Tafsir 9. Al Tawbah

At-Tawba

 
 
1بَرَاءَةٌ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ إِلَى الَّذِينَ عَاهَدتُّم مِّنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ
9|1|A declaration of immunity from God and His Messenger to the polytheists with whom you had made a treaty.
 
The following verses are in relation to a group of polytheists who had a treaty with the Muslims, but then they broke the treaty and killed Muslims. This surah has been revealed in the ninth year A.H. (anno Hejira). Some parts of the Surah were revealed before the Battle of Tabūk, some parts during the Battle, and other parts were revealed after it.
 
2فَسِيحُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّكُمْ غَيْرُ مُعْجِزِي اللَّهِ ۙ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ مُخْزِي الْكَافِرِينَ
9|2|So travel the land for four months, and know that you cannot escape God, and that God will disgrace the disbelievers.
3وَأَذَانٌ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ إِلَى النَّاسِ يَوْمَ الْحَجِّ الْأَكْبَرِ أَنَّ اللَّهَ بَرِيءٌ مِّنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ ۙ وَرَسُولُهُ ۚ فَإِن تُبْتُمْ فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ ۖ وَإِن تَوَلَّيْتُمْ فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّكُمْ غَيْرُ مُعْجِزِي اللَّهِ ۗ وَبَشِّرِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ
9|3|And a proclamation from God and His Messenger to the people on the day of the Greater Pilgrimage, that God has disowned the polytheists, and so did His Messenger. If you repent, it will be better for you. But if you turn away, know that you cannot escape God. And announce to those who disbelieve a painful punishment.
 

H 6875, Ch. 29, h 1
Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from ‘Umar ibn ‘Udhaynah who has said the following:
“I once wrote to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about certain issues (of Fiqh) of which a few were
with ibn Bukayr, a few with abu al-‘Abbas. The answers came with his (the Imam’s) dictation, ‘You
have asked about the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, “People owe to Allah to
perform al-Hajj of the House, whoever is capable to do so,” (3:97) is a reference to al-Hajj and
al-‘Umrah. It refers to both of them performed together because they are obligatory.’ You have asked
about the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, ‘Complete al-Hajj and al-‘Umrah for
the sake of Allah. . .’ (2:196) ‘Completing’ means fulfilling this duty during which one must abstain
from whatever a person in the state of Ihram abstains.’ I also asked him (the Imam) about the meaning
of the words of Allah, the most High, ‘Al-Hajj al-Akbar’. (9:3) He (the Imam) replied it is staying in
‘Arafat, throwing pebbles on al-Jamar and al-Hajj al-Asghar stands for al-‘Umrah.’”

 
4إِلَّا الَّذِينَ عَاهَدتُّم مِّنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَنقُصُوكُمْ شَيْئًا وَلَمْ يُظَاهِرُوا عَلَيْكُمْ أَحَدًا فَأَتِمُّوا إِلَيْهِمْ عَهْدَهُمْ إِلَىٰ مُدَّتِهِمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُتَّقِينَ
9|4|Except for those among the polytheists with whom you had made a treaty, and did not violate any of its terms, nor aided anyone against you. So fulfill the treaty with them to the end of its term. God loves the righteous.
 
The condemnation of these verses are directed not to all polytheists, or non Muslims, but those who had a treaty with the Muslims, and broke it by attacking them. 
 
5فَإِذَا انسَلَخَ الْأَشْهُرُ الْحُرُمُ فَاقْتُلُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَيْثُ وَجَدتُّمُوهُمْ وَخُذُوهُمْ وَاحْصُرُوهُمْ وَاقْعُدُوا لَهُمْ كُلَّ مَرْصَدٍ ۚ فَإِن تَابُوا وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ فَخَلُّوا سَبِيلَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
9|5|When the Sacred Months have passed, kill the polytheists wherever you find them. And capture them, and besiege them, and lie in wait for them at every ambush. But if they repent, and perform the prayers, and pay the alms, then let them go their way. God is Most Forgiving, Most Merciful.
6وَإِنْ أَحَدٌ مِّنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ اسْتَجَارَكَ فَأَجِرْهُ حَتَّىٰ يَسْمَعَ كَلَامَ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ أَبْلِغْهُ مَأْمَنَهُ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لَّا يَعْلَمُونَ
9|6|And if anyone of the polytheists asks you for protection, give him protection so that he may hear the Word of God; then escort him to his place of safety. That is because they are a people who do not know.
 

9:6 need to give people a chance, so even your enemy, if he hates you through ignorance, try to educate and give them the benefit of the doubt

 
7كَيْفَ يَكُونُ لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ عَهْدٌ عِندَ اللَّهِ وَعِندَ رَسُولِهِ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ عَاهَدتُّمْ عِندَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ ۖ فَمَا اسْتَقَامُوا لَكُمْ فَاسْتَقِيمُوا لَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُتَّقِينَ
9|7|How can there be a treaty with the polytheists on the part of God and His Messenger, except for those with whom you made a treaty at the Sacred Mosque? As long as they are upright with you, be upright with them. God loves the pious.
8كَيْفَ وَإِن يَظْهَرُوا عَلَيْكُمْ لَا يَرْقُبُوا فِيكُمْ إِلًّا وَلَا ذِمَّةً ۚ يُرْضُونَكُم بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَتَأْبَىٰ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَأَكْثَرُهُمْ فَاسِقُونَ
9|8|How? Whenever they overcome you, they respect neither kinship nor treaty with you. They satisfy you with lip service, but their hearts refuse, and most of them are immoral.
 

9:8 these enemy will not respect humanity or morality in victory or defeat. Therefore it is imperative not to be at their mercy.

 

9اشْتَرَوْا بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا فَصَدُّوا عَن سَبِيلِهِ ۚ إِنَّهُمْ سَاءَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ
9|9|They traded away God’s revelations for a cheap price, so they barred others from His path. How evil is what they did.
10لَا يَرْقُبُونَ فِي مُؤْمِنٍ إِلًّا وَلَا ذِمَّةً ۚ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُعْتَدُونَ
9|10|Towards a believer they respect neither kinship nor treaty. These are the transgressors.
11فَإِن تَابُوا وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ فَإِخْوَانُكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ ۗ وَنُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ
9|11|But if they repent, and perform the prayers, and give the obligatory charity, then they are your brethren in faith. We detail the revelations for a people who know.
12وَإِن نَّكَثُوا أَيْمَانَهُم مِّن بَعْدِ عَهْدِهِمْ وَطَعَنُوا فِي دِينِكُمْ فَقَاتِلُوا أَئِمَّةَ الْكُفْرِ ۙ إِنَّهُمْ لَا أَيْمَانَ لَهُمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَنتَهُونَ
9|12|But if they violate their oaths after their pledge, and attack your religion, then fight the leaders of disbelief—they have no faith—so that they may desist.
13أَلَا تُقَاتِلُونَ قَوْمًا نَّكَثُوا أَيْمَانَهُمْ وَهَمُّوا بِإِخْرَاجِ الرَّسُولِ وَهُم بَدَءُوكُمْ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ ۚ أَتَخْشَوْنَهُمْ ۚ فَاللَّهُ أَحَقُّ أَن تَخْشَوْهُ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ
9|13|Will you not fight a people who violated their oaths, and planned to exile the Messenger, and initiated hostilities against you? Do you fear them? It is God you should fear, if you are believers.
 
important to read all the verses and in context. This whole section is referring to the polytheists who have broken the treaty and attacking the Muslims . Allah is saying such people should be resisted and as they attack, you should attack them.
 
14قَاتِلُوهُمْ يُعَذِّبْهُمُ اللَّهُ بِأَيْدِيكُمْ وَيُخْزِهِمْ وَيَنصُرْكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَيَشْفِ صُدُورَ قَوْمٍ مُّؤْمِنِينَ
9|14|Fight them. God will punish them at your hands, and humiliate them, and help you against them, and heal the hearts of a believing people.
15وَيُذْهِبْ غَيْظَ قُلُوبِهِمْ ۗ وَيَتُوبُ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ مَن يَشَاءُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ
9|15|And He will remove the anger of their hearts. God redeems whomever He wills. God is Knowledgeable and Wise.
16أَمْ حَسِبْتُمْ أَن تُتْرَكُوا وَلَمَّا يَعْلَمِ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ جَاهَدُوا مِنكُمْ وَلَمْ يَتَّخِذُوا مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلَا رَسُولِهِ وَلَا الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَلِيجَةً ۚ وَاللَّهُ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ
9|16|Or do you think that you will be left alone, without God identifying which of you will strive, and take no supporters apart from God, His Messenger, and the believers? God is well Aware of what you do.
 

9:16 worship is to God alone, but to seek worldly help is fine from the Prophet and believers. Could this also be a reference to intercession ?

 

17مَا كَانَ لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ أَن يَعْمُرُوا مَسَاجِدَ اللَّهِ شَاهِدِينَ عَلَىٰ أَنفُسِهِم بِالْكُفْرِ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ وَفِي النَّارِ هُمْ خَالِدُونَ
9|17|It is not for the polytheists to attend God’s places of worship while professing their disbelief. These—their works are in vain, and in the Fire they will abide.
18إِنَّمَا يَعْمُرُ مَسَاجِدَ اللَّهِ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَأَقَامَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَى الزَّكَاةَ وَلَمْ يَخْشَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ ۖ فَعَسَىٰ أُولَٰئِكَ أَن يَكُونُوا مِنَ الْمُهْتَدِينَ
9|18|The only people to attend God’s places of worship are those who believe in God and the Last Day, and pray regularly, and practice regular charity, and fear none but God. These are most likely to be guided.
19۞ أَجَعَلْتُمْ سِقَايَةَ الْحَاجِّ وَعِمَارَةَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ كَمَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَجَاهَدَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۚ لَا يَسْتَوُونَ عِندَ اللَّهِ ۗوَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ
9|19|Do you consider giving water to pilgrims and maintaining the Sacred Mosque the same as believing in God and the Last Day and striving in God’s path? They are not equal in God’s sight. God does not guide the unjust people.
 

H 14693 – Abu Ali Al-Ashary, from Muhammad Bin Abdul Jabbar, from Safwaan Bin yahya, from
Ibn Muskan, from Abu Baseer, who has said:
41 out of 56
One of themasws regarding the Statement of Allahazwj Mighty and Majestic: “[9:19]
What! do you make (one who undertakes) the giving of drink to the pilgrims
and the guarding of the Sacred Mosque like him who believes in Allah and the
latter day”. Heasws said: ‘This was Revealed regarding Hamzaas, and Aliasws, and
Ja’faras, and Al-Abbasas, and Shaeba. They prided themselves for quenching (the
thirst) of the Pilgrims. So Allahazwj Majestic and Mighty Revealed “[9:19] What! do
you make (one who undertakes) the giving of drink to the pilgrims and the
guarding of the Sacred Mosque like him who believes in Allah and the latter
day”, and it was Aliasws, and Hamzaas, and Ja’faras, may greeting be upon themas are
the ones whoas believed in Allahazwj and the Last Day, and theyas fought in the Way
of Allahazwj, and (others) are not equal to themas in the Presence of Allahazwj’.

 
20الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَهَاجَرُوا وَجَاهَدُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ أَعْظَمُ دَرَجَةً عِندَ اللَّهِ ۚ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَائِزُونَ
9|20|Those who believe, and emigrate, and strive in God’s path with their possessions and their persons, are of a higher rank with God. These are the winners.
 
hierarchy of deeds, some things are better than others. So it’s good to give water out to those on hajj. It’s better to struggle in the way of God.
 
