Hereafter is better for those who are righteous. Do you not understand?
33قَدْ نَعْلَمُ إِنَّهُ لَيَحْزُنُكَ الَّذِي يَقُولُونَ ۖ فَإِنَّهُمْ لَا يُكَذِّبُونَكَ وَلَٰكِنَّ الظَّالِمِينَ بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ يَجْحَدُونَ
6|33|We know that what they say grieves you. It is not you they reject, but it is God’s revelations that the wicked deny.
34وَلَقَدْ كُذِّبَتْ رُسُلٌ مِّن قَبْلِكَ فَصَبَرُوا عَلَىٰ مَا كُذِّبُوا وَأُوذُوا حَتَّىٰ أَتَاهُمْ نَصْرُنَا ۚ وَلَا مُبَدِّلَ لِكَلِمَاتِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَلَقَدْ جَاءَكَ مِن نَّبَإِ الْمُرْسَلِينَ
6|34|Other messengers before you were rejected, but they endured rejection and persecution until Our help came to them. There can be no change to God’s words. News of the Messengers has already reached you.
 
there can be no compromise on core ideas or principles in religion. We stick to our principles no matter what.
 
35وَإِن كَانَ كَبُرَ عَلَيْكَ إِعْرَاضُهُمْ فَإِنِ اسْتَطَعْتَ أَن تَبْتَغِيَ نَفَقًا فِي الْأَرْضِ أَوْ سُلَّمًا فِي السَّمَاءِ فَتَأْتِيَهُم بِآيَةٍ ۚ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَجَمَعَهُمْ عَلَى الْهُدَىٰ ۚ فَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْجَاهِلِينَ
6|35|If you find their rejection hard to bear, then if you can, seek a tunnel into the earth, or a stairway into the heaven, and bring them a sign. Had God willed, He could have gathered them to guidance. So do not be of the ignorant.
 

6:35 implies if we were to tunnel into the earth or go into space there will be signs of Gods existence

 
36۞ إِنَّمَا يَسْتَجِيبُ الَّذِينَ يَسْمَعُونَ ۘ وَالْمَوْتَىٰ يَبْعَثُهُمُ اللَّهُ ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ يُرْجَعُونَ
6|36|Only those who listen will respond. As for the dead, God will resurrect them; then to Him they will be returned.
37وَقَالُوا لَوْلَا نُزِّلَ عَلَيْهِ آيَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ ۚ قُلْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَادِرٌ عَلَىٰ أَن يُنَزِّلَ آيَةً وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ
6|37|And they say, “If only a sign could come down to him from his Lord.” Say, “God is Able to send down a sign, but most of them do not know.”
38وَمَا مِن دَابَّةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا طَائِرٍ يَطِيرُ بِجَنَاحَيْهِ إِلَّا أُمَمٌ أَمْثَالُكُم ۚ مَّا فَرَّطْنَا فِي الْكِتَابِ مِن شَيْءٍ ۚ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يُحْشَرُونَ
6|38|There is no animal on land, nor a bird flying with its wings, but are communities like you. We neglected nothing in the Scripture. Then to their Lord they will be gathered.
39وَالَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا صُمٌّ وَبُكْمٌ فِي الظُّلُمَاتِ ۗ مَن يَشَإِ اللَّهُ يُضْلِلْهُ وَمَن يَشَأْ يَجْعَلْهُ عَلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ
6|39|Those who reject Our revelations are deaf and dumb, in total darkness. Whomever God wills, He leaves astray; and whomever He wills, He sets on a straight path.
40قُلْ أَرَأَيْتَكُمْ إِنْ أَتَاكُمْ عَذَابُ اللَّهِ أَوْ أَتَتْكُمُ السَّاعَةُ أَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ تَدْعُونَ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ
6|40|Say, “Have you considered? if God’s punishment came upon you, or the Hour overtook you, would you call upon any other than God, if you are sincere?”
 
when your in real trouble, and you feel that it is the end, and your facing destruction, at that moment your mind is clear and you will only call on God, and Him alone.
 
41بَلْ إِيَّاهُ تَدْعُونَ فَيَكْشِفُ مَا تَدْعُونَ إِلَيْهِ إِن شَاءَ وَتَنسَوْنَ مَا تُشْرِكُونَ
6|41|In fact, it is Him you will call upon; and if He wills, he will remove what you called Him for, and you will forget what you idolized.
42وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا إِلَىٰ أُمَمٍ مِّن قَبْلِكَ فَأَخَذْنَاهُم بِالْبَأْسَاءِ وَالضَّرَّاءِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَضَرَّعُونَ
6|42|We sent messengers to communities before you, and We afflicted them with suffering and hardship, that they may humble themselves.
 
Some people think that if there lives are hard, then God must hate them, or they are bad people. We need to realise that the challenges we face are there to make us better, to train us, and make us understand the bigger picture. The Prophets AS were beloved, so Allah made them face the toughest test, to give them the best training, to elevate them to the highest levels. Also it perhaps gives an answer as to why suffering exists. Evil is suffering for a negative outcome, suffering with a positive outcome is a test, or training.
 
43فَلَوْلَا إِذْ جَاءَهُم بَأْسُنَا تَضَرَّعُوا وَلَٰكِن قَسَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ
6|43|If only, when Our calamity came upon them, they humbled themselves. But their hearts hardened, and Satan made their deeds appear good to them.
44فَلَمَّا نَسُوا مَا ذُكِّرُوا بِهِ فَتَحْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ أَبْوَابَ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا فَرِحُوا بِمَا أُوتُوا أَخَذْنَاهُم بَغْتَةً فَإِذَا هُم مُّبْلِسُونَ
6|44|Then, when they disregarded what they were reminded of, We opened for them the gates of all things. Until, when they delighted in what they were given, We seized them suddenly; and at once, they were in despair.
 

A hadith attributed to Imam Baqir AS says the ayat 6:44 “When they disregarded the warning they had received” refers to the Waliyat of Imam Ali AS. “We opened to them the gates of all (good) things” means that Allah allowed them to live and have power in this life. “all of a sudden, We called them to account, when lo! they were plunged in despair!” means that when the Qaem rises, it will be as if they have no power at all. Allah goes on to say in next verse about the roots of people were cut off. This can be understood several ways; perhaps it refers to those that had their feet cut off fighting the Imam, or refers to the people who were mentioned above.