21يُبَشِّرُهُمْ رَبُّهُم بِرَحْمَةٍ مِّنْهُ وَرِضْوَانٍ وَجَنَّاتٍ لَّهُمْ فِيهَا نَعِيمٌ مُّقِيمٌ
9|21|Their Lord announces to them good news of mercy from Him, and acceptance, and gardens wherein they will have lasting bliss.
22خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عِندَهُ أَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ
9|22|Abiding therein forever. With God is a great reward.
23يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا آبَاءَكُمْ وَإِخْوَانَكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ إِنِ اسْتَحَبُّوا الْكُفْرَ عَلَى الْإِيمَانِ ۚ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُم مِّنكُمْ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ
9|23|O you who believe! Do not ally yourselves with your parents and your siblings if they prefer disbelief to belief. Whoever of you allies himself with them—these are the wrongdoers.
24قُلْ إِن كَانَ آبَاؤُكُمْ وَأَبْنَاؤُكُمْ وَإِخْوَانُكُمْ وَأَزْوَاجُكُمْ وَعَشِيرَتُكُمْ وَأَمْوَالٌ اقْتَرَفْتُمُوهَا وَتِجَارَةٌ تَخْشَوْنَ كَسَادَهَا وَمَسَاكِنُ تَرْضَوْنَهَا أَحَبَّ إِلَيْكُم مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَجِهَادٍ فِي سَبِيلِهِ فَتَرَبَّصُوا حَتَّىٰ يَأْتِيَ اللَّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْفَاسِقِينَ
9|24|Say, “If your parents, and your children, and your siblings, and your spouses, and your relatives, and the wealth you have acquired, and a business you worry about, and homes you love, are more dear to you than God, and His Messenger, and the struggle in His cause, then wait until God executes His judgment.” God does not guide the sinful people.
25لَقَدْ نَصَرَكُمُ اللَّهُ فِي مَوَاطِنَ كَثِيرَةٍ ۙ وَيَوْمَ حُنَيْنٍ ۙ إِذْ أَعْجَبَتْكُمْ كَثْرَتُكُمْ فَلَمْ تُغْنِ عَنكُمْ شَيْئًا وَضَاقَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ الْأَرْضُ بِمَا رَحُبَتْ ثُمَّ وَلَّيْتُم مُّدْبِرِينَ
9|25|God has given you victory in numerous regions; but on the day of Hunayn, your great number impressed you, but it availed you nothing; and the land, as spacious as it was, narrowed for you; and you turned your backs in retreat.
26ثُمَّ أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ سَكِينَتَهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ وَعَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَأَنزَلَ جُنُودًا لَّمْ تَرَوْهَا وَعَذَّبَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ جَزَاءُ الْكَافِرِينَ
9|26|Then God sent down His serenity upon His Messenger, and upon the believers; and He sent down troops you did not see; and He punished those who disbelieved. Such is the recompense of the disbelievers.
27ثُمَّ يَتُوبُ اللَّهُ مِن بَعْدِ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَىٰ مَن يَشَاءُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
9|27|Then, after that, God will relent towards whomever He wills. God is Forgiving and Merciful.
28يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّمَا الْمُشْرِكُونَ نَجَسٌ فَلَا يَقْرَبُوا الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ بَعْدَ عَامِهِمْ هَٰذَا ۚ وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ عَيْلَةً فَسَوْفَ يُغْنِيكُمُ اللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ إِن شَاءَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ
9|28|O you who believe! The polytheists are polluted, so let them not approach the Sacred Mosque after this year of theirs. And if you fear poverty, God will enrich you from His grace, if He wills. God is Aware and Wise.
29قَاتِلُوا الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَلَا بِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَلَا يُحَرِّمُونَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَلَا يَدِينُونَ دِينَ الْحَقِّ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ حَتَّىٰ يُعْطُوا الْجِزْيَةَ عَن يَدٍ وَهُمْ صَاغِرُونَ
9|29|Fight those who do not believe in God, nor in the Last Day, nor forbid what God and His Messenger have forbidden, nor abide by the religion of truth—from among those who received the Scripture—until they pay the due tax, willingly or unwillingly.
 

H 5957, Ch. 46, h 3 Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from and Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Yahya all from ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Mughirah from Talhah ibn Zayd who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘It is an established Sunnah that al-Jizyah is not received from those with physical or mental conditions.’”

 

 

H 5955, Ch. 46, h 1 Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Hammad ibn ‘Isa from Hariz from Zurarah who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about al-Jizyah (taxes paid by a non-Muslim taxpayer) of the people of the book. Is there anything definite, which does not change? He (the Imam) said, ‘It is up to the Imam. He may receive from every one of them what he decides which they can afford in proportion to their assets. They have been spared their lives and from being exiled by their agreement to pay taxes; so al-Jizyah is received from them in proportion of their assets to the limit that they can afford to pay until they become Muslims. Allah, most Blessed, most High, has said, ‘. . . until they pay al-Jizyah with their hands with humbleness. How can they be humble if what they pay is negligible to them? Such payment must make them feel humiliated so that they accept Islam.’ Ibn Muslim has said that I asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about what they (rulers) receive as one-fifth from land of al-Jizyah, from the farmers per head. Is there anything in definite amounts?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘It was just that much which they had agreed to pay. Imam has no other choice but to receive al-Jizyah. He (the Imam) can assign it per head and not their assets or vice versa.’ I then asked, ‘What is the rule about this al-Khums (one-fifth)?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘This is how the Messenger of Allah had settled with them.’’

 

 

30وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ عُزَيْرٌ ابْنُ اللَّهِ وَقَالَتِ النَّصَارَى الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ اللَّهِ ۖ ذَٰلِكَ قَوْلُهُم بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ ۖ يُضَاهِئُونَ قَوْلَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِن قَبْلُ ۚ قَاتَلَهُمُ اللَّهُ ۚ أَنَّىٰ يُؤْفَكُونَ
9|30|The Jews said, “Ezra is the son of God,” and the Christians said, “The Messiah is the son of God.” These are their statements, out of their mouths. They emulate the statements of those who blasphemed before. May God assail them! How deceived they are!
31اتَّخَذُوا أَحْبَارَهُمْ وَرُهْبَانَهُمْ أَرْبَابًا مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَالْمَسِيحَ ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ وَمَا أُمِرُوا إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُوا إِلَٰهًا وَاحِدًا ۖ لَّا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۚ سُبْحَانَهُ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ
9|31|They have taken their rabbis and their priests as lords instead of God, as well as the Messiah son of Mary. Although they were commanded to worship none but The One God. There is no god except He. Glory be to Him; High above what they associate with Him.
 

Imam Jafar as-Sadiq (p) was requested to comment on the verse: They have taken their religious leaders and their monks as their overlords besides God… (Q, 9:31)
The Imam (p) explained: By God! They (the religious leaders and monks) never asked them (the Christians) for their worship. Had they invited them, they would never have responded positively. Actually the leaders and monks have pronounced lawful what was unlawful and vice versa. Thus, they (Christians) worship them unknowingly (by following their innovations).(B2, C18, T1)

 

H 2864, CH 164, h 7
A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid
from his father from ‘Abd Allah ibn Yahya from ‘Abd Allah ibn Muskan from
abu Basir who has said the following:
“Once I asked abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme
covenant, about the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most
Holy, ‘. . . they (unconditionally) obeyed the rabbis and the
monks. . . . as they should have obeyed Allah. . . .’ (9:31) The
Imam said, ‘By Allah, they (rabbis and monks) did not call the
people to worship them. Had they done so people would not
have listened to them. They, however, made certain things
lawful and unlawful as they liked and people obeyed and
worshipped them without realizing the evil in such worship.’”

 

H 154, Ch. 18, h1
A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid
from ‘Abd Allah ibn Yahya from ibn Muskan from abu Basir who has said the
following:
“Once I asked Imam abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine
supreme covenant, about the verse of the Holy Quran that says,
‘People (unconditionally) obeyed the rabbis and the monks and
worshipped the Messiah, son of Mary, as they (people) should
have obeyed Allah . . .’ (9:31) The Imam replied, ‘By Allah
they (rabbis) did not call people to worship them. If they had
done so people would not have accepted it. The rabbis and
monks made unlawful things lawful for them and the lawful
things as unlawful. In this way they (people) worshipped
(obeyed) them unintentionally.’” 

 

32يُرِيدُونَ أَن يُطْفِئُوا نُورَ اللَّهِ بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَيَأْبَى اللَّهُ إِلَّا أَن يُتِمَّ نُورَهُ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْكَافِرُونَ
9|32|They want to extinguish God’s light with their mouths, but God refuses except to complete His light, even though the disbelievers dislike it.
33هُوَ الَّذِي أَرْسَلَ رَسُولَهُ بِالْهُدَىٰ وَدِينِ الْحَقِّ لِيُظْهِرَهُ عَلَى الدِّينِ كُلِّهِ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْمُشْرِكُونَ
9|33|It is He who sent His Messenger with the guidance and the religion of truth, in order to make it prevail over all religions, even though the idolaters dislike it.
34۞ يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِّنَ الْأَحْبَارِ وَالرُّهْبَانِ لَيَأْكُلُونَ أَمْوَالَ النَّاسِ بِالْبَاطِلِ وَيَصُدُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۗ وَالَّذِينَ يَكْنِزُونَ الذَّهَبَ وَالْفِضَّةَ وَلَا يُنفِقُونَهَا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَبَشِّرْهُم بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ
9|34|O you who believe! Many of the rabbis and priests consume people’s wealth illicitly, and hinder from God’s path. Those who hoard gold and silver, and do not spend them in God’s cause, inform them of a painful punishment.
35يَوْمَ يُحْمَىٰ عَلَيْهَا فِي نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ فَتُكْوَىٰ بِهَا جِبَاهُهُمْ وَجُنُوبُهُمْ وَظُهُورُهُمْ ۖ هَٰذَا مَا كَنَزْتُمْ لِأَنفُسِكُمْ فَذُوقُوا مَا كُنتُمْ تَكْنِزُونَ
9|35|On the Day when they will be heated in the Fire of Hell, then their foreheads, and their sides, and their backs will be branded with them: “This is what you hoarded for yourselves; so taste what you used to hoard.”
36إِنَّ عِدَّةَ الشُّهُورِ عِندَ اللَّهِ اثْنَا عَشَرَ شَهْرًا فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ يَوْمَ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ مِنْهَا أَرْبَعَةٌ حُرُمٌ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ ۚ فَلَا تَظْلِمُوا فِيهِنَّ أَنفُسَكُمْ ۚ وَقَاتِلُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ كَافَّةً كَمَا يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ كَافَّةً ۚ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الْمُتَّقِينَ
9|36|The number of months, according to God, is twelve months—in the decree of God—since the Day He created the heavens and the earth, of which four are sacred. This is the correct religion. So do not wrong yourselves during them. And fight the polytheists collectively, as they fight you collectively, and know that God is with the righteous.
 

عن أبي خالد الواسطي قال: أتيت أبا جعفر يوم شك فيه من رمضان فإذا مائدة موضوعة وهو يأكل ونحن نريد أن نسئله، فقال: ادنوا الغداء إذا كان مثل هذا اليوم لم يحكم فيه سبب ترونه فلا تصوموا، ثم قال: حدثني أبي عن علي بن الحسين عن أمير المؤمنين ان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله لما ثقل في مرضه قال: يا أيها الناس ان السنة اثنا عشر شهرا منها أربعة حرم، ثم قال بيده: رجب مفرد، وذو القعدة وذو الحجة، والمحرم ثلث متواليات، ألا وهذا الشهر المفروض رمضان فصوموا لرؤيته وأفطروا لرؤيته، فإذا خفى الشهر فأتموا العدة، شعبان ثلثين، وصوموا الواحد والثلثين، وقال بيده: الواحد والاثنين والثلاثة، ثم ثنى ابهامه ثم قال أيها الناس شهر كذا وشهر كذا.