 
45فَقُطِعَ دَابِرُ الْقَوْمِ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا ۚ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ
6|45|Thus the last remnant of the people who did wrong was cut off. And praise be to God, Lord of the Worlds.
46قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِنْ أَخَذَ اللَّهُ سَمْعَكُمْ وَأَبْصَارَكُمْ وَخَتَمَ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِكُم مَّنْ إِلَٰهٌ غَيْرُ اللَّهِ يَأْتِيكُم بِهِ ۗ انظُرْ كَيْفَ نُصَرِّفُ الْآيَاتِ ثُمَّ هُمْ يَصْدِفُونَ
6|46|Say, “Have you considered? If God took away your hearing and your sight, and set a seal on your hearts, what god other than God would restore them to you?” Note how We explain the revelations in various ways, yet they still turn away.
47قُلْ أَرَأَيْتَكُمْ إِنْ أَتَاكُمْ عَذَابُ اللَّهِ بَغْتَةً أَوْ جَهْرَةً هَلْ يُهْلَكُ إِلَّا الْقَوْمُ الظَّالِمُونَ
6|47|Say, “Have you considered? if God’s punishment descended on you suddenly or gradually, would any be destroyed except the wrongdoing people?”
48وَمَا نُرْسِلُ الْمُرْسَلِينَ إِلَّا مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ ۖ فَمَنْ آمَنَ وَأَصْلَحَ فَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ
6|48|We sent the messengers only as bearers of good news and as warners. Those who believe and reform have nothing to fear, nor shall they grieve.
49وَالَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا يَمَسُّهُمُ الْعَذَابُ بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْسُقُونَ
6|49|But as for those who reject Our revelations, torment will afflict them because of their defiance.
50قُل لَّا أَقُولُ لَكُمْ عِندِي خَزَائِنُ اللَّهِ وَلَا أَعْلَمُ الْغَيْبَ وَلَا أَقُولُ لَكُمْ إِنِّي مَلَكٌ ۖ إِنْ أَتَّبِعُ إِلَّا مَا يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ ۚ قُلْ هَلْ يَسْتَوِي الْأَعْمَىٰ وَالْبَصِيرُ ۚ أَفَلَا تَتَفَكَّرُونَ
6|50|Say, “I do not say to you that I possess the treasuries of God, nor do I know the future, nor do I say to you that I am an angel. I only follow what is inspired to me.” Say, “Are the blind and the seeing alike? Do you not think?”
51وَأَنذِرْ بِهِ الَّذِينَ يَخَافُونَ أَن يُحْشَرُوا إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ ۙ لَيْسَ لَهُم مِّن دُونِهِ وَلِيٌّ وَلَا شَفِيعٌ لَّعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ
6|51|And warn with it those who fear to be gathered before their Lord—they have no protector or intercessor apart from him—perhaps they will grow in piety.
52وَلَا تَطْرُدِ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ رَبَّهُم بِالْغَدَاةِ وَالْعَشِيِّ يُرِيدُونَ وَجْهَهُ ۖ مَا عَلَيْكَ مِنْ حِسَابِهِم مِّن شَيْءٍ وَمَا مِنْ حِسَابِكَ عَلَيْهِم مِّن شَيْءٍ فَتَطْرُدَهُمْ فَتَكُونَ مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ
6|52|And do not drive away those who call upon their Lord, morning and evening, seeking His attention. You are not accountable for them in any way, nor are they accountable for you in any way. If you drive them away, you would be one of the unjust.
53وَكَذَٰلِكَ فَتَنَّا بَعْضَهُم بِبَعْضٍ لِّيَقُولُوا أَهَٰؤُلَاءِ مَنَّ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِم مِّن بَيْنِنَا ۗ أَلَيْسَ اللَّهُ بِأَعْلَمَ بِالشَّاكِرِينَ
6|53|Thus We try some of them by means of others, that they may say, “Are these the ones whom God has favored from among us?” Is God not aware of the appreciative?
54وَإِذَا جَاءَكَ الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِآيَاتِنَا فَقُلْ سَلَامٌ عَلَيْكُمْ ۖ كَتَبَ رَبُّكُمْ عَلَىٰ نَفْسِهِ الرَّحْمَةَ ۖ أَنَّهُ مَنْ عَمِلَ مِنكُمْ سُوءًا بِجَهَالَةٍ ثُمَّ تَابَ مِن بَعْدِهِ وَأَصْلَحَ فَأَنَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
6|54|When those who believe in Our revelations come to you, say, “Peace be upon you, your Lord has prescribed mercy for Himself. Whoever among you does wrong out of ignorance, and then repents afterwards and reforms—He is Forgiving and Merciful.”
55وَكَذَٰلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ وَلِتَسْتَبِينَ سَبِيلُ الْمُجْرِمِينَ
6|55|Thus We explain the revelations, and expose the path of the unrighteous.
56قُلْ إِنِّي نُهِيتُ أَنْ أَعْبُدَ الَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ ۚ قُل لَّا أَتَّبِعُ أَهْوَاءَكُمْ ۙ قَدْ ضَلَلْتُ إِذًا وَمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُهْتَدِينَ
6|56|Say, “I am forbidden from worshiping those you pray to besides God.” Say, “I will not follow your desires; else I would be lost and not be of those guided.”
57قُلْ إِنِّي عَلَىٰ بَيِّنَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّي وَكَذَّبْتُم بِهِ ۚ مَا عِندِي مَا تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ بِهِ ۚ إِنِ الْحُكْمُ إِلَّا لِلَّهِ ۖ يَقُصُّ الْحَقَّ ۖ وَهُوَ خَيْرُ الْفَاصِلِينَ
6|57|Say, “I stand on clear evidence from my Lord, and you have rejected Him. I do not possess what you seek me to hasten; the decision belongs solely to God. He states the truth, and He is the Best of Judges.”
58قُل لَّوْ أَنَّ عِندِي مَا تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ بِهِ لَقُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِالظَّالِمِينَ
6|58|Say, “If I possessed what you seek me to hasten, the matter between you and me would have been settled. God is well aware of the unjust.”
59۞ وَعِندَهُ مَفَاتِحُ الْغَيْبِ لَا يَعْلَمُهَا إِلَّا هُوَ ۚ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ ۚ وَمَا تَسْقُطُ مِن وَرَقَةٍ إِلَّا يَعْلَمُهَا وَلَا حَبَّةٍ فِي ظُلُمَاتِ الْأَرْضِ وَلَا رَطْبٍ وَلَا يَابِسٍ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مُّبِينٍ
6|59|With Him are the keys of the unseen; none knows them except He. And He knows everything on land and in the sea. Not a leaf falls but He knows it; and there is not a single grain in the darkness of earth, nor is there anything wet or dry, but is in a clear record.
60وَهُوَ الَّذِي يَتَوَفَّاكُم بِاللَّيْلِ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا جَرَحْتُم بِالنَّهَارِ ثُمَّ يَبْعَثُكُمْ فِيهِ لِيُقْضَىٰ أَجَلٌ مُّسَمًّى ۖ ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ مَرْجِعُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ
6|60|It is He Who takes you by night, and He knows what you earn by day. Then He raises you up in it, until a fixed term is fulfilled. Then to Him is your return, then He will inform you of what you used to do.
61وَهُوَ الْقَاهِرُ فَوْقَ عِبَادِهِ ۖ وَيُرْسِلُ عَلَيْكُمْ حَفَظَةً حَتَّىٰ إِذَا جَاءَ أَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ تَوَفَّتْهُ رُسُلُنَا وَهُمْ لَا يُفَرِّطُونَ
6|61|He is the Conqueror over His servants, and He sends guardians over you, until, when death overtakes one of you, Our envoys take him away, and they never fail.
62ثُمَّ رُدُّوا إِلَى اللَّهِ مَوْلَاهُمُ الْحَقِّ ۚ أَلَا لَهُ الْحُكْمُ وَهُوَ أَسْرَعُ الْحَاسِبِينَ
6|62|Then they are brought back to God, their True Master. Unquestionably, His is the judgment, and He is the Swiftest of reckoners.
63قُلْ مَن يُنَجِّيكُم مِّن ظُلُمَاتِ الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ تَدْعُونَهُ تَضَرُّعًا وَخُفْيَةً لَّئِنْ أَنجَانَا مِنْ هَٰذِهِ لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الشَّاكِرِينَ
6|63|Say, “Who delivers you from the darkness of land and sea?” You call upon Him humbly and inwardly: “If He delivers us from this, We will surely be among the thankful.”
64قُلِ اللَّهُ يُنَجِّيكُم مِّنْهَا وَمِن كُلِّ كَرْبٍ ثُمَّ أَنتُمْ تُشْرِكُونَ
6|64|Say, “It is God who delivers you from it, and from every disaster. Yet then you associate others with Him.”
65قُلْ هُوَ الْقَادِرُ عَلَىٰ أَن يَبْعَثَ عَلَيْكُمْ عَذَابًا مِّن فَوْقِكُمْ أَوْ مِن تَحْتِ أَرْجُلِكُمْ أَوْ يَلْبِسَكُمْ شِيَعًا وَيُذِيقَ بَعْضَكُم بَأْسَ بَعْضٍ ۗ انظُرْ كَيْفَ نُصَرِّفُ الْآيَاتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَفْقَهُونَ
6|65|Say, “He is Able to send upon you an affliction, from above you, or from under your feet. Or He can divide you into factions, and make you taste the violence of one another. Note how We explain the revelations, so that they may understand.”
66وَكَذَّبَ بِهِ قَوْمُكَ وَهُوَ الْحَقُّ ۚ قُل لَّسْتُ عَلَيْكُم بِوَكِيلٍ
6|66|But your people rejected it, though it is the truth. Say, “I am not responsible for you.”
67لِّكُلِّ نَبَإٍ مُّسْتَقَرٌّ ۚ وَسَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ
6|67|For every happening is a finality, and you will surely know.
68وَإِذَا رَأَيْتَ الَّذِينَ يَخُوضُونَ فِي آيَاتِنَا فَأَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَخُوضُوا فِي حَدِيثٍ غَيْرِهِ ۚ وَإِمَّا يُنسِيَنَّكَ الشَّيْطَانُ فَلَا تَقْعُدْ بَعْدَ الذِّكْرَىٰ مَعَ الْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ
6|68|When you encounter those who gossip about Our revelations, turn away from them, until they engage in another topic. But should Satan make you forget, do not sit after the recollection with the wicked people.
69وَمَا عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَتَّقُونَ مِنْ حِسَابِهِم مِّن شَيْءٍ وَلَٰكِن ذِكْرَىٰ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ
6|69|The righteous are in no way accountable for them; it is only a reminder, that they may be careful.
70وَذَرِ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا دِينَهُمْ لَعِبًا وَلَهْوًا وَغَرَّتْهُمُ الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا ۚ وَذَكِّرْ بِهِ أَن تُبْسَلَ نَفْسٌ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ لَيْسَ لَهَا مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلِيٌّ وَلَا شَفِيعٌ وَإِن تَعْدِلْ كُلَّ عَدْلٍ لَّا يُؤْخَذْ مِنْهَا ۗ أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ أُبْسِلُوا بِمَا كَسَبُوا ۖ لَهُمْ شَرَابٌ مِّنْ حَمِيمٍ وَعَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْفُرُونَ
6|70|So leave alone those who take their religion for play and pastime, and whom the worldly life has deceived. But remind with it, lest a soul becomes damned on account of what it has earned. It has no helper or intercessor besides God. Even if it offers every equivalent, none will be accepted from it. These are the ones who are delivered to perdition by their actions. They will have a drink of scalding water, and a painful punishment, because they used to disbelieve.
71قُلْ أَنَدْعُو مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَنفَعُنَا وَلَا يَضُرُّنَا وَنُرَدُّ عَلَىٰ أَعْقَابِنَا بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَانَا اللَّهُ كَالَّذِي اسْتَهْوَتْهُ الشَّيَاطِينُ فِي الْأَرْضِ حَيْرَانَ لَهُ أَصْحَابٌ يَدْعُونَهُ إِلَى الْهُدَى ائْتِنَا ۗ قُلْ إِنَّ هُدَى اللَّهِ هُوَ الْهُدَىٰ ۖ وَأُمِرْنَا لِنُسْلِمَ لِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ
6|71|Say, “Shall we invoke besides God something that can neither benefit us nor harm us, and turn back on our heels after God has guided us; like someone seduced by the devils and confused on earth, who has friends calling him to guidance: ‘Come to us’?” Say, “The guidance of God is the guidance, and we are commanded to surrender to the Lord of the Universe.”
72وَأَنْ أَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَاتَّقُوهُ ۚ وَهُوَ الَّذِي إِلَيْهِ تُحْشَرُونَ
6|72|“And to perform the prayers, and to revere Him; it is to Him that you will be gathered.”
73وَهُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ بِالْحَقِّ ۖ وَيَوْمَ يَقُولُ كُن فَيَكُونُ ۚ قَوْلُهُ الْحَقُّ ۚ وَلَهُ الْمُلْكُ يَوْمَ يُنفَخُ فِي الصُّورِ ۚ عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ ۚ وَهُوَ الْحَكِيمُ الْخَبِيرُ
6|73|It is He who created the heavens and the earth in truth. On the Day when He says: “Be,” it will be. His saying is the truth, and His is the sovereignty on the Day when the trumpet is blown. The Knower of secrets and declarations. He is the Wise, the Expert.
74۞ وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ لِأَبِيهِ آزَرَ أَتَتَّخِذُ أَصْنَامًا آلِهَةً ۖ إِنِّي أَرَاكَ وَقَوْمَكَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ
6|74|Abraham said to his father Azar, “Do you take idols for gods? I see that you and your people are in evident error.”
 

And when Ibrahim said to his sire, Azar: Do you take idle for gods ? Surely I see you and your people in manifest error. (Qur’an: Surah Al Anaam, Verse 74)

And Ibrahim asking forgiveness for his sire was only owing to a promise that he made to him; but when it became clear to him that he was an enemy of Allah, he declared himself to be clear of him; most surely Ibrahim was very tenderhearted and forbearing. (Qur’an: Surah Al Tauba, Verse 114)

In the above verses, the word ‘ Ab ‘ has been used for Azar. However, ‘Ab’ has different meanings and does not necessarily mean ‘Walid’ (biological father).

The Holy Prophet (S) has said that the essence of his existence had been transmitted and ultimately conveyed to his immediate parents through a pure, a holy and sanctified progeny.

Now the word ‘ Ab ‘ in Arabic language may mean father as well as ancestor or even uncle as Ishmael (Ismail) the uncle of Jacob (Yaqoub) has been addressed as ‘ Ab ‘ in the following Qur’anic verse …

Nay! were you witnesses when death visited Yaqoub, when he said to his sons: What will you serve after me ? They said: Well will serve your God and the God of your fathers, Ibrahim and Ismail and Ishaq, one God only, and to Him do we submit. (Qur’an 2:113)

Since Ishmael was not the father of Jacob, and yet Qur’an uses the word ‘Ab’ for him as uncle, then the usage of this word for other than biological father is established…

Besides Prophet Abraham prays for his biological father (Walid) along with the other believers, which clearly indicates that his biological father was not a polytheist. This is evident from the following Qur’anic verse …

O our Lord! grant me protection and my parents (Walidayn) and the believers on the day when the reckoning shall come to pass. (Qur’an 14:41)

رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لِي وَلِوَالِدَيَّ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَوْمَ يَقُومُ الْحِسَابُ 

But what is surprising, that knowing for fact Ibrahim’s (as) father was ‘Tarakh’ and not ‘Azar’ as stipulated by some Sunni historians, which is in total conformity with the opinion of Shi’a. Ibn Katheer in his work on history writes:

Ibrahim (as) was the son of Tarakh. When Tarakh was 75 years of age, Ibrahim (as) was born to him.

Sunni reference: al-Bidaya wan Nahaya, by Ibn Katheer, v 1 p 139

This is also confirmed by Tabari, as he gives the lineage of Ibrahim’s (as) family in his history collection, but then also in his Commentary of the Qur’an he states that ‘Azar’ was NOT the father of Ibrahim (as).

Sunni references:

– History of al-Tabari, v 1 p 119
– Tafsir Tabari, by Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, v 7 p 158

 

Abraham’s father was named ‘Tarakh’. He is said to have passed away before Abraham’s birth. Azar is believed to be the patriarchal or tribal father under whose guardianship Abraham was raised.

These verses describe the spiritual vision and state of certainty granted to Abraham as a gift from Allah. In a series of revelatory or intellectual unveilings, the Reality behind existence – it’s true nature – was manifested and he arrived at a state of understanding and certainty that most humans will not reach except after the blowing of the trumpet of light (that will illuminate and reveal the true nature of reality).

This spiritual journey is described in the form of a series of events in which Abraham(a.s.) penetrates through the frozen forms and laws of the world to perceive the source of existence. He first turns away from the materialistic, frozen spirituality of his people who have tried to give material form (idols) to that which is beyond all form and who have thus transformed spirituality into idolatry.

Then begins a series of perceptions which take Abraham beyond all forms. He perceives three heavenly lights each more intense than the previous one but each one is subject to laws and to time since each one sets (each is demarcated and limited and subject to natural laws). So then he turns to face what is beyond each appearance. True knowledge has a vastness that is beyond any narrowness – in other words true knowledge transforms the one who seeks it, and with each transformation the seeker is prepared for even deeper and more vast knowledge. Just as when Allah grants a revelation to a Prophet or an inspiration to a servant, it prepares the servant for further inspiration, and this goes on endlessly. The gaining of this type of knowledge is like the removal of veils. With each removal you think that now you are truly seeing the essence but the next removal makes you aware that this is not the case.

Abraham in this series of perceptions and unveilings of lights is granted a revelation, an experience that it is only “Allah that is the Light of the Heavens and the Earth”. So this series of perceptions is a revelation to Abraham and at the same time it is an instruction to his people who are caught up in worshipping forms – who are trapped in a materialistic outlook where knowledge begins and ends at this lowest level of existence. This is phrased as an instruction, almost as a series of three questions to them (corresponding to the star, moon, and sun) – ‘Is this what you worship’ – ‘is this what you worship’ – ‘is this what you worship’ – can you not penetrate with your mind beyond this level? Are you trapped and confined by the narrowness of your minds and do you in this manner self-limit your knowledge? Are you not aware that the splendor of even the heavenly lights is subsumed by the Source of all light.

So it is at once a revelation to Abraham of the unity of Allah and the veiled and limited nature of this world, and an instruction to Abraham’s tribe of their error.

 

“”Those who ascribe rivals to God (al-adilun billah) cry lies when they make Him similar to the like of their categories, adorn Him in their imaginations with the adornment of creatures, divide Him with a measure resulting from the notions of their concerns, and measure Him by the talents of their reason’s powers in terms of the creatures with their multiple faculties. For how should the deliberations of imaginations assess Him whose measure cannot be determined, when surely the notions of understanding have erred in conceiving of His inmost center ? For He is greater than that the minds of men should delimit Him through thought (tafkir) or angels should encompass Him through estimation, despite their proximity to the kingdom of His might.”

“High be He exalted above having an equal (kufw) with which to be compared, for He is the Subtle: when imaginations desire to encroach upon Him in the depths of the unseen regions of His dominion, (when) thoughts (fikar) free from insinuating intrusions seek to grasp knowledge of His Essence, (when) hearts are thrown into mad confusion over Him in trying to embrace Him through conforming to His attributes, (when) the ways of approach of reason’s powers become obscured since no attributes attain to Him by which they might gain the knowledge of His divinity, (then) they (imaginations, thoughts, hearts and ways of approach) are checked in disgrace while traversing the chasms of the dark reaches of the unseen worlds, rid (of all things) for Him-glory be to Him! They return having been thrown back, admitting that the inmost center of His knowledge is not reached through the deviation of straying (from the path)] and that no notion of the measure of His might’s majesty occurs to the mind of meditators, by reason of His distance from being (encompassed) within the faculties of limited beings. For He is counter to (khilaf) His creation, and there is nothing like Him among creatures. Now a thing is only compared with its like (adil). As for what has no like, how should it be compared with what is other than its like (mithal) ? And He is the Beginning (al-badi) before whom was naught, and the Last (al-akhir) after whom will be naught.”  “
(Imam Ali (a.s.) on God’s transcendence – translated by William Chittick in “A Shi’ite Anthology”)

——————————

“”Whoso maintains that he knows God by means of a veil (hijab) or a form (surah) or a likeness (mithal) is an associator (mushrik), for the veil, the likeness and the form are other than He. He is utterly and only One. So how should he who maintains that he knows Him by means of other than Him be professing Unity ? Surely He alone knows God who knows Him by means of God (billah). Therefore, whoso knows Him not by means of Him knows Him not. On the contrary, he only knows other than Him. There is nothing between the Creator and the created. [96] God is the Creator of things, but not from something. He is named by His names, so He is other than His names, and His names are other than He. The described (al-mawsuf) is other than the describer (al-wasif).”
(Imam Jafar al-Sadiq (a.s.) – form “A Shi’ite Anthology”)

 
75وَكَذَٰلِكَ نُرِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ مَلَكُوتَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَلِيَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُوقِنِينَ
6|75|Thus We showed Abraham the empire of the heavens and the earth, that he might be one of those with certainty.
 

H 335, Ch. 20, h 1
A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Barqi, in a marfu‘
manner, who has said the following.
“Jathaliq, a christian scholar, asked Imam Ali (a.s.) saying, ‘Tell me about Allah, the Most
Holy, the Most High. Does He carry the ‘Arsh or ‘Arsh carries Him?” Imam Ali (a.s.) replied,
“Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, is the One Who carries and has lifted the ‘Arsh, the
heavens and earth and all that is between them from banishment. ‘Allah (God) prevents the
heavens and the earth from falling apart. If they do fall apart, then, no one besides Him can
restore them. He is All-forbearing and All-forgiving. (35:41)’ He then asked, “Tell me about
His words, ‘The angels will be around the heavens and on that day eight of them will carry
the Throne of your Lord above all the creatures (69:17).’ “How has He said it. You just said
that He carries the heavens, earth and all that is between them.” Asked the man. Amirul
Mu’minin then said, “Allah, the Most High, created al-‘Arsh (the Throne) from four lights.
From a red wherefrom the redness became red, a green light from which the greenness
became green, a yellow light whereby the yellowness became yellow. He created it from a
white light wherefrom is white and it is knowledge which Allah has made the carriers to carry
and that is the light of His greatness. With His greatness and His light He has given sight to
the hearts of believers. Because of His greatness and light the ignorant ones have become His
enemies. Through His greatness and light all those in heavens and on earth, all His creatures
seek to reach Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, by means of their various deeds and
mixed religions. All that is carried Allah carries them with the light of His greatness and
power. They are not able to do any benefit, or harm, death or life or resurrection. All things
are carried. Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, preserves them from banishment and has
control over both of them (heavens and earth). He is the life of all things, the light of all
things. Glorious is He, the Most High, far above what they say about Him. He is far high
above them with Greatness.”
He then said tell me about Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, where is He? Amirul
Mu’minin said, “He is here. He is there, above, below, encompassing us and with us as He
has said. ‘There is not a single place wherein any secret counsel can take place between any
three people without God being the fourth, nor five people without His being the sixth nor any
gathering of more or less people, wherever it may be, without His being with them . . .’
(58:7). The al-Kursi contains the heavens and the earth and all that is between them and
below the soil. If you would say anything loud, He knows the secrets and hidden as
mentioned in His words, “The heavens and the earth are under His dominion (contained in
His al-Kursi). He does not experience fatigue in preserving them both. He is the High, and the
Greatest.’ (2:255) Thus, those who carry al-‘Arsh (the throne) are the scholars whom Allah
has made to carry His knowledge. There is nothing that Allah has created in the heavens and
the earth that is out of these four that He has shown to those whom he chosen. He showed
them to His friend Ibrahim (s.a.). “Also, We showed (Abraham) the kingdom of the heavens
and the earth to strengthen his faith.” (6:75) How would the carriers of al-‘Arsh (the Throne)
carry Allah when with life from Him their hearts receive life and with His light they found
guidance to know Him.”

 
76فَلَمَّا جَنَّ عَلَيْهِ اللَّيْلُ رَأَىٰ كَوْكَبًا ۖ قَالَ هَٰذَا رَبِّي ۖ فَلَمَّا أَفَلَ قَالَ لَا أُحِبُّ الْآفِلِينَ
6|76|When the night fell over him, he saw a planet. He said, “This is my lord.” But when it set, he said, “I do not love those that set.”
77فَلَمَّا رَأَى الْقَمَرَ بَازِغًا قَالَ هَٰذَا رَبِّي ۖ فَلَمَّا أَفَلَ قَالَ لَئِن لَّمْ يَهْدِنِي رَبِّي لَأَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الضَّالِّينَ
6|77|Then, when he saw the moon rising, he said, “This is my lord.” But when it set, he said, “If my Lord does not guide me, I will be one of the erring people.”
78فَلَمَّا رَأَى الشَّمْسَ بَازِغَةً قَالَ هَٰذَا رَبِّي هَٰذَا أَكْبَرُ ۖ فَلَمَّا أَفَلَتْ قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ إِنِّي بَرِيءٌ مِّمَّا تُشْرِكُونَ
6|78|Then, when he saw the sun rising, he said, “This is my lord, this is bigger.” But when it set, he said, “O my people, I am innocent of your idolatry.
79إِنِّي وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِيَ لِلَّذِي فَطَرَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ حَنِيفًا ۖ وَمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ
6|79|I have directed my attention towards Him Who created the heavens and the earth—a monotheist—and I am not of the idolaters.”
80وَحَاجَّهُ قَوْمُهُ ۚ قَالَ أَتُحَاجُّونِّي فِي اللَّهِ وَقَدْ هَدَانِ ۚ وَلَا أَخَافُ مَا تُشْرِكُونَ بِهِ إِلَّا أَن يَشَاءَ رَبِّي شَيْئًا ۗ وَسِعَ رَبِّي كُلَّ شَيْءٍ عِلْمًا ۗ أَفَلَا تَتَذَكَّرُونَ
6|80|And his people argued with him. He said, “Do you argue with me about God, when He has guided me? I do not fear what you associate with Him, unless my Lord wills it. My Lord comprehends all things in knowledge. Will you not reconsider?
 

The above verses are a dialogue between Nabi Ibrahem AS and his people. In the debate, he shows the futility of their approach by assuming their premises to be correct, then systematically refuting them, Nabi Ibrahem AS was never a polytheist.  