وقال علي عليه السلام: صمنا مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله تسعا وعشرين ولم نقضه ورآه تماما

[al-`Ayyashi] From Abu Khalid al-Wasiti.  He said: I came to Abu Ja`far on a day in which it was doubted whether it was from Ramadan.  And lo, there was a table laid out and he was eating.  And we wanted to ask him, so he said: Draw near the lunch (?).  When it is like today, in which there is no cause you see that is decided, then do not fast.  

Then he said: My father narrated to me from `Ali b. al-Husayn from Amir al-Mu’mineen that when the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله was burdened in his illness, he said: O people, the year is twelve months, from it four are sacred.  Then he said with his hand: Rajab is isolated, and Dhu ‘l-Qa`da, and Dhu ‘l-Hijja, and al-Muharram are consecutive.  Indeed, and this obligated month of Ramadan, fast due to its sighting and break your fast due to its sighting.  So when the month is obscure, then complete the number, Sha`ban (as) thirty (days), and fast the thirty first.  And he said with his hand: one and two and three.  Then he bent his thumb, then he said: O people, a month is thus and a month is thus.

And `Ali عليه السلام said: We fasted twenty nine days with the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله, and did not do its qada, and he regarded it as complete.

عن زرارة عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: كنت عنده قاعدا خلف المقام وهو محتب مستقبل القبلة فقال: اما النظر إليها عبادة وما خلق الله بقعة من الأرض أحب إليه منها ثم أهوى بيده إلى الكعبة ولا أكرم عليه منها لما (ولها خ ل) حرم الله الأشهر الحرم في كتابه (يوم خلق السماوات والأرض) ثلاثة اشهر متوالية وشهر مفرد للعمرة قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: شوال وذو القعدة وذو الحجة ورجب

From Zurara from Abu Ja`far عليه السلام.  He said: I was with him sitting behind the Maqam while he was inwrapped (with his garment) facing the qibla.  So he said: Indeed, looking at you is worship, and Allah has not created a tract of land more beloved to Him than you – then he stretched forth his hand to the Ka`ba – and there is none more noble to Him than it, when Allah sanctified the sacred months in His book “the day He created the Heavens and the Earth”, three months that are consecutive and a month that is isolated for the `umra.

Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام said: Shawwal and Dhu ‘l-Qa`da and Dhu ‘l-Hijja and Rajab.

 
37إِنَّمَا النَّسِيءُ زِيَادَةٌ فِي الْكُفْرِ ۖ يُضَلُّ بِهِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يُحِلُّونَهُ عَامًا وَيُحَرِّمُونَهُ عَامًا لِّيُوَاطِئُوا عِدَّةَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ فَيُحِلُّوا مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ ۚ زُيِّنَ لَهُمْ سُوءُ أَعْمَالِهِمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَافِرِينَ
9|37|Postponement is an increase in disbelief—by which those who disbelieve are led astray. They allow it one year, and forbid it another year, in order to conform to the number made sacred by God, thus permitting what God has forbidden. The evil of their deeds seems good to them. God does not guide the disbelieving people.
38يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَا لَكُمْ إِذَا قِيلَ لَكُمُ انفِرُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ اثَّاقَلْتُمْ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ ۚ أَرَضِيتُم بِالْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا مِنَ الْآخِرَةِ ۚ فَمَا مَتَاعُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا فِي الْآخِرَةِ إِلَّا قَلِيلٌ
9|38|O you who believe! What is the matter with you, when it is said to you, “Mobilize in the cause of God,” you cling heavily to the earth? Do you prefer the present life to the Hereafter? The enjoyment of the present life, compared to the Hereafter, is only a little.
39إِلَّا تَنفِرُوا يُعَذِّبْكُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا وَيَسْتَبْدِلْ قَوْمًا غَيْرَكُمْ وَلَا تَضُرُّوهُ شَيْئًا ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
9|39|Unless you mobilize, He will punish you most painfully, and will replace you with another people, and you will not harm Him at all. God has power over all things.
40إِلَّا تَنصُرُوهُ فَقَدْ نَصَرَهُ اللَّهُ إِذْ أَخْرَجَهُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ثَانِيَ اثْنَيْنِ إِذْ هُمَا فِي الْغَارِ إِذْ يَقُولُ لِصَاحِبِهِ لَا تَحْزَنْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَنَا ۖفَأَنزَلَ اللَّهُ سَكِينَتَهُ عَلَيْهِ وَأَيَّدَهُ بِجُنُودٍ لَّمْ تَرَوْهَا وَجَعَلَ كَلِمَةَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا السُّفْلَىٰ ۗ وَكَلِمَةُ اللَّهِ هِيَ الْعُلْيَا ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
9|40|If you do not help him, God has already helped him, when those who disbelieved expelled him, and he was the second of two in the cave. He said to his friend, “Do not worry, God is with us.” And God made His tranquility descend upon him, and supported him with forces you did not see, and made the word of those who disbelieved the lowest, while the Word of God is the Highest. God is Mighty and Wise.
41انفِرُوا خِفَافًا وَثِقَالًا وَجَاهِدُوا بِأَمْوَالِكُمْ وَأَنفُسِكُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
9|41|Mobilize, light or heavy, and strive with your possessions and your lives in the cause of God. That is better for you, if you only knew.
42لَوْ كَانَ عَرَضًا قَرِيبًا وَسَفَرًا قَاصِدًا لَّاتَّبَعُوكَ وَلَٰكِن بَعُدَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ الشُّقَّةُ ۚ وَسَيَحْلِفُونَ بِاللَّهِ لَوِ اسْتَطَعْنَا لَخَرَجْنَا مَعَكُمْ يُهْلِكُونَ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ إِنَّهُمْ لَكَاذِبُونَ
9|42|Had the gain been immediate, and the journey shorter, they would have followed you; but the distance seemed too long for them. Still they swear by God: “Had we been able, we would have marched out with you.” They damn their own souls, and God knows that they are lying.
43عَفَا اللَّهُ عَنكَ لِمَ أَذِنتَ لَهُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكَ الَّذِينَ صَدَقُوا وَتَعْلَمَ الْكَاذِبِينَ
9|43|May God pardon you! Why did you give them permission before it became clear to you who are the truthful ones, and who are the liars?
44لَا يَسْتَأْذِنُكَ الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ أَن يُجَاهِدُوا بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالْمُتَّقِينَ
9|44|Those who believe in God and the Last Day do not ask you for exemption from striving with their possessions and their lives. God is fully aware of the righteous.
45إِنَّمَا يَسْتَأْذِنُكَ الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَارْتَابَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ فَهُمْ فِي رَيْبِهِمْ يَتَرَدَّدُونَ
9|45|Only those who do not believe in God and the Last Day ask you for exemption. Their hearts are full of doubts, so they waver in their doubts.
46۞ وَلَوْ أَرَادُوا الْخُرُوجَ لَأَعَدُّوا لَهُ عُدَّةً وَلَٰكِن كَرِهَ اللَّهُ انبِعَاثَهُمْ فَثَبَّطَهُمْ وَقِيلَ اقْعُدُوا مَعَ الْقَاعِدِينَ
9|46|Had they wanted to mobilize, they would have made preparations for it; but God disliked their participation, so he held them back, and it was said, “Stay behind with those who stay behind.”
47لَوْ خَرَجُوا فِيكُم مَّا زَادُوكُمْ إِلَّا خَبَالًا وَلَأَوْضَعُوا خِلَالَكُمْ يَبْغُونَكُمُ الْفِتْنَةَ وَفِيكُمْ سَمَّاعُونَ لَهُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالظَّالِمِينَ
9|47|Had they mobilized with you, they would have added only to your difficulties, and they would have spread rumors in your midst, trying to sow discord among you. Some of you are avid listeners to them. God is Aware of the wrongdoers.
48لَقَدِ ابْتَغَوُا الْفِتْنَةَ مِن قَبْلُ وَقَلَّبُوا لَكَ الْأُمُورَ حَتَّىٰ جَاءَ الْحَقُّ وَظَهَرَ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ وَهُمْ كَارِهُونَ
9|48|They tried to cause conflict before, and they hatched plots against you, until the truth prevailed, and the command of God became evident—in spite of their dislike.
49وَمِنْهُم مَّن يَقُولُ ائْذَن لِّي وَلَا تَفْتِنِّي ۚ أَلَا فِي الْفِتْنَةِ سَقَطُوا ۗ وَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ لَمُحِيطَةٌ بِالْكَافِرِينَ
9|49|Among them is he who says, “Excuse me, and do not trouble me.” In fact, they sunk into trouble. In fact, Hell will engulf the disbelievers.
50إِن تُصِبْكَ حَسَنَةٌ تَسُؤْهُمْ ۖ وَإِن تُصِبْكَ مُصِيبَةٌ يَقُولُوا قَدْ أَخَذْنَا أَمْرَنَا مِن قَبْلُ وَيَتَوَلَّوا وَّهُمْ فَرِحُونَ
9|50|If something good happens to you, it upsets them; and if a calamity befalls you, they say, “We took our precautions in advance,” and they depart, happy.
51قُل لَّن يُصِيبَنَا إِلَّا مَا كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لَنَا هُوَ مَوْلَانَا ۚ وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَلْيَتَوَكَّلِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ
9|51|Say, “Nothing will happen to us except what God has ordained for us; He is our Protector.” In God let the faithful put their trust.
52قُلْ هَلْ تَرَبَّصُونَ بِنَا إِلَّا إِحْدَى الْحُسْنَيَيْنِ ۖ وَنَحْنُ نَتَرَبَّصُ بِكُمْ أَن يُصِيبَكُمُ اللَّهُ بِعَذَابٍ مِّنْ عِندِهِ أَوْ بِأَيْدِينَا ۖ فَتَرَبَّصُوا إِنَّا مَعَكُم مُّتَرَبِّصُونَ
9|52|Say, “Are you expecting for us anything other than one of the two excellences? As for us: we are expecting that God will afflict you with a punishment from Himself, or at our hands. So wait, we are waiting with you.”
53قُلْ أَنفِقُوا طَوْعًا أَوْ كَرْهًا لَّن يُتَقَبَّلَ مِنكُمْ ۖ إِنَّكُمْ كُنتُمْ قَوْمًا فَاسِقِينَ
9|53|Say, “Whether you spend willingly or unwillingly, it will not be accepted from you. You are evil people.”
54وَمَا مَنَعَهُمْ أَن تُقْبَلَ مِنْهُمْ نَفَقَاتُهُمْ إِلَّا أَنَّهُمْ كَفَرُوا بِاللَّهِ وَبِرَسُولِهِ وَلَا يَأْتُونَ الصَّلَاةَ إِلَّا وَهُمْ كُسَالَىٰ وَلَا يُنفِقُونَ إِلَّا وَهُمْ كَارِهُونَ
9|54|What prevents the acceptance of their contributions is nothing but the fact that they disbelieved in God and His Messenger, and that they do not approach the prayer except lazily, and that they do not spend except grudgingly.
 

H 3043, CH 203, h 3
It is narrated from him (narrator of the Hadith above) from Yunus from ibn
Bukayr from abu ‘Umayyah Yusuf ibn Thabit who has said the following:
“I heard abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant,
saying, ‘With belief no deed can harm one and with disbelief no
deed can benefit one. Consider how Allah has said it, ‘What
prevents their offerings from acceptance is their disbelief in
Allah and His Messenger, their lack of interest in prayer and
spending for the cause of Allah reluctantly, (9:54) ‘. . . and they
die as disbelievers.’” (9:125)

 
55فَلَا تُعْجِبْكَ أَمْوَالُهُمْ وَلَا أَوْلَادُهُمْ ۚ إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُعَذِّبَهُم بِهَا فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَتَزْهَقَ أَنفُسُهُمْ وَهُمْ كَافِرُونَ
9|55|Let neither their possessions nor their children impress you. God intends to torment them through them in this worldly life, and that their souls depart while they are disbelievers.
 

H 1908, CH 59, h 1
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from
Muhammad ibn Sinan from ‘Ammar ibn Marwan from Zayd al-Shahham from ‘Amr ibn Hilal who has said the following:
“I heard abu Ja’far, recipient of divine supreme covenant,
saying, ‘You must never allow your eyes aim for one who is
above you (in worldly matters that may tempt you wish for his
opportunity). The words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most
Holy, to His Messenger are enough evidence to support it. “Let
not their property and children tempt you. . . .” (9:55) ‘Do not
yearn for other people’s property and wives and do not grieve. . .
.’ (15:88) If you sense such a feeling then consider the life of
the Messenger of Allah. He lived on barley loaves and sweetness
from dates. For fuel he would use palm tree twigs if he could
find them.’”

 
56وَيَحْلِفُونَ بِاللَّهِ إِنَّهُمْ لَمِنكُمْ وَمَا هُم مِّنكُمْ وَلَٰكِنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ يَفْرَقُونَ
9|56|They swear by God that they are of you. But they are not of you. They are divisive people.
57لَوْ يَجِدُونَ مَلْجَأً أَوْ مَغَارَاتٍ أَوْ مُدَّخَلًا لَّوَلَّوْا إِلَيْهِ وَهُمْ يَجْمَحُونَ
9|57|Were they to find a shelter, or a cave, or a hideout, they would go to it, rushing.
58وَمِنْهُم مَّن يَلْمِزُكَ فِي الصَّدَقَاتِ فَإِنْ أُعْطُوا مِنْهَا رَضُوا وَإِن لَّمْ يُعْطَوْا مِنْهَا إِذَا هُمْ يَسْخَطُونَ
9|58|And among them are those who criticize you in regard to charities. If they are given some of it, they become pleased; but if they are not given any, they grow resentful.
 
 
 

H 2902, CH 171, h 4
Ali has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Ibrahim ibn ‘Abd al-
Hamid from Ishaq ibn Ghalib who has said the following:
“Abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, once
asked, ‘O Ishaq, how many people can you find to whom this
verse, ‘ . . . They are pleased when you give them something
from it, but if they receive nothing, they become angry with
you,’ (9:58) applies? The Imam then said, ‘They are more than
two thirds of the people.’”

 
59وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ رَضُوا مَا آتَاهُمُ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَقَالُوا حَسْبُنَا اللَّهُ سَيُؤْتِينَا اللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ وَرَسُولُهُ إِنَّا إِلَى اللَّهِ رَاغِبُونَ
9|59|If only they were content with what God and His Messenger have given them, and said, “God is sufficient for us; God will give us of His bounty, and so will His Messenger; to God we eagerly turn.”
60۞ إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقَاتُ لِلْفُقَرَاءِ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَالْعَامِلِينَ عَلَيْهَا وَالْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَالْغَارِمِينَ وَفِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ ۖ فَرِيضَةً مِّنَ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ
9|60|Charities are for the poor, and the destitute, and those who administer them, and for reconciling hearts, and for freeing slaves, and for those in debt, and in the path of God, and for the traveler in need—an obligation from God. God is All-Knowing, Most Wise.
 

H 2900, CH 171, h 2
Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from ‘Umar
ibn ‘Udhaynah from Zurara who has said the following:
“Once I asked abu Ja’far, recipient of divine supreme covenant,
about the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, ‘Al-
Mu’allafah Qulubuhum (the people with inclined hearts)’ (9:60)
the Imam said, ‘They were a people who accepted Allah, the
Most Majestic, the Most Holy, only, stopped worshipping things
that were worshipped besides Allah, they had testified that no
one deserves to be worshipped except Allah and that
Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah and in that condition they
had doubts about certain issue(s) that Muhammad, recipient of
divine supreme covenant, had brought. Allah, the Most Majestic,
the Most Holy, commanded His Holy Prophet to attract them
with financial means and gifts so that their Islam may improve
and they remain steadfast in their religion which they had just
accepted and professed.’
“On the day of Hunayn (a battle field) the Messenger of Allah
had a meeting with leaders of Arabs from Quraysh, and others
from the tribe of Mudar. Among such people were abu Sufyan
ibn Harb, ‘Uyaynah ibn Hasin al-Farazi and other such people.
The Ansar, people of Madina, became angry and gathered
around Sa’d ibn ‘Ubadah. He went with them to see the
Messenger of Allah at al-Ja’ranah. He asked, ‘O Messenger of
Allah, can I speak?’ He said, ‘Yes, you may speak.’ He said, ‘If
the case of these goods that you have distributed among your
tribesmen is something that has come from Allah, we agree, and
if it is something else, we do not agree.’ Zurara has said, ‘I heard
abu Ja’far saying, “The Messenger of Allah asked, ‘O people of
Ansar, are all of you of the opinion of your master Sa’d?’” They
said, ‘Our master is Allah and the Messenger of Allah.’ Then
they said at the third time, ‘We are of the same opinion and
words.’ Zurara has said, ‘I heard abu Ja’far, recipient of divine
supreme covenant, saying, “For this reason Allah decreased the
light of their belief and assigned a share for people of inclined
hearts in the Holy Quran.’”

 

H 1059, Ch. 104, h 7
A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn
al-Hakam from Aban ibn ‘Uthman from Sabbah ibn Sayyaba from abu ‘Abd
Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, who has said the following:
“The messenger of Allah, recipient of divine supreme
covenant, has said, ‘Whoever of the believers or Muslims dies
and on him there is a debt, not for unlawful or extravagant
reasons, it then is the responsibility of the Imam to pay it off,
otherwise, he has sinned. Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High,
says, “Welfare funds (Zakat ) are only for the poor, the destitute .
. . the debtors . . .” (9:60) For such persons (debtors) there is a
share with the Imam. If he withholds it, he has sinned.’”

 

H 8415, Ch. 19, h 3
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn al-Hakam from Musa ibn Bakr who has said the
following:
“Abu al-Hassan, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, said to me, ‘Whoever works to provide sustenance for himself and
his family is considered a Mujahid (fighter) for the cause of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious. If
poverty over-powers him, he then should borrow upon the responsibility of Allah and His Messenger
for his sustenance and his family. If he dies and cannot pay back, it then becomes the responsibility of
the Imam to pay it. If he did not do so, he will be held responsible. Allah, most Majestic, most
Glorious, says, ‘Charities are for the poor, destitute and the charity (tax) collectors . . . ., and those
suffering bankruptcy.’ (9:61) He is poor, destitute and bankrupt.’”