 

81وَكَيْفَ أَخَافُ مَا أَشْرَكْتُمْ وَلَا تَخَافُونَ أَنَّكُمْ أَشْرَكْتُم بِاللَّهِ مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ عَلَيْكُمْ سُلْطَانًا ۚ فَأَيُّ الْفَرِيقَيْنِ أَحَقُّ بِالْأَمْنِ ۖ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
6|81|And why should I fear those you associate with Him, and you do not fear associating others with God for which He sent down to you no authority? Which side is more entitled to security, if you are aware?”
82الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَلَمْ يَلْبِسُوا إِيمَانَهُم بِظُلْمٍ أُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمُ الْأَمْنُ وَهُم مُّهْتَدُونَ
6|82|Those who believe, and do not obscure their faith with wrongdoing—those will have security, and they are guided.
 

H 2869, CH 165, h 4
It is narrated from him (narrator of the Hadith above) from his father from al Nadr ibn Suwayd from Yahya ibn ‘Imran al-Halabi from Harun ibn Kharijah from abu Basir who has said the following: “Once I asked abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, about the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, ‘Those who have accepted the faith and have kept it pure from injustice have achieved security and guidance.’ (6:82) The Imam said, ‘(It means one) who has kept it (belief) pure from doubt.’”

 
83وَتِلْكَ حُجَّتُنَا آتَيْنَاهَا إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ ۚ نَرْفَعُ دَرَجَاتٍ مَّن نَّشَاءُ ۗ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ حَكِيمٌ عَلِيمٌ
6|83|That was Our argument which We gave to Abraham against his people. We elevate by degrees whomever We will. Your Lord is Wise and Informed.
84وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ إِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ ۚ كُلًّا هَدَيْنَا ۚ وَنُوحًا هَدَيْنَا مِن قَبْلُ ۖ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِهِ دَاوُودَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُوسُفَ وَمُوسَىٰ وَهَارُونَ ۚ وَكَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُحْسِنِينَ
6|84|And We gave him Isaac and Jacob—each of them We guided. And We guided Noah previously; and from his descendants David, and Solomon, and Job, and Joseph, and Moses, and Aaron. Thus We reward the righteous.
85وَزَكَرِيَّا وَيَحْيَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ وَإِلْيَاسَ ۖ كُلٌّ مِّنَ الصَّالِحِينَ
6|85|And Zechariah, and John, and Jesus, and Elias—every one of them was of the upright.
86وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَالْيَسَعَ وَيُونُسَ وَلُوطًا ۚ وَكُلًّا فَضَّلْنَا عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ
6|86|And Ishmael, and Elijah, and Jonah, and Lot—We favored each one of them over all other people.
87وَمِنْ آبَائِهِمْ وَذُرِّيَّاتِهِمْ وَإِخْوَانِهِمْ ۖ وَاجْتَبَيْنَاهُمْ وَهَدَيْنَاهُمْ إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ
6|87|And of their ancestors, and their descendants, and their siblings—We chose them, and guided them to a straight path.
 

6:87 interesting genetic aspect to those chosen by Allah as authority on the Earth.

Sheikh Suduq in “Our Creed” reports Says the Shaykh Abu Ja’far: Our belief concerning them is that they were believers (muslimun) from Adam down to Abdu’l-lah, his (Prophet’s) father, peace be on him, and that Abu Talib and the Prophet’s mother Amina bint Wahb were Muslims.

And the Prophet, on whom be blessings and peace said: I am derived from (the bonds of) matrimony and not from any unlawful union (sifah), from Adam downwards.

And it is related that ‘Abdu’l-Muttalib, peace be on him, was a hujjat and Abu Talib was his wasi. 

 

This does not mean that every descendant is a believer, as we are all descendants of Nabi Adam AS, but rather the ancestors of the Prophets AS, and their descendants to the next prophet, and could this include siblings of prophets? 

 
88ذَٰلِكَ هُدَى اللَّهِ يَهْدِي بِهِ مَن يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ ۚ وَلَوْ أَشْرَكُوا لَحَبِطَ عَنْهُم مَّا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ
6|88|Such is God’s guidance. He guides with it whomever He wills of His servants. Had they associated, their deeds would have gone in vain.
89أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحُكْمَ وَالنُّبُوَّةَ ۚ فَإِن يَكْفُرْ بِهَا هَٰؤُلَاءِ فَقَدْ وَكَّلْنَا بِهَا قَوْمًا لَّيْسُوا بِهَا بِكَافِرِينَ
6|89|Those are they to whom We gave the Book, and wisdom, and prophethood. If these reject them, We have entrusted them to others who do not reject them.
90أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ هَدَى اللَّهُ ۖ فَبِهُدَاهُمُ اقْتَدِهْ ۗ قُل لَّا أَسْأَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْرًا ۖ إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا ذِكْرَىٰ لِلْعَالَمِينَ
6|90|Those are they whom God has guided, so follow their guidance. Say, “I ask of you no compensation for it; it is just a reminder for all mankind.”
91وَمَا قَدَرُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ قَدْرِهِ إِذْ قَالُوا مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ بَشَرٍ مِّن شَيْءٍ ۗ قُلْ مَنْ أَنزَلَ الْكِتَابَ الَّذِي جَاءَ بِهِ مُوسَىٰ نُورًا وَهُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ ۖ تَجْعَلُونَهُ قَرَاطِيسَ تُبْدُونَهَا وَتُخْفُونَ كَثِيرًا ۖ وَعُلِّمْتُم مَّا لَمْ تَعْلَمُوا أَنتُمْ وَلَا آبَاؤُكُمْ ۖ قُلِ اللَّهُ ۖ ثُمَّ ذَرْهُمْ فِي خَوْضِهِمْ يَلْعَبُونَ
6|91|They do not value God as He should be valued, when they say, “God did not reveal anything to any human being.” Say, “Who revealed the Scripture which Moses brought—a light and guidance for humanity?” You put it on scrolls, displaying them, yet concealing much. And you were taught what you did not know—neither you, nor your ancestors. Say, “God;” then leave them toying away in their speculation.
 

H 274, Ch. 10, h 11
Muhammad ibn Isma’il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from Hammad ibn ‘Isa from
Rabi‘i ibn ‘Abdallah from al-Fudayl ibn Yasar, who has said the following.
“I heard Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) saying, ‘Allah cannot be defined. How can He be defined
when He Himself has said in His book, “They have not respected Allah the way He truly
should have been respected.” (6:91) Therefore, He cannot be described in any way but that He
is great and above that.’”

 
92وَهَٰذَا كِتَابٌ أَنزَلْنَاهُ مُبَارَكٌ مُّصَدِّقُ الَّذِي بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَلِتُنذِرَ أُمَّ الْقُرَىٰ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهَا ۚ وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْآخِرَةِ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِهِ ۖ وَهُمْ عَلَىٰ صَلَاتِهِمْ يُحَافِظُونَ
6|92|This too is a Scripture that We revealed—blessed—verifying what preceded it, that you may warn the Mother of Cities and all around it. Those who believe in the Hereafter believe in it, and are dedicated to their prayers.
93وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَىٰ عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا أَوْ قَالَ أُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ وَلَمْ يُوحَ إِلَيْهِ شَيْءٌ وَمَن قَالَ سَأُنزِلُ مِثْلَ مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ ۗ وَلَوْ تَرَىٰ إِذِ الظَّالِمُونَ فِي غَمَرَاتِ الْمَوْتِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ بَاسِطُو أَيْدِيهِمْ أَخْرِجُوا أَنفُسَكُمُ ۖ الْيَوْمَ تُجْزَوْنَ عَذَابَ الْهُونِ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ غَيْرَ الْحَقِّ وَكُنتُمْ عَنْ آيَاتِهِ تَسْتَكْبِرُونَ
6|93|Who does greater wrong than someone who invents falsehood against God, or says, “It was revealed to me,” when nothing was revealed to him, or says, “I will reveal the like of what God revealed”? If only you could see the wrongdoers in the floods of death, as the angels with arms outstretched: “Give up your souls. Today you are being repaid with the torment of shame for having said about God other than the truth, and for being too proud to accept His revelations.”
94وَلَقَدْ جِئْتُمُونَا فُرَادَىٰ كَمَا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ وَتَرَكْتُم مَّا خَوَّلْنَاكُمْ وَرَاءَ ظُهُورِكُمْ ۖ وَمَا نَرَىٰ مَعَكُمْ شُفَعَاءَكُمُ الَّذِينَ زَعَمْتُمْ أَنَّهُمْ فِيكُمْ شُرَكَاءُ ۚ لَقَد تَّقَطَّعَ بَيْنَكُمْ وَضَلَّ عَنكُم مَّا كُنتُمْ تَزْعُمُونَ
6|94|“You have come to Us individually, just as We created you the first time, leaving behind you everything We gave you. We do not see with you your intercessors—those you claimed were your partners. The link between you is cut, and what you had asserted has failed you.”
95۞ إِنَّ اللَّهَ فَالِقُ الْحَبِّ وَالنَّوَىٰ ۖ يُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَمُخْرِجُ الْمَيِّتِ مِنَ الْحَيِّ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمُ اللَّهُ ۖ فَأَنَّىٰ تُؤْفَكُونَ
6|95|It is God Who splits the grain and the seed. He brings the living from the dead, and He brings the dead from the living. Such is God. So how could you deviate?
96فَالِقُ الْإِصْبَاحِ وَجَعَلَ اللَّيْلَ سَكَنًا وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ حُسْبَانًا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ تَقْدِيرُ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَلِيمِ
6|96|It is He Who breaks the dawn. And He made the night for rest, and the sun and the moon for calculation. Such is the disposition of the Almighty, the All-Knowing.
 

6:96 seems that the sun and moon are predictable and used for timing, it would be useless if the timing was random.