 
61وَمِنْهُمُ الَّذِينَ يُؤْذُونَ النَّبِيَّ وَيَقُولُونَ هُوَ أُذُنٌ ۚ قُلْ أُذُنُ خَيْرٍ لَّكُمْ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَيُؤْمِنُ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَرَحْمَةٌ لِّلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنكُمْ ۚوَالَّذِينَ يُؤْذُونَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ
9|61|And among them are those who insult the Prophet, and say, “He is all ears.” Say, “He listens for your own good. He believes in God, and trusts the believers, and is mercy for those of you who believe.” Those who insult the Messenger of God will have a painful penalty.
62يَحْلِفُونَ بِاللَّهِ لَكُمْ لِيُرْضُوكُمْ وَاللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَحَقُّ أَن يُرْضُوهُ إِن كَانُوا مُؤْمِنِينَ
9|62|They swear to you by God to please you. But it is more proper for them to please God and His Messenger, if they are believers.
63أَلَمْ يَعْلَمُوا أَنَّهُ مَن يُحَادِدِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَأَنَّ لَهُ نَارَ جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدًا فِيهَا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ الْخِزْيُ الْعَظِيمُ
9|63|Do they not know that whoever opposes God and His Messenger, will have the Fire of Hell, abiding in it forever? That is the supreme disgrace.
64يَحْذَرُ الْمُنَافِقُونَ أَن تُنَزَّلَ عَلَيْهِمْ سُورَةٌ تُنَبِّئُهُم بِمَا فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ ۚ قُلِ اسْتَهْزِئُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ مُخْرِجٌ مَّا تَحْذَرُونَ
9|64|The hypocrites worry lest a chapter may be revealed about them, informing them of what is in their hearts. Say, “Go on mocking; God will bring out what you fear.”
65وَلَئِن سَأَلْتَهُمْ لَيَقُولُنَّ إِنَّمَا كُنَّا نَخُوضُ وَنَلْعَبُ ۚ قُلْ أَبِاللَّهِ وَآيَاتِهِ وَرَسُولِهِ كُنتُمْ تَسْتَهْزِئُونَ
9|65|If you ask them, they will say, “We were just joking and playing.” Say, “Were you making jokes about God, His revelations, and His Messenger?”
66لَا تَعْتَذِرُوا قَدْ كَفَرْتُم بَعْدَ إِيمَانِكُمْ ۚ إِن نَّعْفُ عَن طَائِفَةٍ مِّنكُمْ نُعَذِّبْ طَائِفَةً بِأَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا مُجْرِمِينَ
9|66|Do not apologize. You have disbelieved after your belief. If We pardon some of you, We will punish others, because they are guilty.
67الْمُنَافِقُونَ وَالْمُنَافِقَاتُ بَعْضُهُم مِّن بَعْضٍ ۚ يَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمُنكَرِ وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَقْبِضُونَ أَيْدِيَهُمْ ۚ نَسُوا اللَّهَ فَنَسِيَهُمْ ۗإِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ
9|67|The hypocrite men and hypocrite women are of one another. They advocate evil, and prohibit righteousness, and withhold their hands. They forgot God, so He forgot them. The hypocrites are the sinners.
68وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الْمُنَافِقِينَ وَالْمُنَافِقَاتِ وَالْكُفَّارَ نَارَ جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا ۚ هِيَ حَسْبُهُمْ ۚ وَلَعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ ۖ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ مُّقِيمٌ
9|68|God has promised the hypocrite men and hypocrite women, and the disbelievers, the Fire of Hell, abiding therein forever. It is their due. And God has cursed them. They will have a lasting punishment.
69كَالَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ كَانُوا أَشَدَّ مِنكُمْ قُوَّةً وَأَكْثَرَ أَمْوَالًا وَأَوْلَادًا فَاسْتَمْتَعُوا بِخَلَاقِهِمْ فَاسْتَمْتَعْتُم بِخَلَاقِكُمْ كَمَا اسْتَمْتَعَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُم بِخَلَاقِهِمْ وَخُضْتُمْ كَالَّذِي خَاضُوا ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ
9|69|Like those before you. They were more powerful than you, and had more wealth and children. They enjoyed their share, and you enjoyed your share, as those before you enjoyed their share. And you indulged, as they indulged. It is they whose works will fail in this world and in the Hereafter. It is they who are the losers.
70أَلَمْ يَأْتِهِمْ نَبَأُ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ قَوْمِ نُوحٍ وَعَادٍ وَثَمُودَ وَقَوْمِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَأَصْحَابِ مَدْيَنَ وَالْمُؤْتَفِكَاتِ ۚ أَتَتْهُمْ رُسُلُهُم بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ ۖفَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيَظْلِمَهُمْ وَلَٰكِن كَانُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ
9|70|Have they not heard the stories of those before them? The people of Noah, and Aad, and Thamood; and the people of Abraham, and the inhabitants of Median, and the Overturned Cities? Their messengers came to them with the clear proofs. God never wronged them, but they used to wrong their own selves.
71وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتُ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ ۚ يَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَيُطِيعُونَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ سَيَرْحَمُهُمُ اللَّهُ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
9|71|The believing men and believing women are friends of one another. They advocate virtue, forbid evil, perform the prayers, practice charity, and obey God and His Messenger. These—God will have mercy on them. God is Noble and Wise.
72وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا وَمَسَاكِنَ طَيِّبَةً فِي جَنَّاتِ عَدْنٍ ۚ وَرِضْوَانٌ مِّنَ اللَّهِ أَكْبَرُ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ
9|72|God promises the believers, men and women, gardens beneath which rivers flow, abiding therein forever, and fine homes in the Gardens of Eden. But approval from God is even greater. That is the supreme achievement.
73يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ جَاهِدِ الْكُفَّارَ وَالْمُنَافِقِينَ وَاغْلُظْ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ وَمَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ ۖ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ
9|73|O Prophet! Strive against the disbelievers and the hypocrites, and be stern with them. Their abode is Hell—what a miserable destination!
74يَحْلِفُونَ بِاللَّهِ مَا قَالُوا وَلَقَدْ قَالُوا كَلِمَةَ الْكُفْرِ وَكَفَرُوا بَعْدَ إِسْلَامِهِمْ وَهَمُّوا بِمَا لَمْ يَنَالُوا ۚ وَمَا نَقَمُوا إِلَّا أَنْ أَغْنَاهُمُ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ ۚ فَإِن يَتُوبُوا يَكُ خَيْرًا لَّهُمْ ۖ وَإِن يَتَوَلَّوْا يُعَذِّبْهُمُ اللَّهُ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ ۚ وَمَا لَهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ مِن وَلِيٍّ وَلَا نَصِيرٍ
9|74|They swear by God that they said nothing; but they did utter the word of blasphemy, and they renounced faith after their submission. And they plotted what they could not attain. They were resentful only because God and His Messenger have enriched them out of His grace. If they repent, it would be best for them; but if they turn away, God will afflict them with a painful punishment—in this life and in the Hereafter—and they will have on earth no protector and no savior.
75۞ وَمِنْهُم مَّنْ عَاهَدَ اللَّهَ لَئِنْ آتَانَا مِن فَضْلِهِ لَنَصَّدَّقَنَّ وَلَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ
9|75|Among them are those who promised God: “If He gives us of His bounty, we will donate and be among the upright.”
76فَلَمَّا آتَاهُم مِّن فَضْلِهِ بَخِلُوا بِهِ وَتَوَلَّوا وَّهُم مُّعْرِضُونَ
9|76|But when He has given them of His bounty, they became stingy with it, and turned away in aversion.
77فَأَعْقَبَهُمْ نِفَاقًا فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ يَلْقَوْنَهُ بِمَا أَخْلَفُوا اللَّهَ مَا وَعَدُوهُ وَبِمَا كَانُوا يَكْذِبُونَ
9|77|So He penalized them with hypocrisy in their hearts, until the Day they face Him—because they broke their promise to God, and because they used to lie.
78أَلَمْ يَعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ سِرَّهُمْ وَنَجْوَاهُمْ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَّامُ الْغُيُوبِ
9|78|Do they not know that God knows their secrets and their conspiracies? And that God is the Knower of the unseen?
79الَّذِينَ يَلْمِزُونَ الْمُطَّوِّعِينَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فِي الصَّدَقَاتِ وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَجِدُونَ إِلَّا جُهْدَهُمْ فَيَسْخَرُونَ مِنْهُمْ ۙ سَخِرَ اللَّهُ مِنْهُمْ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ
9|79|Those who criticize the believers who give charity voluntarily, and ridicule those who find nothing to give except their own efforts—God ridicules them. They will have a painful punishment.
80اسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ أَوْ لَا تَسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ إِن تَسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ سَبْعِينَ مَرَّةً فَلَن يَغْفِرَ اللَّهُ لَهُمْ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَفَرُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْفَاسِقِينَ
9|80|Whether you ask forgiveness for them, or do not ask forgiveness for them—even if you ask forgiveness for them seventy times, God will not forgive them. That is because they disbelieved in God and His Messenger. God does not guide the immoral people.
81فَرِحَ الْمُخَلَّفُونَ بِمَقْعَدِهِمْ خِلَافَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ وَكَرِهُوا أَن يُجَاهِدُوا بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَقَالُوا لَا تَنفِرُوا فِي الْحَرِّ ۗقُلْ نَارُ جَهَنَّمَ أَشَدُّ حَرًّا ۚ لَّوْ كَانُوا يَفْقَهُونَ
9|81|Those who stayed behind rejoiced at their staying behind the Messenger of God. And they hated to strive with their wealth and their lives in God’s way. And they said, “Do not venture out in the heat.” Say, “The Fire of Hell is much hotter, if they only understood.”
82فَلْيَضْحَكُوا قَلِيلًا وَلْيَبْكُوا كَثِيرًا جَزَاءً بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ
9|82|Let them laugh a little, and weep much; in recompense for what they used to earn.
83فَإِن رَّجَعَكَ اللَّهُ إِلَىٰ طَائِفَةٍ مِّنْهُمْ فَاسْتَأْذَنُوكَ لِلْخُرُوجِ فَقُل لَّن تَخْرُجُوا مَعِيَ أَبَدًا وَلَن تُقَاتِلُوا مَعِيَ عَدُوًّا ۖ إِنَّكُمْ رَضِيتُم بِالْقُعُودِ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ فَاقْعُدُوا مَعَ الْخَالِفِينَ
9|83|If God brings you back to a party of them, and they ask your permission to go out, say, “You will not go out with me, ever, nor will you ever fight an enemy with me. You were content to sit back the first time, so sit back with those who stay behind.”
84وَلَا تُصَلِّ عَلَىٰ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُم مَّاتَ أَبَدًا وَلَا تَقُمْ عَلَىٰ قَبْرِهِ ۖ إِنَّهُمْ كَفَرُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَمَاتُوا وَهُمْ فَاسِقُونَ
9|84|You are never to pray over anyone of them who dies, nor are you to stand at his graveside. They rejected God and His Messenger, and died while they were sinners.
85وَلَا تُعْجِبْكَ أَمْوَالُهُمْ وَأَوْلَادُهُمْ ۚ إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ أَن يُعَذِّبَهُم بِهَا فِي الدُّنْيَا وَتَزْهَقَ أَنفُسُهُمْ وَهُمْ كَافِرُونَ
9|85|Do not let their possessions and their children impress you. God desires to torment them through them in this world, and their souls expire while they are disbelievers.
86وَإِذَا أُنزِلَتْ سُورَةٌ أَنْ آمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَجَاهِدُوا مَعَ رَسُولِهِ اسْتَأْذَنَكَ أُولُو الطَّوْلِ مِنْهُمْ وَقَالُوا ذَرْنَا نَكُن مَّعَ الْقَاعِدِينَ
9|86|When a chapter is revealed, stating: “Believe in God and strive with His Messenger,” the prominent among them ask you for exemption. They say, “Allow us to stay with those who stay behind.”
87رَضُوا بِأَن يَكُونُوا مَعَ الْخَوَالِفِ وَطُبِعَ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ فَهُمْ لَا يَفْقَهُونَ
9|87|They prefer to be with those who stay behind. Their hearts were sealed, so they do not understand.
88لَٰكِنِ الرَّسُولُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَعَهُ جَاهَدُوا بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ ۚ وَأُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمُ الْخَيْرَاتُ ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ
9|88|But the Messenger and those who believe with him struggle with their possessions and their lives. These have deserved the good things. These are the successful.
89أَعَدَّ اللَّهُ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ
9|89|God has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. That is the great victory.
90وَجَاءَ الْمُعَذِّرُونَ مِنَ الْأَعْرَابِ لِيُؤْذَنَ لَهُمْ وَقَعَدَ الَّذِينَ كَذَبُوا اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۚ سَيُصِيبُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ
9|90|Some of the Desert-Arabs came to make excuses, asking to be granted exemption, while those who were untrue to God and His Messenger stayed behind. A painful punishment will afflict those among them who disbelieved.
91لَّيْسَ عَلَى الضُّعَفَاءِ وَلَا عَلَى الْمَرْضَىٰ وَلَا عَلَى الَّذِينَ لَا يَجِدُونَ مَا يُنفِقُونَ حَرَجٌ إِذَا نَصَحُوا لِلَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ۚ مَا عَلَى الْمُحْسِنِينَ مِن سَبِيلٍ ۚ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
9|91|There is no blame on the weak, nor on the sick, nor on those who have nothing to give, provided they are true to God and His Messenger. In no way can the righteous be blamed. God is Forgiving and Merciful.
 

H 420, Ch. 34, h4
A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid
from Ali ibn al-Hakam from Aban al-Ahmar from Hamza ibn al-Tayyar who
said the following:
“Once Imam abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme
covenant, said to me, ‘Write down.’ He dictated to me the
following. ‘It is of our Hadith that Allah will, justifiably, hold
people accountable for what He has given and made known to
them. Allah then sent His messenger to them and sent down
books upon them in which He has commanded and prohibited
them. He has commanded them to perform prayers and fast. The
messenger of Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant,
remained sleeping until the time for prayer expired and Allah
said, ‘I make you sleep and wake you up. When you wake up
then perform the prayer so that they can learn if such thing
happened to them what they should do.’

“It is not the way that they say, ‘If one remains asleep (at the
time of prayer) one is destroyed.’ In the same way is fasting. ‘I
(Allah) cause you to become ill and when I give you good health
then you will make up for the fast that you missed during your
illness.’ Abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant,
then said, ‘So also is, if you look at all things you will find that
Allah has caused no constrictions to anyone. You will not find
anyone against whom Allah may not have enough justification
to hold him accountable with His wish therein. I do not say that
they can do whatever they wish.
“The Imam then said, ‘Allah guides and misleads.’ He further
said, ‘People are not ordered to do what they are not capable of.
For everything that people are ordered to do they have the
capability for it and anything of which they are not capable is
removed and lifted up from them but there is not much good in
people.’ He (the Imam) then recited from the Holy Quran:
‘People who are weak or sick and those who do not have the
means to take part in the fighting are exempt from this duty . . .’
(conditions of people exempt are mentioned) ‘Righteous people
shall not be blamed. Allah is All-forgiving and All-merciful.’
(9:91) So also relieved of the duty are ‘Those who come to you
(Muhammad), asking to be taken to the battle . . .’ (9:92) they do
not have the means.’”

 
92وَلَا عَلَى الَّذِينَ إِذَا مَا أَتَوْكَ لِتَحْمِلَهُمْ قُلْتَ لَا أَجِدُ مَا أَحْمِلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ تَوَلَّوا وَّأَعْيُنُهُمْ تَفِيضُ مِنَ الدَّمْعِ حَزَنًا أَلَّا يَجِدُوا مَا يُنفِقُونَ
9|92|Nor on those who approach you, wishing to ride with you, and you said, “I have nothing to carry you on.” So they went away, with their eyes overflowing with tears, sorrowing for not finding the means to spend.
93۞ إِنَّمَا السَّبِيلُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَسْتَأْذِنُونَكَ وَهُمْ أَغْنِيَاءُ ۚ رَضُوا بِأَن يَكُونُوا مَعَ الْخَوَالِفِ وَطَبَعَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ فَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ
9|93|But blame is on those who ask you for exemption, although they are rich. They are content to be with those who stay behind. God has sealed their hearts, so they do not know.
94يَعْتَذِرُونَ إِلَيْكُمْ إِذَا رَجَعْتُمْ إِلَيْهِمْ ۚ قُل لَّا تَعْتَذِرُوا لَن نُّؤْمِنَ لَكُمْ قَدْ نَبَّأَنَا اللَّهُ مِنْ أَخْبَارِكُمْ ۚ وَسَيَرَى اللَّهُ عَمَلَكُمْ وَرَسُولُهُ ثُمَّ تُرَدُّونَ إِلَىٰ عَالِمِ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ فَيُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ
9|94|They present excuses to you when you return to them. Say, “Do not offer excuses; we do not trust you; God has informed us of you. And God will watch your actions, and so will the Messenger; then you will be returned to the Knower of the Invisible and the Visible, and He will inform you of what you used to do.”
95سَيَحْلِفُونَ بِاللَّهِ لَكُمْ إِذَا انقَلَبْتُمْ إِلَيْهِمْ لِتُعْرِضُوا عَنْهُمْ ۖ فَأَعْرِضُوا عَنْهُمْ ۖ إِنَّهُمْ رِجْسٌ ۖ وَمَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ جَزَاءً بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ
9|95|They will swear to you by God, when you return to them, that you may leave them alone. So leave them alone. They are a disgrace, and their destiny is Hell; a reward for what they used to earn.
96يَحْلِفُونَ لَكُمْ لِتَرْضَوْا عَنْهُمْ ۖ فَإِن تَرْضَوْا عَنْهُمْ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَرْضَىٰ عَنِ الْقَوْمِ الْفَاسِقِينَ
9|96|They will swear to you that you may accept them. But even if you accept them, God does not accept the wicked people.
97الْأَعْرَابُ أَشَدُّ كُفْرًا وَنِفَاقًا وَأَجْدَرُ أَلَّا يَعْلَمُوا حُدُودَ مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ
9|97|The Desert-Arabs are the most steeped in disbelief and hypocrisy, and the most likely to ignore the limits that God revealed to His Messenger. God is Knowing and Wise.
98وَمِنَ الْأَعْرَابِ مَن يَتَّخِذُ مَا يُنفِقُ مَغْرَمًا وَيَتَرَبَّصُ بِكُمُ الدَّوَائِرَ ۚ عَلَيْهِمْ دَائِرَةُ السَّوْءِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
9|98|And among the Desert-Arabs are those who consider their contribution to be a fine. And they wait for a reversal of your fortunes. Upon them will fall the cycle of misfortune. God is Hearing and Knowing.
99وَمِنَ الْأَعْرَابِ مَن يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَيَتَّخِذُ مَا يُنفِقُ قُرُبَاتٍ عِندَ اللَّهِ وَصَلَوَاتِ الرَّسُولِ ۚ أَلَا إِنَّهَا قُرْبَةٌ لَّهُمْ ۚسَيُدْخِلُهُمُ اللَّهُ فِي رَحْمَتِهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
9|99|Yet among the Desert-Arabs are those who believe in God and the Last Day, and consider their contribution to be a means towards God, and the prayers of the Messenger. Surely it will draw them closer, and God will admit them into His mercy. God is Forgiving and Compassionate.
100وَالسَّابِقُونَ الْأَوَّلُونَ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالْأَنصَارِ وَالَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُم بِإِحْسَانٍ رَّضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوا عَنْهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي تَحْتَهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ
9|100|The Pioneers—The first of the Migrants and the Supporters, and those who followed them in righteousness. God is pleased with them, and they are pleased with Him. He has prepared for them Gardens beneath which rivers flow, where they will abide forever. That is the sublime triumph.
101وَمِمَّنْ حَوْلَكُم مِّنَ الْأَعْرَابِ مُنَافِقُونَ ۖ وَمِنْ أَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ ۖ مَرَدُوا عَلَى النِّفَاقِ لَا تَعْلَمُهُمْ ۖ نَحْنُ نَعْلَمُهُمْ ۚ سَنُعَذِّبُهُم مَّرَّتَيْنِ ثُمَّ يُرَدُّونَ إِلَىٰ عَذَابٍ عَظِيمٍ
9|101|Among the Desert-Arabs around you there are some hypocrites, and among the inhabitants of Medina too. They have become adamant in hypocrisy. You do not know them, but We know them. We will punish them twice; then they will be returned to a severe torment.
102وَآخَرُونَ اعْتَرَفُوا بِذُنُوبِهِمْ خَلَطُوا عَمَلًا صَالِحًا وَآخَرَ سَيِّئًا عَسَى اللَّهُ أَن يَتُوبَ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
9|102|Others have confessed their sins, having mixed good deeds with bad deeds. Perhaps God will redeem them. God is Forgiving and Merciful.
 

H 2827, CH 160, h 1
A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ali ibn Asbat
from Sulaym Mawla Tirbal who has said the Hisham narrated to him from
Hamza ibn al-Tayyar who has said the following:
“Once abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant,
said to me, ‘People are of six categories.’ I then asked, ‘Can I
write them down?’ The Imam said, ‘Yes, you can do so.’ I then
asked, ‘What should I write?’ The Imam said, ‘Write down: the
people promised paradise and those warned against the fire (but
ignored it). Write down, “. . . others of them have already
confessed their sins and have mixed virtuous deeds with sinful
ones.”’ (9:102) I then asked, ‘Who are such people?’ The Imam
said, ‘Wahshi (assassin of Hamza) is one of them.’ The Imam
said, ‘Write down, “There are others who have no good deeds
for which they may receive any reward or sins for which they
may be punished. . . .” (9:106) The Imam said, ‘Write down,
“As for the really weak and oppressed men, women, and
children who were not able to find any means of obtaining their
freedom or of having the right guidance, (4:98) [are not able to
do anything against the unbelievers or find the right guidance]
perhaps Allah will forgive them; He is All-merciful and Allforgiving.”
(4:99) The Imam said, ‘Write down the people of
‘A’raf.’ I asked, ‘Who are they?’ The Imam said, ‘They are the
people whose good and bad deeds measure equally. If they will
be sent to the fire it will be due to their sins and if they will be
sent to paradise it will be due to His kindness.’”

 
103خُذْ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ صَدَقَةً تُطَهِّرُهُمْ وَتُزَكِّيهِم بِهَا وَصَلِّ عَلَيْهِمْ ۖ إِنَّ صَلَاتَكَ سَكَنٌ لَّهُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
9|103|Receive contributions from their wealth, to purify them and sanctify them with it; and pray for them. Your prayer is comfort for them. God is Hearing and Knowing.
 

H 1403, Ch. 129, h 1
Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Amir through his chain of narrators has narrated
in a marfu‘ manner the following:
“Abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, has
said, ‘Whoever thinks that the Imam is needful of what people
own he becomes an unbeliever. It is the people who need
acceptance from the Imam. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most
Gracious, has said, ‘Collect religious tax (Zakat ) from them to
purify and cleanse them and pray for them. . . .’” (9:103)

 
104أَلَمْ يَعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ يَقْبَلُ التَّوْبَةَ عَنْ عِبَادِهِ وَيَأْخُذُ الصَّدَقَاتِ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ
9|104|Do they not know that God accepts the repentance of His servants, and that He receives the contributions, and that God is the Acceptor of Repentance, the Merciful?
105وَقُلِ اعْمَلُوا فَسَيَرَى اللَّهُ عَمَلَكُمْ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ ۖ وَسَتُرَدُّونَ إِلَىٰ عَالِمِ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ فَيُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ
9|105|Say, “Work. God will see your work, and so will His Messenger, and the believers. Then you will be returned to the Knower of secrets and declarations, and He will inform you of what you used to do.”
 

H 574, Ch. 29, h1
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from
al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from al-Qasim ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn abu Hamza
from abu Basir from abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, who
has said the following:
“All deeds are presented before the Messenger of Allah,
recipient of divine supreme covenant. It is the deeds of all the
virtuous and the evildoing servants (of Allah) that are presented
every morning and evening (before the Messenger of Allah). So
pay proper attention to it and be very careful. The following
words of Allah are a reference to this: ‘(Muhammad), tell them,
“Act as you wish. Allah will see your deeds and so will His
Messenger . . .”’ (9:106) The Imam, recipient of divine supreme
covenant, paused at this point and did not read any further.”

 

H 575, Ch. 29, h2
A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from
al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from al-Nadr ibn Suwayd from Yahya al-Halabi from ‘Abd
al-Hamid al-Ta’i from Ya‘qub ibn Shu‘ayb who has said the following:
“Once I asked abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme
covenant, about the meaning of the words of Allah, the Most
Holy, the Most High, ‘Act as you wish. Allah will see your
deeds and so will His Messenger and the believers. . . .’ (9:106)
The Imam said, ‘They (believers) are ‘A’immah, recipient of
divine supreme covenant.’”

 
106وَآخَرُونَ مُرْجَوْنَ لِأَمْرِ اللَّهِ إِمَّا يُعَذِّبُهُمْ وَإِمَّا يَتُوبُ عَلَيْهِمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ
9|106|Others are held in suspense, awaiting God’s decree, as to whether He will punish them, or accept their repentance. God is Aware and Wise.
 

H 2889, CH 168, h 1
Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn
al-Hakam from Musa ibn Bakr from Zurara from abu Ja’far, recipient of divine
supreme covenant, who has said the following:
“About the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, ‘.
. . there are others who have no good deeds for which they may
receive any reward or sins for which they may be punished.
Their fate will be in the hands of Allah. Allah is All-knowing
and All-wise,’ (9:106) the Imam said, ‘Certain people were
pagans. They murdered people like Hamza and Ja’far and
similar persons from the believers. Then they accepted Islam and
Allah only and gave up paganism, but did not know belief with
their heart so they could be among the believers to deserve
paradise. They were not in denial and a rejecting attitude as
unbelievers to be subjected to fire (of hell). They are in that
condition as such that it will be up to Allah to punish or accept
their repentance.’”