 
97وَهُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ النُّجُومَ لِتَهْتَدُوا بِهَا فِي ظُلُمَاتِ الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ ۗ قَدْ فَصَّلْنَا الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ
6|97|And it is He Who created the stars for you, that you may be guided by them in the darkness of land and sea. We thus explain the revelations for people who know.
98وَهُوَ الَّذِي أَنشَأَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ فَمُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمُسْتَوْدَعٌ ۗ قَدْ فَصَّلْنَا الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَفْقَهُونَ
6|98|And it is He who produced you from a single person, then a repository, then a depository. We have detailed the revelations for people who understand.
99وَهُوَ الَّذِي أَنزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَخْرَجْنَا بِهِ نَبَاتَ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ فَأَخْرَجْنَا مِنْهُ خَضِرًا نُّخْرِجُ مِنْهُ حَبًّا مُّتَرَاكِبًا وَمِنَ النَّخْلِ مِن طَلْعِهَا قِنْوَانٌ دَانِيَةٌ وَجَنَّاتٍ مِّنْ أَعْنَابٍ وَالزَّيْتُونَ وَالرُّمَّانَ مُشْتَبِهًا وَغَيْرَ مُتَشَابِهٍ ۗ انظُرُوا إِلَىٰ ثَمَرِهِ إِذَا أَثْمَرَ وَيَنْعِهِ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكُمْ لَآيَاتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ
6|99|And it is He who sends down water from the sky. With it We produce vegetation of all kinds, from which We bring greenery, from which We produce grains in clusters. And palm-trees with hanging clusters, and vineyards, and olives, and pomegranates—similar and dissimilar. Watch their fruits as they grow and ripen. Surely in this are signs for people who believe.
100وَجَعَلُوا لِلَّهِ شُرَكَاءَ الْجِنَّ وَخَلَقَهُمْ ۖ وَخَرَقُوا لَهُ بَنِينَ وَبَنَاتٍ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ ۚ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَىٰ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ
6|100|Yet they attributed to God partners—the sprites—although He created them. And they invented for Him sons and daughters, without any knowledge. Glory be to Him. He is exalted, beyond what they describe.
101بَدِيعُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ أَنَّىٰ يَكُونُ لَهُ وَلَدٌ وَلَمْ تَكُن لَّهُ صَاحِبَةٌ ۖ وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ ۖ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ
6|101|Originator of the heavens and the earth—how can He have a son when He never had a companion? He created all things, and He has knowledge of all things.
102ذَٰلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبُّكُمْ ۖ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ خَالِقُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ فَاعْبُدُوهُ ۚ وَهُوَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَكِيلٌ
6|102|Such is God, your Lord. There is no god except He, the Creator of all things; so worship Him. He is responsible for everything.
103لَّا تُدْرِكُهُ الْأَبْصَارُ وَهُوَ يُدْرِكُ الْأَبْصَارَ ۖ وَهُوَ اللَّطِيفُ الْخَبِيرُ
6|103|No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision. He is the Subtle, the Expert.
 

H 275, Ch. 10, h 12
Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad and others from Muhammad ibn
Sulayman from Ali ibn Ibrahim from ‘Abdallah ibn Sinan from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who has
said the following. “Allah is Great and High. People cannot describe Him nor can they reach
the depth of His Greatness. ‘ No mortal eyes can see Him, but He can see all eyes. He is Allkind
and All-aware.’” (6:103) He cannot be described by means of how and where. How can I
describe Him by means of any condition? He Himself has created the conditions and how and
so it came into being. We came to know conditions because of His designing them for us.
How can I describe Him by means of space? It is He, Who spaced the space so it became
space. I, thus, came to know space by means of what He has made it into space. How can I
describe Him by means of positions when He Himself has given position to positions so it
came into position. I, thus, came to know the position by means of what He has made to come
into position. Allah, the Holy, the Most High, is in every place but is out of everything. ‘ No
mortal eyes can see Him, but He can see all eyes. He is All-kind and All-aware.’” (6:103)

 

H 253, Ch. 9, h 2
Ahmad ibn Idris has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abdal Jabbar from Safwan ibn Yahya
who has said that abu Qurrah (Musa ibn Tariq al-Yamani al-Zabudi, d. 203/818), a narrator of
Hadith, asked me to take him to abul Hassan al-Rida (a.s.). I sought permission from the
Imam (a.s.) and an audience was granted. He asked the Imam about what is lawful and
unlawful and the rules in Islamic laws. His questions came to Oneness of Allah (God).
Abu Qurrah said, “We (the narrators of Hadith) narrate that Allah, the Almighty has divided
His being seen al-Ru’yah and His al-kalam, speech between the two prophets. He gave Musa
(Moses) the opportunity to hear His speech, and Muhammad (s.a.) the opportunity to see
Him.”
Imam abu al-Hassan (a.s.) said, “Who conveyed the message from Allah to the two heavy
communities; mankind and the Jinn that says: ‘The eyes can not comprehend Him.’ (6:103)
“They can not limit Him through their knowledge.” (20:110) ‘There is nothing similar to
Him.’ (42:11) “Was it not Muhammad (s.a.)?’” Asked the Imam (a.s.).
Abu Qurrah then replied, “Yes, He was Prophet Muhammad (s.a.). “
The Imam said, “How can a person who brought such messages to all creatures and told them
that he has brought such messages from Allah and called them to Allah by His commands and
said, “The eyes can not comprehend Him.” (6:103) “They can not limit Him through their
knowledge.” (20:110) “There is nothing similar to Him.” (42:11),
then he would say, “I saw Him with my own eyes? I did limit Him in my knowledge and that
He is similar to a man? Should you not be ashamed of yourselves? Even the atheist have not
said that the Prophet first brought one thing from Allah and then announced from Him other
things contrary to the first.”
Abu Qurrah then said, “Does Allah Himself not say, ‘And indeed he (the Prophet) saw him in
another descent.?” (53: 13) Imam abu al-Hassan (a.s.) said, “The other verses point out what
the Prophet actually saw. Allah has said, “His heart did not lie about what he saw” (53: 11) It
means that the heart of Muhammad did not belie what his eyes saw. Therefore, Allah in the
subsequent verse has said, “Indeed he saw of the greatest signs of his Lord.” (53:18) The
signs of Allah are different from Allah Himself. Allah has also said, “They can not limit Him
in their knowledge.” (20:110) If the eyes could see Him, then people might limit Him in their
knowledge and He could be fully defined.” Abu Qurrah asked, “Do you disregard Hadith?”
Imam abu al-Hassan (a.s.) replied, “If Ahadith are contrary to Quran, I disregard them.
Besides, all Muslims believe that Allah cannot be limited by knowledge, that eyes can not see
Him and that nothing is similar to Him.”

 

H 265, Ch. 10, h 2
Muhammad ibn Isma‘il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from ibn abu ‘Umayr from
Ibrahim ibn ‘Abd al-Hamid from abu Hamzah who has said that Imam Ali ibn al-Husayn said
to me, “O abu Hamzah, Allah cannot be defined by the created things. Our Lord is far above
being described through the attributes. How can the infinite be defined by the finite? ‘ No
mortal eyes can see Him, but He can see all eyes. He is All-kind and All-aware.’” (6:103)

 
104قَدْ جَاءَكُم بَصَائِرُ مِن رَّبِّكُمْ ۖ فَمَنْ أَبْصَرَ فَلِنَفْسِهِ ۖ وَمَنْ عَمِيَ فَعَلَيْهَا ۚ وَمَا أَنَا عَلَيْكُم بِحَفِيظٍ
6|104|“Insights have come to you from your Lord. Whoever sees, it is to the benefit of his soul; and whoever remains blind, it is to its detriment. I am not a guardian over you.”
 

H 260, Ch. 9, h 9
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from ibn abu
Najran from ‘Abdallah ibn Sinan from Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s.) who has said the following
about the words of Allah.
“No mortal eyes can see Him, but He can see all eyes. He is All-kind and All-aware.” (6:103)
It means within what is called al-Wahm which in terms of the degrees of knowledge is less
than fifty percent. Consider the words of Allah in: “Clear proofs have certainly come to you
from your Lord.. . .” (6:104) It does not mean eye-witnessed knowledge. Also consider,
“Whosoever sees clearly, it is to his own gain.” (ibid) does not mean seeing with the eyes and
in “Whosoever is blind, it is to his own loss’ (ibid ). Blindness does not mean deprivation of
eye-sight. It means within the range of Wahm (mentioned above). As is commonly said, so
and so is very keen-sighted in matters of poetry, and so and so is very keen-sighted in religion
and jurisprudence. So and so has a keen eye for money, and so and so an eye for clothes.
Allah is far great and above being eye-witnessed by people.”

 

H 261, Ch. 9, h 10
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Abu Hashim al-Ja‘fari
who has said the following.
“I asked Imam abul Hassan al-Rida (a.s.), about Allah if He can be described (defined in
words). The Imam (a.s.) said, “Have you not read the Quran?” I replied, “Yes, I do read the
Quran.” He then said, “Have you not read the words of Allah, the Most High, “No mortal eyes
can see Him, but He can see all eyes. He is All-kind and All-aware.” (6:103)
I replied, “Yes, I have read them.” The Imam (a.s.) said, “Do they know the meaning of the
eyes?” I replied, “Yes, they do.” The Imam (a.s.) said, “What is it?” I replied, ” It means
seeing with the eyes.” Then the Imam said, the Awham (mentioned above) of the heart is far
greater comprehensive in knowledge than eye-witnessing. It is not able to comprehend Him
but He comprehends all things.”

 
105وَكَذَٰلِكَ نُصَرِّفُ الْآيَاتِ وَلِيَقُولُوا دَرَسْتَ وَلِنُبَيِّنَهُ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ
6|105|We thus diversify the revelations, lest they say, “You have studied,” and to clarify them for people who know.
106اتَّبِعْ مَا أُوحِيَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ ۖ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ وَأَعْرِضْ عَنِ الْمُشْرِكِينَ
6|106|Follow what was revealed to you from your Lord. There is no god but He. And turn away from the polytheists.
107وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا أَشْرَكُوا ۗ وَمَا جَعَلْنَاكَ عَلَيْهِمْ حَفِيظًا ۖ وَمَا أَنتَ عَلَيْهِم بِوَكِيلٍ
6|107|Had God willed, they would not have practiced idolatry. We did not appoint you as a guardian over them, and you are not a manager over them.
 
God does not force people to believe and neither should we. We all have free will, and we will take responsibility for our choices.
 
108وَلَا تَسُبُّوا الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ فَيَسُبُّوا اللَّهَ عَدْوًا بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ زَيَّنَّا لِكُلِّ أُمَّةٍ عَمَلَهُمْ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِم مَّرْجِعُهُمْ فَيُنَبِّئُهُم بِمَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ
6|108|Do not insult those they call upon besides God, lest they insult God out of hostility and ignorance. We made attractive to every community their deeds. Then to their Lord is their return, and He will inform them of what they used to do.
 

عن عمر الطيالسي عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: سألته عن قول الله ” ولا تسبوا الذين يدعون من دون الله فيسبوا الله عدوا بغير علم ” قال: فقال: يا عمر هل رأيت أحدا يسب الله؟ قال: فقلت: جعلني الله فداك فكيف؟ قال: من سب ولى الله فقد سب الله

[Tafsir al-`Ayyashi] From `Umar at-Tayalasi from Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام.  He said: I asked him about the saying of Allah “And do not insult those whom they call upon apart from Allah, lest they insult Allah out of enmity without knowledge” (6:108) He said: So he said: O `Umar, have you seen anyone insulting Allah?  He said: So I said: May I be made your ransom, so how?  He said: Whoever insults the Wali of Allah has insulted Allah.وإياكم وسب أعداء الله حيث يسمعونكم فيسبوا الله عدوا بغير علم وقد ينبغي لكم أن تعلموا حد سبهم لله كيف هو؟ إنه من سب أولياء الله فقد انتهك سب الله ومن أظلم عند الله ممن أستسب لله ولاولياء الله

[al-Kafi] From a long epistle narrated from Imam as-Sadiq عليه السلام found in Rawda al-Kafi: And beware you of insulting the enemies of Allah where they (can) hear you, lest they insult Allah out of enmity without knowledge.  And it behooves you to know the bound of their insulting to Allah, how is it?  It is that whoever insults the Awliya of Allah has transgressed the insulting of Allah, and who is more wrong according to Allah that one who seek to insult Allah and the Awliya of Allah.

 
109وَأَقْسَمُوا بِاللَّهِ جَهْدَ أَيْمَانِهِمْ لَئِن جَاءَتْهُمْ آيَةٌ لَّيُؤْمِنُنَّ بِهَا ۚ قُلْ إِنَّمَا الْآيَاتُ عِندَ اللَّهِ ۖ وَمَا يُشْعِرُكُمْ أَنَّهَا إِذَا جَاءَتْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ
6|109|They swear by God, with their most solemn oaths, that if a miracle were to come to them, they would believe in it. Say, “The miracles are only with God.” But how do you know? Even if it did come, they still would not believe.
 
Miracles do not change a mindset. They can only reinforce what someone already believes. Reasoned argument can change mindsets. See next few verses as well.
 
110وَنُقَلِّبُ أَفْئِدَتَهُمْ وَأَبْصَارَهُمْ كَمَا لَمْ يُؤْمِنُوا بِهِ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ وَنَذَرُهُمْ فِي طُغْيَانِهِمْ يَعْمَهُونَ
6|110|And We turn away their hearts and their visions, as they refused to believe in it the first time, and We leave them blundering in their rebellion.
111۞ وَلَوْ أَنَّنَا نَزَّلْنَا إِلَيْهِمُ الْمَلَائِكَةَ وَكَلَّمَهُمُ الْمَوْتَىٰ وَحَشَرْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ قُبُلًا مَّا كَانُوا لِيُؤْمِنُوا إِلَّا أَن يَشَاءَ اللَّهُ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ يَجْهَلُونَ
6|111|Even if We sent down the angels to them, and the dead spoke to them, and We gathered all things before them, they still would not believe, unless God wills; but most of them are ignorant.
112وَكَذَٰلِكَ جَعَلْنَا لِكُلِّ نَبِيٍّ عَدُوًّا شَيَاطِينَ الْإِنسِ وَالْجِنِّ يُوحِي بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَىٰ بَعْضٍ زُخْرُفَ الْقَوْلِ غُرُورًا ۚ وَلَوْ شَاءَ رَبُّكَ مَا فَعَلُوهُ ۖ فَذَرْهُمْ وَمَا يَفْتَرُونَ
6|112|Likewise, We have assigned for every prophet an enemy—human and jinn devils—inspiring one another with fancy words in order to deceive. But had your Lord willed, they would not have done it. So leave them to their fabrications.
113وَلِتَصْغَىٰ إِلَيْهِ أَفْئِدَةُ الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْآخِرَةِ وَلِيَرْضَوْهُ وَلِيَقْتَرِفُوا مَا هُم مُّقْتَرِفُونَ
6|113|So that the hearts of those who do not believe in the Hereafter may incline to it, and be content with it, and that they may perpetrate whatever they perpetrate.
114أَفَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ أَبْتَغِي حَكَمًا وَهُوَ الَّذِي أَنزَلَ إِلَيْكُمُ الْكِتَابَ مُفَصَّلًا ۚ وَالَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ يَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ مُنَزَّلٌ مِّن رَّبِّكَ بِالْحَقِّ ۖ فَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُمْتَرِينَ
6|114|“Shall I seek a judge other than God, when He is the One who revealed to you the Book, explained in detail?” Those to whom We gave the Book know that it is the truth revealed from your Lord. So do not be of those who doubt.
115وَتَمَّتْ كَلِمَتُ رَبِّكَ صِدْقًا وَعَدْلًا ۚ لَّا مُبَدِّلَ لِكَلِمَاتِهِ ۚ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ
6|115|The Word of your Lord has been completed, in truth and justice. There is no changing to His words. He is the Hearer, the Knower.
116وَإِن تُطِعْ أَكْثَرَ مَن فِي الْأَرْضِ يُضِلُّوكَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۚ إِن يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا الظَّنَّ وَإِنْ هُمْ إِلَّا يَخْرُصُونَ
6|116|If you were to obey most of those on earth, they would divert you from God’s path. They follow nothing but assumptions, and they only conjecture.
 

Democracy doesn’t help in learning the truth, for example if you ask 10 people who are poor at maths a maths question, the majority answer is not better than 1 expert answer. So numbers of people who follow a religion or hold a certain opinion are fairly meaningless.

 

117إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ مَن يَضِلُّ عَن سَبِيلِهِ ۖ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ
6|117|Your Lord knows best who strays from His path, and He knows best the guided ones.
118فَكُلُوا مِمَّا ذُكِرَ اسْمُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ إِن كُنتُم بِآيَاتِهِ مُؤْمِنِينَ
6|118|So eat of that over which the Name of God was pronounced, if you indeed believe in His revelations.
119وَمَا لَكُمْ أَلَّا تَأْكُلُوا مِمَّا ذُكِرَ اسْمُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ وَقَدْ فَصَّلَ لَكُم مَّا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِلَّا مَا اضْطُرِرْتُمْ إِلَيْهِ ۗ وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا لَّيُضِلُّونَ بِأَهْوَائِهِم بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ ۗ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُعْتَدِينَ
6|119|And why should you not eat of that over which the Name of God is pronounced, when He has detailed for you what is prohibited for you, unless you are compelled by necessity? Many lead astray with their opinions, through lack of knowledge. Your Lord knows best the transgressors.
120وَذَرُوا ظَاهِرَ الْإِثْمِ وَبَاطِنَهُ ۚ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْسِبُونَ الْإِثْمَ سَيُجْزَوْنَ بِمَا كَانُوا يَقْتَرِفُونَ
6|120|So abandon sin, outward and inward. Those who commit sins will be repaid for what they used to perpetrate.
121وَلَا تَأْكُلُوا مِمَّا لَمْ يُذْكَرِ اسْمُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ وَإِنَّهُ لَفِسْقٌ ۗ وَإِنَّ الشَّيَاطِينَ لَيُوحُونَ إِلَىٰ أَوْلِيَائِهِمْ لِيُجَادِلُوكُمْ ۖ وَإِنْ أَطَعْتُمُوهُمْ إِنَّكُمْ لَمُشْرِكُونَ
6|121|And do not eat from that over which the Name of God was not pronounced, for it is abomination. The devils inspire their followers to argue with you; but if you obey them, you would be polytheists.
122أَوَمَن كَانَ مَيْتًا فَأَحْيَيْنَاهُ وَجَعَلْنَا لَهُ نُورًا يَمْشِي بِهِ فِي النَّاسِ كَمَن مَّثَلُهُ فِي الظُّلُمَاتِ لَيْسَ بِخَارِجٍ مِّنْهَا ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ زُيِّنَ لِلْكَافِرِينَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ
6|122|Is he who was dead, then We gave him life, and made for him a light by which he walks among the people, like he who is in total darkness, and cannot get out of it? Thus the doings of disbelievers are made to appear good to them.
 

H 458, Ch. 7, h 13
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn
Isma‘il from Mansur ibn Yunus from Burayd who has said that he heard Imam abu Ja’far (a.
s.) said the following about the words of Allah,
“Can the dead to whom We have given life and light so that they may walk among the people,
be considered equal to those who can never come out of darkness?” (6:122) The dead do not
understand anything ‘The light by the help of which they walk’ is the Imam that they follow.’
“be considered equal to those who can never come out of darkness” applies to those who do
not know who their Imam is.”

 
123وَكَذَٰلِكَ جَعَلْنَا فِي كُلِّ قَرْيَةٍ أَكَابِرَ مُجْرِمِيهَا لِيَمْكُرُوا فِيهَا ۖ وَمَا يَمْكُرُونَ إِلَّا بِأَنفُسِهِمْ وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ
6|123|And thus We set up in every city its leading wicked sinners, to conspire in it, but they conspire only against themselves, and they do not realize it.
124وَإِذَا جَاءَتْهُمْ آيَةٌ قَالُوا لَن نُّؤْمِنَ حَتَّىٰ نُؤْتَىٰ مِثْلَ مَا أُوتِيَ رُسُلُ اللَّهِ ۘ اللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ حَيْثُ يَجْعَلُ رِسَالَتَهُ ۗ سَيُصِيبُ الَّذِينَ أَجْرَمُوا صَغَارٌ عِندَ اللَّهِ وَعَذَابٌ شَدِيدٌ بِمَا كَانُوا يَمْكُرُونَ
6|124|When a sign comes to them, they say, “We will not believe unless we are given the like of what was given to God’s messengers.” God knows best where to place His message. Humiliation from God and severe torment will afflict the criminals for their scheming.
125فَمَن يُرِدِ اللَّهُ أَن يَهْدِيَهُ يَشْرَحْ صَدْرَهُ لِلْإِسْلَامِ ۖ وَمَن يُرِدْ أَن يُضِلَّهُ يَجْعَلْ صَدْرَهُ ضَيِّقًا حَرَجًا كَأَنَّمَا يَصَّعَّدُ فِي السَّمَاءِ ۚكَذَٰلِكَ يَجْعَلُ اللَّهُ الرِّجْسَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ
6|125|Whomever God desires to guide, He spreads open his heart to Islam; and whomever He desires to misguide, He makes his heart narrow, constricted, as though he were climbing up the sky. God thus lays defilement upon those who do not believe.
 

This verse is an example of the multiple meanings the Quran can have. The verse suggests that those that want guidance, Allah opens his heart for it, and those that dont, he closes it. We now know that the second meaning is that when someone reaches high altitude the oxygen is less dense, so harder to breathe and thus the chest will feel tight. 

 