 
107وَالَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا مَسْجِدًا ضِرَارًا وَكُفْرًا وَتَفْرِيقًا بَيْنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَإِرْصَادًا لِّمَنْ حَارَبَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ مِن قَبْلُ ۚ وَلَيَحْلِفُنَّ إِنْ أَرَدْنَا إِلَّا الْحُسْنَىٰ ۖ وَاللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ إِنَّهُمْ لَكَاذِبُونَ
9|107|Then there are those who establish a mosque to cause harm, and disbelief, and disunity among the believers, and as an outpost for those who fight God and His Messenger. They will swear: “Our intentions are nothing but good.” But God bears witness that they are liars.
108لَا تَقُمْ فِيهِ أَبَدًا ۚ لَّمَسْجِدٌ أُسِّسَ عَلَى التَّقْوَىٰ مِنْ أَوَّلِ يَوْمٍ أَحَقُّ أَن تَقُومَ فِيهِ ۚ فِيهِ رِجَالٌ يُحِبُّونَ أَن يَتَطَهَّرُوا ۚ وَاللَّهُ يُحِبُّ الْمُطَّهِّرِينَ
9|108|Do not stand in it, ever. A mosque founded upon piety from the first day is worthier of your standing in it. In it are men who love to be purified. God loves those who purify themselves.
109أَفَمَنْ أَسَّسَ بُنْيَانَهُ عَلَىٰ تَقْوَىٰ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانٍ خَيْرٌ أَم مَّنْ أَسَّسَ بُنْيَانَهُ عَلَىٰ شَفَا جُرُفٍ هَارٍ فَانْهَارَ بِهِ فِي نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ
9|109|Is he who founds his structure upon piety and acceptance from God better, or he who founds his structure on the brink of a cliff that is about to tumble, so it tumbles with him into the Fire of Hell? God does not guide the unjust people.
110لَا يَزَالُ بُنْيَانُهُمُ الَّذِي بَنَوْا رِيبَةً فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ إِلَّا أَن تَقَطَّعَ قُلُوبُهُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ
9|110|The structure which they built will remain questionable in their hearts, until their hearts are stopped. God is Knowing and Wise.
111۞ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اشْتَرَىٰ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُم بِأَنَّ لَهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ ۚ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَيَقْتُلُونَ وَيُقْتَلُونَ ۖ وَعْدًا عَلَيْهِ حَقًّا فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالْإِنجِيلِ وَالْقُرْآنِ ۚ وَمَنْ أَوْفَىٰ بِعَهْدِهِ مِنَ اللَّهِ ۚ فَاسْتَبْشِرُوا بِبَيْعِكُمُ الَّذِي بَايَعْتُم بِهِ ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ
9|111|God has purchased from the believers their lives and their properties in exchange for Paradise. They fight in God’s way, and they kill and get killed. It is a promise binding on Him in the Torah, and the Gospel, and the Quran. And who is more true to his promise than God? So rejoice in making such an exchange—that is the supreme triumph.
112التَّائِبُونَ الْعَابِدُونَ الْحَامِدُونَ السَّائِحُونَ الرَّاكِعُونَ السَّاجِدُونَ الْآمِرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَالنَّاهُونَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَالْحَافِظُونَ لِحُدُودِ اللَّهِ ۗ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ
9|112|Those who repent, those who worship, those who praise, those who journey, those who kneel, those who bow down, those who advocate righteousness and forbid evil, and those who keep God’s limits—give good news to the believers.
113مَا كَانَ لِلنَّبِيِّ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَن يَسْتَغْفِرُوا لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ وَلَوْ كَانُوا أُولِي قُرْبَىٰ مِن بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمْ أَنَّهُمْ أَصْحَابُ الْجَحِيمِ
9|113|It is not for the Prophet and those who believe to ask forgiveness for the polytheists, even if they are near relatives, after it has become clear to them that they are people of Hellfire.
114وَمَا كَانَ اسْتِغْفَارُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ لِأَبِيهِ إِلَّا عَن مَّوْعِدَةٍ وَعَدَهَا إِيَّاهُ فَلَمَّا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ أَنَّهُ عَدُوٌّ لِّلَّهِ تَبَرَّأَ مِنْهُ ۚ إِنَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ لَأَوَّاهٌ حَلِيمٌ
9|114|Abraham asked forgiveness for his father only because of a promise he had made to him. But when it became clear to him that he was an enemy of God, he disowned him. Abraham was kind and clement.
115وَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيُضِلَّ قَوْمًا بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَاهُمْ حَتَّىٰ يُبَيِّنَ لَهُم مَّا يَتَّقُونَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ
9|115|God would never lead a people astray, after He had guided them, until He makes clear to them what they should guard against. God has knowledge of all things.
 

H 412, Ch. 32, h3

A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid
from ibn Faddal from Tha‘laba ibn Maymun from Hamza ibn Muhammad al-
Tayyar from abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, who has said
the following about the words of Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious:
“Allah does not misguide a nation after having given them
guidance until the means of piety are made known to them . . .”
(9:115) The Imam, recipient of divine supreme covenant, said,
‘It (means of piety) means before giving the knowledge of what
He is pleased with and what He is displeased with.’ The Imam,
recipient of divine supreme covenant, said the words of Allah ‘. .
. and inspired it with knowledge of evil and piety,’ (91:8)
convey that He has explained what people must do and what
they must not do. The words of Allah, ‘We showed him the
right path whether he would be grateful or ungrateful’ (76:3),
say that Allah has given them the knowledge. They may follow
or they may ignore. About the words of Allah, ‘We sent
guidance to the people of Thamud but they preferred blindness
to guidance so a humiliating blast of torment struck them for
their evil deeds.’ (41:17) The Imam said, ‘It means that Allah
gave them the knowledge but they preferred blindness over
guidance and they knew it.’”
In another Hadith it says, “We explained to them.”

 

H 851, Ch. 75, h 12
Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Ishaq ibn Muhammad from Shahwayh ibn
‘Abd Allah al-Jullab who has said the following:
“Once Abu al-Hassan, recipient of divine supreme covenant,
(Ali al-Hadi) wrote to me in a letter as herein below: ‘You
wanted to ask about the succeeding Imam after (the death) of
abu Ja‘far and you were anxious about it. Do not feel sad’ He
cited this: ‘Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, does not misguide
a nation after having given them guidance until the means of
piety are made known to them. . . .’ (9:115)
“Your master Imam after me will be my son, abu Muhammad,
recipient of divine supreme covenant. With him there is
whatever you will need. Allah allows to precede whatever He
wants, and Allah allows to succeed whatever He wants as He has
said, ‘For whatever sign We change or eliminate or cause to
recede into oblivion, We bring forth a better sign, one that is
identical. . . .’ (2:106) I have written enough convincing facts
for the people of reason with awareness.”

 
116إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ ۚ وَمَا لَكُم مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ مِن وَلِيٍّ وَلَا نَصِيرٍ
9|116|To God belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth. He gives life, and He causes death. And besides God, you have neither protector, nor supporter.
117لَّقَد تَّابَ اللَّهُ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ وَالْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالْأَنصَارِ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُ فِي سَاعَةِ الْعُسْرَةِ مِن بَعْدِ مَا كَادَ يَزِيغُ قُلُوبُ فَرِيقٍ مِّنْهُمْ ثُمَّ تَابَ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ إِنَّهُ بِهِمْ رَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ
9|117|God has redeemed the Prophet, and the Emigrants, and the Supporters—those who followed him in the hour of difficulty—after the hearts of some of them almost swerved. Then He pardoned them. He is Kind towards them, Compassionate.
118وَعَلَى الثَّلَاثَةِ الَّذِينَ خُلِّفُوا حَتَّىٰ إِذَا ضَاقَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ الْأَرْضُ بِمَا رَحُبَتْ وَضَاقَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ أَنفُسُهُمْ وَظَنُّوا أَن لَّا مَلْجَأَ مِنَ اللَّهِ إِلَّا إِلَيْهِ ثُمَّ تَابَ عَلَيْهِمْ لِيَتُوبُوا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ
9|118|Also towards the three who were left behind. Then, when the earth, as vast as it is, closed in on them, and their very souls closed in on them, and they realized that there was no refuge from God, except in Him, He redeemed them, so that they may repent. God is the Redeemer, the Merciful.
119يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَكُونُوا مَعَ الصَّادِقِينَ
9|119|O you who believe! Be conscious of God, and be with the truthful.
 

H 531, Ch. 19, h1
Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu’alla ibn Muhammad from
al-Washsha’ from Ahmad ibn ‘A’idh from ibn ’Udhayna from Burayd ibn
Mu‘awiya al-‘Ijli who has said the following:
“I asked Imam abu Ja’far, recipient of divine supreme
covenant, about the meaning of the words of Allah, the Most
Majestic, the Most Gracious, ‘Believers, be pious before Allah
and always be (friends) with the truthful ones.’ (9:119) He (the
Imam), recipient of divine supreme covenant, replied, ‘The
“truthful ones” is a reference to us.’”

 
120مَا كَانَ لِأَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهُم مِّنَ الْأَعْرَابِ أَن يَتَخَلَّفُوا عَن رَّسُولِ اللَّهِ وَلَا يَرْغَبُوا بِأَنفُسِهِمْ عَن نَّفْسِهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ لَا يُصِيبُهُمْ ظَمَأٌ وَلَا نَصَبٌ وَلَا مَخْمَصَةٌ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَلَا يَطَئُونَ مَوْطِئًا يَغِيظُ الْكُفَّارَ وَلَا يَنَالُونَ مِنْ عَدُوٍّ نَّيْلًا إِلَّا كُتِبَ لَهُم بِهِ عَمَلٌ صَالِحٌ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُضِيعُ أَجْرَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ
9|120|It is not for the inhabitants of Medina and the Desert-Arabs around them to stay behind the Messenger of God, nor to prefer themselves to him. That is because they never suffer any thirst, nor fatigue, nor hunger in the cause of God, nor do they take one step that enrages the disbelievers, nor do they gain anything from an enemy, but it is recorded to their credit as a righteous deed. God does not waste the reward of the righteous.
121وَلَا يُنفِقُونَ نَفَقَةً صَغِيرَةً وَلَا كَبِيرَةً وَلَا يَقْطَعُونَ وَادِيًا إِلَّا كُتِبَ لَهُمْ لِيَجْزِيَهُمُ اللَّهُ أَحْسَنَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ
9|121|Nor do they spend any expenditure, small or large, nor do they cross any valley, but it is recorded to their credit. That God may reward them in accordance with the best of their deeds.
122۞ وَمَا كَانَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ لِيَنفِرُوا كَافَّةً ۚ فَلَوْلَا نَفَرَ مِن كُلِّ فِرْقَةٍ مِّنْهُمْ طَائِفَةٌ لِّيَتَفَقَّهُوا فِي الدِّينِ وَلِيُنذِرُوا قَوْمَهُمْ إِذَا رَجَعُوا إِلَيْهِمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَحْذَرُونَ
9|122|It is not advisable for the believers to march out altogether. Of every division that marches out, let a group remain behind, to gain understanding of the religion, and to notify their people when they have returned to them, that they may beware.

H 40, Ch. 1, h6
Ali ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad
ibn Khalid from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa from Ali ibn abu Hamza who has said the
following:
“I heard Imam abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme
covenant, saying, ‘Acquire a good understanding of religion;
those of you who do not have good understanding in religion are
like the Bedouins. Allah has said in His book, “Why do not
certain people from each group of believers seek to become
specialists in religious learning and, after completing their
studies, guide their group so that they will have fear of Allah.’”
(9:122)

H 546, Ch. 20, h9
Ahmad ibn Muhammad has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn abu Nasr
who has said the following:
“Once I wrote a letter to Imam al-Rida, recipient of divine
supreme covenant.. The issues for which I requested explanation
in the letter, one was about the words of Allah, the Most Holy,
the Most High, ‘Ask the people of Dhikr (people who remind of
Allah) if you do not know.’ The other question was about the
words of Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, ‘Not all believers
have to become specialists in religious learning. Why do not
certain persons from each group of believers seek to become
specialists in religious learning and, after completing their
studies, guide their group so that they will have fear of Allah?’
(9:122) The above passages say that it is made obligatory upon
them to ask but it is not made obligatory upon you to answer.’
“The Imam, recipient of divine supreme covenant, answered,
‘Allah the Most Holy, the Most High, has said, “If they do not
do what you ask them, know that they are only following their
(evil) desires. Who strays more than one who follows his desires
without guidance from Allah? . . .’” (28:50)

H 976, Ch. 89, h 1 Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from Safwan from Ya‘qub ibn Shu‘ayb who has said the following: “Once I asked abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, ‘If something may happen to the Imam what should the people do?’ The Imam asked, ‘Where do the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Gracious, apply: “Not all believers have to become specialists in religious learning. Why do not certain people from each group of believers seek to become specialists in religious learning, and after completing their studies, guide their group so that they will have fear of Allah.” (9:122) The Imam then said, ‘They will have good reason to be excused as long as they are searching and learning. So also are those who wait for them until they complete their religious education and return back to them.’”