126وَهَٰذَا صِرَاطُ رَبِّكَ مُسْتَقِيمًا ۗ قَدْ فَصَّلْنَا الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَذَّكَّرُونَ
6|126|This is the straight path of your Lord. We have explained the revelations in detail for people who recollect.
127۞ لَهُمْ دَارُ السَّلَامِ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ ۖ وَهُوَ وَلِيُّهُم بِمَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ
6|127|For them is the Home of Peace with their Lord, and He is their Master—because of what they used to do.
128وَيَوْمَ يَحْشُرُهُمْ جَمِيعًا يَا مَعْشَرَ الْجِنِّ قَدِ اسْتَكْثَرْتُم مِّنَ الْإِنسِ ۖ وَقَالَ أَوْلِيَاؤُهُم مِّنَ الْإِنسِ رَبَّنَا اسْتَمْتَعَ بَعْضُنَا بِبَعْضٍ وَبَلَغْنَا أَجَلَنَا الَّذِي أَجَّلْتَ لَنَا ۚ قَالَ النَّارُ مَثْوَاكُمْ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا إِلَّا مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ ۗ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ حَكِيمٌ عَلِيمٌ
6|128|On the Day when He gathers them all together: “O assembly of jinn, you have exploited multitudes of humans.” Their adherents among mankind will say, “Our Lord, we have profited from one another, but we have reached the term that you have assigned for us.” He will say, “The Fire is your dwelling, wherein you will remain, except as God wills. Your Lord is Wise and Informed.
129وَكَذَٰلِكَ نُوَلِّي بَعْضَ الظَّالِمِينَ بَعْضًا بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ
6|129|Thus We make some of the wrongdoers befriend one another, because of what they used to do.
130يَا مَعْشَرَ الْجِنِّ وَالْإِنسِ أَلَمْ يَأْتِكُمْ رُسُلٌ مِّنكُمْ يَقُصُّونَ عَلَيْكُمْ آيَاتِي وَيُنذِرُونَكُمْ لِقَاءَ يَوْمِكُمْ هَٰذَا ۚ قَالُوا شَهِدْنَا عَلَىٰ أَنفُسِنَا ۖ وَغَرَّتْهُمُ الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا وَشَهِدُوا عَلَىٰ أَنفُسِهِمْ أَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا كَافِرِينَ
6|130|“O assembly of jinn and humans, did there not come to you messengers from among you, relating to you My revelations, and warning you of the meeting of this Day of yours?” They will say, “We testify against ourselves.” The life of the world seduced them. They will testify against themselves that they were disbelievers.
131ذَٰلِكَ أَن لَّمْ يَكُن رَّبُّكَ مُهْلِكَ الْقُرَىٰ بِظُلْمٍ وَأَهْلُهَا غَافِلُونَ
6|131|That is because your Lord would not destroy towns for injustice while their inhabitants are unaware.
132وَلِكُلٍّ دَرَجَاتٌ مِّمَّا عَمِلُوا ۚ وَمَا رَبُّكَ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا يَعْمَلُونَ
6|132|They all have ranks according to what they did; and your Lord is not unaware of what they do.
133وَرَبُّكَ الْغَنِيُّ ذُو الرَّحْمَةِ ۚ إِن يَشَأْ يُذْهِبْكُمْ وَيَسْتَخْلِفْ مِن بَعْدِكُم مَّا يَشَاءُ كَمَا أَنشَأَكُم مِّن ذُرِّيَّةِ قَوْمٍ آخَرِينَ
6|133|Your Lord is the Rich Beyond Need, the Possessor of Mercy. If He wills, he can do away with you, and substitute whomever He wills in your place, just as He produced you from the descendants of another people.
134إِنَّ مَا تُوعَدُونَ لَآتٍ ۖ وَمَا أَنتُم بِمُعْجِزِينَ
6|134|What you are promised is coming, and you cannot thwart it.
135قُلْ يَا قَوْمِ اعْمَلُوا عَلَىٰ مَكَانَتِكُمْ إِنِّي عَامِلٌ ۖ فَسَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ مَن تَكُونُ لَهُ عَاقِبَةُ الدَّارِ ۗ إِنَّهُ لَا يُفْلِحُ الظَّالِمُونَ
6|135|Say, “O my people! Work according to your ability, and so will I.” You will come to know to whom will belong the sequel of the abode.” The wrongdoers will not prevail.
136وَجَعَلُوا لِلَّهِ مِمَّا ذَرَأَ مِنَ الْحَرْثِ وَالْأَنْعَامِ نَصِيبًا فَقَالُوا هَٰذَا لِلَّهِ بِزَعْمِهِمْ وَهَٰذَا لِشُرَكَائِنَا ۖ فَمَا كَانَ لِشُرَكَائِهِمْ فَلَا يَصِلُ إِلَى اللَّهِ ۖ وَمَا كَانَ لِلَّهِ فَهُوَ يَصِلُ إِلَىٰ شُرَكَائِهِمْ ۗ سَاءَ مَا يَحْكُمُونَ
6|136|And they set aside for God a share of the crops and the livestock He created, and they say, “This is for God,” according to their claim, “and this is for our idols.” But the share of their idols does not reach God, yet the share of God reaches their idols. Evil is their judgment.
137وَكَذَٰلِكَ زَيَّنَ لِكَثِيرٍ مِّنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ قَتْلَ أَوْلَادِهِمْ شُرَكَاؤُهُمْ لِيُرْدُوهُمْ وَلِيَلْبِسُوا عَلَيْهِمْ دِينَهُمْ ۖ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا فَعَلُوهُ ۖفَذَرْهُمْ وَمَا يَفْتَرُونَ
6|137|Likewise, their idols entice many idolaters to kill their children, in order to lead them to their ruin, and confuse them in their religion. Had God willed, they would not have done it; so leave them to their fraud.
138وَقَالُوا هَٰذِهِ أَنْعَامٌ وَحَرْثٌ حِجْرٌ لَّا يَطْعَمُهَا إِلَّا مَن نَّشَاءُ بِزَعْمِهِمْ وَأَنْعَامٌ حُرِّمَتْ ظُهُورُهَا وَأَنْعَامٌ لَّا يَذْكُرُونَ اسْمَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهَا افْتِرَاءً عَلَيْهِ ۚ سَيَجْزِيهِم بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْتَرُونَ
6|138|And they say, “These animals and crops are restricted; none may eat them except those we permit,” by their claims, and animals whose backs are forbidden, and animals over which they do not pronounce the name of God—fabricating lies against Him. He will repay them for what they used to invent.
139وَقَالُوا مَا فِي بُطُونِ هَٰذِهِ الْأَنْعَامِ خَالِصَةٌ لِّذُكُورِنَا وَمُحَرَّمٌ عَلَىٰ أَزْوَاجِنَا ۖ وَإِن يَكُن مَّيْتَةً فَهُمْ فِيهِ شُرَكَاءُ ۚ سَيَجْزِيهِمْ وَصْفَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّهُ حَكِيمٌ عَلِيمٌ
6|139|And they say, “What lies in the wombs of these animals is exclusively for our males, and prohibited to our wives.” But if it is stillborn, they can share in it. He will surely punish them for their allegations. He is Wise and Knowing.
140قَدْ خَسِرَ الَّذِينَ قَتَلُوا أَوْلَادَهُمْ سَفَهًا بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَحَرَّمُوا مَا رَزَقَهُمُ اللَّهُ افْتِرَاءً عَلَى اللَّهِ ۚ قَدْ ضَلُّوا وَمَا كَانُوا مُهْتَدِينَ
6|140|Lost are those who kill their children foolishly, with no basis in knowledge, and forbid what God has provided for them—innovations about God. They have gone astray. They are not guided.
141۞ وَهُوَ الَّذِي أَنشَأَ جَنَّاتٍ مَّعْرُوشَاتٍ وَغَيْرَ مَعْرُوشَاتٍ وَالنَّخْلَ وَالزَّرْعَ مُخْتَلِفًا أُكُلُهُ وَالزَّيْتُونَ وَالرُّمَّانَ مُتَشَابِهًا وَغَيْرَ مُتَشَابِهٍ ۚ كُلُوا مِن ثَمَرِهِ إِذَا أَثْمَرَ وَآتُوا حَقَّهُ يَوْمَ حَصَادِهِ ۖ وَلَا تُسْرِفُوا ۚ إِنَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُسْرِفِينَ
6|141|It is He who produces gardens, both cultivated and wild, and date-palms, and crops of diverse tastes, and olives and pomegranates, similar and dissimilar. Eat of its fruit when it yields, and give its due on the day of its harvest, and do not waste. He does not love the wasteful.
142وَمِنَ الْأَنْعَامِ حَمُولَةً وَفَرْشًا ۚ كُلُوا مِمَّا رَزَقَكُمُ اللَّهُ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ ۚ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ
6|142|Among the livestock are some for transportation, and some for clothing. Eat of what God has provided for you, and do not follow the footsteps of Satan. He is to you an outright enemy.
143ثَمَانِيَةَ أَزْوَاجٍ ۖ مِّنَ الضَّأْنِ اثْنَيْنِ وَمِنَ الْمَعْزِ اثْنَيْنِ ۗ قُلْ آلذَّكَرَيْنِ حَرَّمَ أَمِ الْأُنثَيَيْنِ أَمَّا اشْتَمَلَتْ عَلَيْهِ أَرْحَامُ الْأُنثَيَيْنِ ۖنَبِّئُونِي بِعِلْمٍ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ
6|143|Eight pairs: two of the sheep, and two of the goats. Say, “Did He forbid the two males, or the two females, or what the wombs of the two females contain? Inform me with knowledge, if you are truthful.”
144وَمِنَ الْإِبِلِ اثْنَيْنِ وَمِنَ الْبَقَرِ اثْنَيْنِ ۗ قُلْ آلذَّكَرَيْنِ حَرَّمَ أَمِ الْأُنثَيَيْنِ أَمَّا اشْتَمَلَتْ عَلَيْهِ أَرْحَامُ الْأُنثَيَيْنِ ۖ أَمْ كُنتُمْ شُهَدَاءَ إِذْ وَصَّاكُمُ اللَّهُ بِهَٰذَا ۚ فَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَىٰ عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا لِّيُضِلَّ النَّاسَ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ
6|144|And two of the camels, and two of the cattle. Say, “Did He forbid the two males, or the two females, or what the wombs of the two females contain? Were you present when God enjoined this upon you?” Who does greater wrong than he who invents lies and attributes them to God, in order to mislead people without knowledge? God does not guide the wicked people.
 

H 7820, Ch. 181, h 17
Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Ibrahim ibn Muhammad from al-Sullamiy from Dawud al-Riqqiy who has said the
following:
“Certain persons of al-Khawarij asked me about this verse of al-Quran: ‘Of two sheep and of two
goats, ask which one is made unlawful? (Is it) male or female? (6:142) (What is the meaning of)
camels two and of cows two?’ (6:143) ‘What Allah has made lawful and what has He made unlawful?’
I did not have any answer. I went to see abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, when I was there for alHajj.
I informed him (the Imam) of the story and he (the Imam) said, ‘Allah, most Majestic, most
Glorious, for sacrifice in Mina’, has made domesticated sheep and goats lawful. He has made the wild
ones unlawful, and His words, ‘Of camels two and of cows two’, means that Allah, most Blessed, most
High, has made al-‘Irab camels lawful for offering as sacrifice and has made unlawful what is al Bukhatiy.
He has made domesticated cows lawful for offering as sacrifice and the wild ones
unlawful.’ I returned to the man and informed him of the answer. He said, ‘This is something which
camel has carried on its back from al-Hijaz.’”

 
145قُل لَّا أَجِدُ فِي مَا أُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ مُحَرَّمًا عَلَىٰ طَاعِمٍ يَطْعَمُهُ إِلَّا أَن يَكُونَ مَيْتَةً أَوْ دَمًا مَّسْفُوحًا أَوْ لَحْمَ خِنزِيرٍ فَإِنَّهُ رِجْسٌ أَوْ فِسْقًا أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ بِهِ ۚ فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ غَيْرَ بَاغٍ وَلَا عَادٍ فَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
6|145|Say, “In what was revealed to me, I find nothing forbidden to a consumer who eats it, except carrion, or spilled blood, or the flesh of swine—because it is impure—or a sinful offering dedicated to other than God. But if someone is compelled by necessity, without being deliberate or malicious—your Lord is Forgiving and Merciful.
146وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ هَادُوا حَرَّمْنَا كُلَّ ذِي ظُفُرٍ ۖ وَمِنَ الْبَقَرِ وَالْغَنَمِ حَرَّمْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ شُحُومَهُمَا إِلَّا مَا حَمَلَتْ ظُهُورُهُمَا أَوِ الْحَوَايَا أَوْ مَا اخْتَلَطَ بِعَظْمٍ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ جَزَيْنَاهُم بِبَغْيِهِمْ ۖ وَإِنَّا لَصَادِقُونَ
6|146|For the Jews We forbade everything with claws. As of cattle and sheep: We forbade them their fat, except what adheres to their backs, or the entrails, or what is mixed with bone. This is how We penalized them for their inequity. We are indeed truthful.
147فَإِن كَذَّبُوكَ فَقُل رَّبُّكُمْ ذُو رَحْمَةٍ وَاسِعَةٍ وَلَا يُرَدُّ بَأْسُهُ عَنِ الْقَوْمِ الْمُجْرِمِينَ
6|147|If they accuse you of lying, say, “Your Lord is Possessor of infinite mercy, but His wrath cannot be averted from the guilty people.”
148سَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا لَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا أَشْرَكْنَا وَلَا آبَاؤُنَا وَلَا حَرَّمْنَا مِن شَيْءٍ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ كَذَّبَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ حَتَّىٰ ذَاقُوا بَأْسَنَا ۗ قُلْ هَلْ عِندَكُم مِّنْ عِلْمٍ فَتُخْرِجُوهُ لَنَا ۖ إِن تَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا الظَّنَّ وَإِنْ أَنتُمْ إِلَّا تَخْرُصُونَ
6|148|The polytheists will say, “Had God willed, we would not have practiced idolatry, nor would have our forefathers, nor would we have prohibited anything.” Likewise those before them lied, until they tasted Our might. Say, “Do you have any knowledge that you can produce for us? You follow nothing but conjecture, and you only guess.”
 
Mankind does have free will, we choose what to believe. 
 
149قُلْ فَلِلَّهِ الْحُجَّةُ الْبَالِغَةُ ۖ فَلَوْ شَاءَ لَهَدَاكُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ
6|149|Say, “To God belongs the conclusive argument. Had He willed, He would have guided you all.”
150قُلْ هَلُمَّ شُهَدَاءَكُمُ الَّذِينَ يَشْهَدُونَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ حَرَّمَ هَٰذَا ۖ فَإِن شَهِدُوا فَلَا تَشْهَدْ مَعَهُمْ ۚ وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءَ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا وَالَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْآخِرَةِ وَهُم بِرَبِّهِمْ يَعْدِلُونَ
6|150|Say, “Produce your witnesses who would testify that God has prohibited this.” If they testify, do not testify with them. And do not follow the whims of those who deny Our revelation, and those who do not believe in the Hereafter, and those who equate others with their Lord.
151۞ قُلْ تَعَالَوْا أَتْلُ مَا حَرَّمَ رَبُّكُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ ۖ أَلَّا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا ۖ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا ۖ وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا أَوْلَادَكُم مِّنْ إِمْلَاقٍ ۖ نَّحْنُ نَرْزُقُكُمْ وَإِيَّاهُمْ ۖ وَلَا تَقْرَبُوا الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ ۖ وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ وَصَّاكُم بِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ
6|151|Say, “Come, let me tell you what your Lord has forbidden you: that you associate nothing with Him; that you honor your parents; that you do not kill your children because of poverty—We provide for you and for them; that you do not come near indecencies, whether outward or inward; and that you do not kill the soul which God has sanctified—except in the course of justice. All this He has enjoined upon you, so that you may understand.”
 

H 10227, Ch. 190, h 47
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from al-Nadr ibn Suwayd from Yahya al Halabiy
from ‘Amr ibn abu al-Miqdam from his father who has said the following:
“Ali ibn al-Husayn, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, that he was asked about, ‘. . . the apparent and
unapparent acts of indecency’ (6:151, 7:33) He (the Imam) said, ‘the apparent one is marriage with the
wife of one’s father and the unapparent one is fornication.’”

 
152وَلَا تَقْرَبُوا مَالَ الْيَتِيمِ إِلَّا بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ حَتَّىٰ يَبْلُغَ أَشُدَّهُ ۖ وَأَوْفُوا الْكَيْلَ وَالْمِيزَانَ بِالْقِسْطِ ۖ لَا نُكَلِّفُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا ۖ وَإِذَا قُلْتُمْ فَاعْدِلُوا وَلَوْ كَانَ ذَا قُرْبَىٰ ۖ وَبِعَهْدِ اللَّهِ أَوْفُوا ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ وَصَّاكُم بِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ
6|152|And do not come near the property of the orphan, except with the best intentions, until he reaches maturity. And give full weight and full measure, equitably. We do not burden any soul beyond its capacity. And when you speak, be fair, even if it concerns a close relative. And fulfill your covenant with God. All this He has enjoined upon you, so that you may take heed.
153وَأَنَّ هَٰذَا صِرَاطِي مُسْتَقِيمًا فَاتَّبِعُوهُ ۖ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا السُّبُلَ فَتَفَرَّقَ بِكُمْ عَن سَبِيلِهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ وَصَّاكُم بِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ
6|153|This is My path, straight, so follow it. And do not follow the other paths, lest they divert you from His path. All this He has enjoined upon you, that you may refrain from wrongdoing.
154ثُمَّ آتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ تَمَامًا عَلَى الَّذِي أَحْسَنَ وَتَفْصِيلًا لِّكُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لَّعَلَّهُم بِلِقَاءِ رَبِّهِمْ يُؤْمِنُونَ
6|154|Then We gave Moses the Scripture, perfect for the righteous, and explaining everything clearly, and a beacon, and mercy, that they may believe in the encounter with their Lord.
155وَهَٰذَا كِتَابٌ أَنزَلْنَاهُ مُبَارَكٌ فَاتَّبِعُوهُ وَاتَّقُوا لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ
6|155|This too is a blessed Scripture that We revealed; so follow it, and be righteous, that you may receive mercy.
156أَن تَقُولُوا إِنَّمَا أُنزِلَ الْكِتَابُ عَلَىٰ طَائِفَتَيْنِ مِن قَبْلِنَا وَإِن كُنَّا عَن دِرَاسَتِهِمْ لَغَافِلِينَ
6|156|Lest you say, “The Scripture was revealed to two parties before us, and we were unaware of their teachings.”
157أَوْ تَقُولُوا لَوْ أَنَّا أُنزِلَ عَلَيْنَا الْكِتَابُ لَكُنَّا أَهْدَىٰ مِنْهُمْ ۚ فَقَدْ جَاءَكُم بَيِّنَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةٌ ۚ فَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّن كَذَّبَ بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ وَصَدَفَ عَنْهَا ۗ سَنَجْزِي الَّذِينَ يَصْدِفُونَ عَنْ آيَاتِنَا سُوءَ الْعَذَابِ بِمَا كَانُوا يَصْدِفُونَ
6|157|Or lest you say, “Had the Scripture been revealed to us, we would have been better guided than they.” Clarification has come to you from your Lord, and guidance, and mercy. Who then does greater wrong than he who gives the lie to God’s messages, and turns away from them? We will repay those who turn away from Our messages with the worst kind of punishment, because of their turning away.
158هَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّا أَن تَأْتِيَهُمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ أَوْ يَأْتِيَ رَبُّكَ أَوْ يَأْتِيَ بَعْضُ آيَاتِ رَبِّكَ ۗ يَوْمَ يَأْتِي بَعْضُ آيَاتِ رَبِّكَ لَا يَنفَعُ نَفْسًا إِيمَانُهَا لَمْ تَكُنْ آمَنَتْ مِن قَبْلُ أَوْ كَسَبَتْ فِي إِيمَانِهَا خَيْرًا ۗ قُلِ انتَظِرُوا إِنَّا مُنتَظِرُونَ
6|158|Are they waiting for anything but for the angels to come to them, or for your Lord to arrive, or for some of your Lord’s signs to come? On the Day when some of your Lord’s signs come, no soul will benefit from its faith unless it had believed previously, or had earned goodness through its faith. Say, “Wait, we too are waiting.”
159إِنَّ الَّذِينَ فَرَّقُوا دِينَهُمْ وَكَانُوا شِيَعًا لَّسْتَ مِنْهُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ ۚ إِنَّمَا أَمْرُهُمْ إِلَى اللَّهِ ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُهُم بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْعَلُونَ
6|159|As for those who divided their religion and became sects—you have nothing to do with them. Their case rests with God; then He will inform them of what they used to do.
 
religion was one and later people divided it. The fact this is mentioned in the Quran is interesting as it predates the actual event. Eg the Muslims did split, this was not inevitable.
 
160مَن جَاءَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ عَشْرُ أَمْثَالِهَا ۖ وَمَن جَاءَ بِالسَّيِّئَةِ فَلَا يُجْزَىٰ إِلَّا مِثْلَهَا وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ
6|160|Whoever comes up with a good deed will have ten times its like; and whoever comes up with an evil deed will be repaid only with its equivalent—they will not be wronged.
 

H 6309, Ch. 13, h 7
A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn abu Nasr who has said the following:
“I asked abu al-Hassan, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about fasting during a month. He replied, ‘It is three days
every month, one day in every ten days. Allah, the most Blessed, the most High, says, “One who does
a good deed receives tenfold reward.” (6:160) Three days of fasting every month is like fasting all the
time.’”

 
161قُلْ إِنَّنِي هَدَانِي رَبِّي إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ دِينًا قِيَمًا مِّلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا ۚ وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ
6|161|Say, “My Lord has guided me to a straight path, an upright religion, the creed of Abraham the Monotheist, who was not a polytheist.”
162قُلْ إِنَّ صَلَاتِي وَنُسُكِي وَمَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِي لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ
6|162|Say, “My prayer and my worship, and my life and my death, are devoted to God, the Lord of the Worlds.
163لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ ۖ وَبِذَٰلِكَ أُمِرْتُ وَأَنَا أَوَّلُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ
6|163|No associate has He. Thus I am commanded, and I am the first of those who submit.
164قُلْ أَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ أَبْغِي رَبًّا وَهُوَ رَبُّ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ ۚ وَلَا تَكْسِبُ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ إِلَّا عَلَيْهَا ۚ وَلَا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرَىٰ ۚ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُم مَّرْجِعُكُمْ فَيُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ فِيهِ تَخْتَلِفُونَ
6|164|Say, “Am I to seek a Lord other than God, when He is the Lord of all things?” No soul gets except what it is due, and no soul bears the burdens of another. Then to your Lord is your return, then He will inform you regarding your disputes.
165وَهُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَكُمْ خَلَائِفَ الْأَرْضِ وَرَفَعَ بَعْضَكُمْ فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ دَرَجَاتٍ لِّيَبْلُوَكُمْ فِي مَا آتَاكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ سَرِيعُ الْعِقَابِ وَإِنَّهُ لَغَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
6|165|It is He who made you successors on the earth, and raised some of you in ranks over others, in order to test you through what He has given you. Your Lord is Quick in retribution, and He is Forgiving and Merciful.
Medina Minds Team

Medina Minds Team

A group of contributors who are working to publicize the reality of Islam and Muslims.

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