 

H 977, Ch. 89, h 2 Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus ibn ‘Abd alRahman who has said that narrated to us Hammad from ‘Abd al-A‘la’ who has said the following: “Once I asked abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, about the statement of Sunni Muslims, al-‘Amma, that says the Messenger of Allah has said, ‘If a person dies without recognizing who his Imam is, his death is as if he has died the death of ignorance (pre-Islamic age of darkness).’ “The Imam said, ‘That is very true, by Allah.’ I then asked, ‘What if the Imam passes away and a person is in Khurasan and does not know who the executor of the will of the Imam is? Is this a good excuse for him?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘No, that is not a good reason and an excuse. When the Imam leaves this world the authority of the executor of his will applies to those who live in the area. Also the obligation of searching to learn about one’s duties applies to those who are not in the area but who have learned about the passing away of the Imam. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Gracious, has said, “Not all believers have to become specialists in religious learning. Why do not some people from each group of believers seek to become specialists in religious learning, and after completing their studies, guide their group so that they will have fear of Allah?”’ (9:122)

“I then asked, ‘What if they did go to find out but certain ones from them died before they could find out?’ He said, ‘Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Gracious, has said, “. . . and one who dies, after having abandoned his home to get near to Allah and His Messenger, will receive his reward from Allah. . . .” (4:100) I asked, ‘What if certain ones from them may reach your town but find out that you have closed your door and the curtains are drawn closed?’ You would not call them to yourself and there might be no one to guide them to you. How then will they know about you?’ He said, ‘They can learn about me from the book that Allah has revealed.
“I then asked, ‘How has Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Gracious, said it?’ He said, ‘I know that you have spoken to me about it before this day also.’ I said, ‘That is correct.’ He then said, ‘Recall what Allah has said about Ali, recipient of divine supreme covenant, and what the Messenger of Allah said to him about al-Hassan and al-Husayn, what Allah has specially said about Ali, recipient of divine supreme covenant, and what the Messenger of Allah has said about him about his will to him, appointing him, about their suffering and the acknowledgements of al-Hassan and al-Husayn, recipients of divine supreme covenant, of such facts. Recall the will of al-Hassan, recipient of divine supreme covenant, and his delivering it to al-Husayn, recipient of divine supreme covenant. Allah has said, “The Prophet has more authority over the believers than they themselves do. His wives are their mothers. The relatives are closer to each other, according to the Book of Allah. . . .”’ (33:6) “I then said, ‘People speak about abu Ja‘far, recipient of divine supreme covenant, and ask, ‘How is it that Imamat (Leadership with Divine Authority) has stepped out for him from among all the sons of his father, even though certain ones among them were closer to the Imam and older than him. The ones younger than he did not receive it just because they were younger? “He said, ‘The one who possesses this matter (Leadership with Divine Authority) can be recognized through three pieces of evidence that are not found with other people. He must have greater proximity to the preceding Imam and that must be the executor of the will of the preceding Imam. With him there must be the Armaments of the Messenger of Allah and the document of his will. This document is with me and no one disputes it.’ I then asked, ‘Is that kept secret and hidden for fear from the rulers?’ He said, ‘There is nothing secret and hidden but there is clear evidence for its existence and that it is available. What is there is what my father entrusted me with. When he was about to leave this world he asked me to call people to bear testimony for him. I then called four people from Quraysh among whom was Nafi‘, slave of ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Umar. My father said, ‘Write down, this is how the will of Jacob to his children reads, “Allah has chosen this religion for you. You must not leave this world unless you are a Muslim (submitted to the will of the Lord of the Universe).” (2:132) Muhammad ibn Ali made the same kind of will to his son, Ja‘far ibn Muhammad and commanded him to shroud him in his own gown, which he would use during his Friday prayers. That his own turban must be used for him, that the surface of his grave should be given a square shape, raised by four fingers (three inches) from the ground and thereafter leave it that much only. Thereafter he wrapped up the document of the will and asked the witnesses to leave saying, “May Allah grant you blessings.”’ When they left I asked, ‘What was in it O father, that you asked them to bear testimony to?’ He said, ‘I do not like that you will be defeated and people will say, “He left this world without a will.” I wanted it to be a supporting authority for you. This is the fact that helps one who comes to the town and asks, “To whom did so and so make a will?” And he is answered, ‘The will was made to so and so.’’ I then asked, ‘What if he (Imam) would be a partner in the will?’ He said, ‘You must ask him. He will explain it to you.’”
 

H 978, Ch. 89, h 3 Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Muhammad ibn Khalid from Nadr ibn Suwayd from Yahya al-Halabi from  Burayd ibn Mu‘awiya from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has said the following: “Once I said to abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant, ‘May Allah grant you good health, we heard that you were not feeling well and it caused us great anxiety. Would that you had informed or taught us about who would be the succeeding Imam.’ “The Imam said, ‘Ali, recipient of divine supreme covenant, was the scholar and knowledge is inherited. No scholar dies except that he leaves behind a scholar whose knowledge is of the same level or whatever Allah wills.’

“I then asked, ‘Will people be excused for not recognizing the succeeding Imam after the death of the preceding Imam?’ He then said, ‘The people of this area (Madina) will not be excused. People of other areas will be dealt with according to their abilities. Allah has said, “Not all believers have to become specialists in religious learning. Why do not certain people from each group of believers seek to become specialists in religious learning, and after completing their studies, guide their group so that they will have fear of Allah?’” (9:122)  “I (the narrator) then asked the Imam, ‘What if certain ones of them would die before completing their education and search?’ He said, ‘Such people will be of the ones mentioned in the words of Allah herein below. “. . . And one who dies, after having abandoned his home to get near to Allah and His Messenger, will receive his reward from Allah. . . .’” (4:100) “I then asked the Imam, ‘If people come to the Imam then by what means can they recognize him?’ He said, ‘The Imam is granted serenity, dignity and an awesome presence.’”

 

Al Kulayni wrote in the introduction to Al Kafi :

 

People of wisdom do not consider ignorance of his existence a permissible attitude, as is the case of denying His religion. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Gracious, said:  “Did they not make a covenant (with Allah) in the Book not to speak any thing other than the Truth about Allah and to study its contents well?  (7:169) They call a lie something that is beyond the limit of their knowledge . . .”  (10:39) People are bound to obey the commands of Allah and His prohibitions. It is not permissible for them to follow ignorance (ignorant people). It is obligatory for them to ask if they do not already know and to acquire proper understanding of religion. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Gracious, has said, “Not all believers have to become specialists in religious learning. Why do not certain people from each group of believers seek to become specialists in religious learning and, after completing their studies, guide their group so that they will have fear of Allah.” (9:122) If people who are physically and mentally safe and sound were permitted to stay ignorant, Allah would not have asked them to ask and learn. He did not need to send any messengers, books and guidance. In such case, they would have lived like animals or like people physically and mentally defective and if so they did not remain in existence even for a blinking of an eye. In fact, it is not permissible for them to live without discipline and education. Thus, it became necessary for those physically and mentally sound to find instructors to educate and discipline them and provide answer to their questions. The best and most important education for people of reason, the education worthwhile for one to study assiduously is the religious education.  The education that teaches one about the Creator, His Oneness and how to worship Him, is the most important one.  It is important to be educated in the issues of Shari’ah, His laws of guidance, His commandments, prohibitions, warnings and discipline. This is necessary because there is solid evidence to support the need for such education, that responsibility is real, life is short, indifference and procrastination is not acceptable. 

 

123يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا قَاتِلُوا الَّذِينَ يَلُونَكُم مِّنَ الْكُفَّارِ وَلْيَجِدُوا فِيكُمْ غِلْظَةً ۚ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الْمُتَّقِينَ
9|123|O you who believe! Fight those of the disbelievers who attack you, and let them find severity in you, and know that God is with the righteous.
124وَإِذَا مَا أُنزِلَتْ سُورَةٌ فَمِنْهُم مَّن يَقُولُ أَيُّكُمْ زَادَتْهُ هَٰذِهِ إِيمَانًا ۚ فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا فَزَادَتْهُمْ إِيمَانًا وَهُمْ يَسْتَبْشِرُونَ
9|124|Whenever a chapter is revealed, some of them say, “Which of you has this increased in faith?” As for those who believe: it increases them in faith, and they rejoice.
125وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ فَزَادَتْهُمْ رِجْسًا إِلَىٰ رِجْسِهِمْ وَمَاتُوا وَهُمْ كَافِرُونَ
9|125|But as for those in whose hearts is sickness: it adds disgrace to their disgrace, and they die as unbelievers.

H 3043, CH 203, h 3
It is narrated from him (narrator of the Hadith above) from Yunus from ibn
Bukayr from abu ‘Umayyah Yusuf ibn Thabit who has said the following:
“I heard abu ‘Abd Allah, recipient of divine supreme covenant,
saying, ‘With belief no deed can harm one and with disbelief no
deed can benefit one. Consider how Allah has said it, ‘What
prevents their offerings from acceptance is their disbelief in
Allah and His Messenger, their lack of interest in prayer and
spending for the cause of Allah reluctantly, (9:54) ‘. . . and they
die as disbelievers.’” (9:125)

 

9:125 those who disbelieve, they take parts of the Quran as proof to justify their actions, had they considered all of it and accepted all of it, then they would have been saved. However, they purposely don’t, and just take verses here and there leading to a distorted religion. Eg salafi deny all intercession, Sufi exaggerate intercession, Isis point to some verses that justify their jihad, but ignore the others that negate it.

 

126أَوَلَا يَرَوْنَ أَنَّهُمْ يُفْتَنُونَ فِي كُلِّ عَامٍ مَّرَّةً أَوْ مَرَّتَيْنِ ثُمَّ لَا يَتُوبُونَ وَلَا هُمْ يَذَّكَّرُونَ
9|126|Do they not see that they are tested once or twice every year? Yet they do not repent, and they do not learn.
127وَإِذَا مَا أُنزِلَتْ سُورَةٌ نَّظَرَ بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَىٰ بَعْضٍ هَلْ يَرَاكُم مِّنْ أَحَدٍ ثُمَّ انصَرَفُوا ۚ صَرَفَ اللَّهُ قُلُوبَهُم بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لَّا يَفْقَهُونَ
9|127|And whenever a chapter is revealed, they look at one another, “Does anyone see you?” Then they slip away. God has diverted their hearts, because they are a people who do not understand.
128لَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ عَزِيزٌ عَلَيْهِ مَا عَنِتُّمْ حَرِيصٌ عَلَيْكُم بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ
9|128|There has come to you a messenger from among yourselves, concerned over your suffering, anxious over you. Towards the believers, he is compassionate and merciful.
129فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَقُلْ حَسْبِيَ اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ عَلَيْهِ تَوَكَّلْتُ ۖ وَهُوَ رَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ
9|129|If they turn away, say, “God is enough for me; there is no god except He; in Him I have put my trust; He is the Lord of the Sublime Throne.”
Medina Minds Team

Medina Minds Team

A group of contributors who are working to publicize the reality of Islam and Muslims.

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